Vascular Medicine

Vascular medicine focuses on diagnosis and treatment of circulatory problems within the blood vessels, notably the arteries, veins, and lymphatic system. Common diseases include peripheral artery disease, lymphedema, and carotid artery stenosis.

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A

Diseases & Conditions
Abdominal aortic aneurysm
The aorta is the main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes very large or balloons out. aneurysm

Surgery
Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open
Open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is surgery to fix a widened part in your aorta. This is called an aneurysm. The aorta is the large artery that carries blood to your belly (abdomen), pelvis,...

Discharge Instructions
Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge
AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Acute arterial occlusion - kidney
Acute arterial occlusion of the kidney is a sudden, severe blockage of the artery that supplies blood to the kidney.

Surgery
Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery
The blood vessels that bring blood to your brain and face are called the carotid arteries. You have a carotid artery on each side of your neck. The blood flow in this artery can become partly or totally...

Discharge Instructions
Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge
Carotid angioplasty and stenting - discharge; CAS - discharge; Angioplasty of the carotid artery - discharge

Surgery
Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries
Angioplasty is a procedure to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels that supply blood to your legs. Fatty deposits can build up inside the arteries and block blood flow. A stent is a small, metal mesh...

Discharge Instructions
Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - peripheral artery- discharge...

Tests
Antithrombin III blood test
Antithrombin III (AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present in your body.

Surgery
Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular
Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is surgery to repair a widened area in your aorta. This is called an aneurysm. The aorta is the large artery that carries blood to your belly, pelvis...

Discharge Instructions
Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular - discharge
AAA repair - endovascular - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular - discharge; EVAR - discharge; Endovascular aneurysm repair - discharge

Tests
Aortic angiography
Aortic angiography is a procedure that uses a special dye and x-rays to see how blood flows through the aorta. The aorta is the major artery. It carries blood out of the heart, and through your abdomen...

Diseases & Conditions
Aortic dissection
Aortic dissection is a serious condition in which there is a tear in the wall of the major artery carrying blood out of the heart (aorta). As the tear extends along the wall of the aorta, blood can flow...

Diseases & Conditions
Arterial embolism
Arterial embolism refers to a clot (embolus) that has come from another part of the body and causes a sudden interruption of blood flow to an organ or body part.

Tests
Arteriogram
An arteriogram is an imaging test that uses x-rays and a special dye to see inside the arteries. It can be used to view arteries in the heart, brain, kidney, and other parts of the body. Related tests include...

Diseases & Conditions
Atheroembolic renal disease
Atheroembolic renal disease (AERD) occurs when small particles made of hardened cholesterol and fat spread to the small blood vessels of the kidneys.

B

Diseases & Conditions
Blood clots
Blood clots are clumps that occur when blood hardens from a liquid to a solid. A blood clot that forms inside one of your veins or arteries is called a thrombus. A thrombus may also form in your heart....

C

Tests
CT angiography - abdomen and pelvis
CT angiography combines a CT scan with the injection of dye. This technique is able to create pictures of the blood vessels in your belly (abdomen) or pelvis area. CT stands for computed tomography.

Tests
CT angiography - arms and legs
CT angiography combines a CT scan with the injection of dye. This technique is able to create pictures of the blood vessels in the arms or legs. CT stands for computed tomography.

Tests
CT angiography - chest
CT angiography combines a CT scan with the injection of dye. This technique is able to create pictures of the blood vessels in the chest and upper abdomen. CT stands for computed tomography.

Tests
CT angiography - head and neck
CT angiography (CTA) combines a CT scan with the injection of dye. CT stands for computed tomography. This technique is able to create pictures of the blood vessels in the head and neck.

Surgery
Cardiac intravascular ultrasound
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a diagnostic test. This test uses sound waves to see inside blood vessels. It is useful for evaluating the coronary arteries that supply the heart.

Special Topics
Cardioversion
Cardioversion is a method to bring an abnormal heart rhythm back to normal.

Self-Care Instructions
Carotid artery stenosis - self-care
Carotid artery disease - self-care

Discharge Instructions
Carotid artery surgery - discharge
Carotid endarterectomy - discharge; CEA - discharge; Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - carotid artery - discharge; PTA - carotid artery - discharge

Surgery
Carotid artery surgery - open
Carotid artery surgery is a procedure to treat carotid artery disease. carotid artery disease The carotid artery brings needed blood to your brain and face. You have one of these arteries on each side of...

Tests
Carotid duplex
Carotid duplex is an ultrasound test that shows how well blood is flowing through the carotid arteries. The carotid arteries are located in the neck. They supply blood directly to the brain. ultrasound

Self-Care Instructions
Central venous catheter - dressing change
Central venous access device - dressing change; CVAD - dressing change

Self-Care Instructions
Central venous catheter - flushing
Central venous access device - flushing; CVAD - flushing

Diseases & Conditions
Coarctation of the aorta
The aorta carries blood from the heart to the vessels that supply the body with blood. If part of the aorta is narrowed, it is hard for blood to pass through the artery. This is called coarctation of the...

Self-Care Instructions
Compression stockings
Compression hose; Pressure stockings; Support stockings; Gradient stockings; Varicose veins - compression stockings; Venous insufficiency - compression stockings

Tests
Coronary angiography
Coronary angiography is a procedure that uses a special dye (contrast material) and x-rays to see how blood flows through the arteries in your heart.

D

Tests
D-dimer test
D-dimer tests are used to check for blood clotting problems. Blood clots can cause health problems, such as: Blood clots Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)Pulmonary embolism (PE)StrokeDisseminated intravascular...

Diseases & Conditions
Deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in a vein deep inside a part of the body. It mainly affects the large veins in the lower leg and thigh, but can occur in other...

Discharge Instructions
Deep vein thrombosis - discharge
DVT - discharge; Blood clot in the legs - discharge; Thromboembolism - discharge; Venous thromboembolism - deep vein thrombosis; Post-phlebitic syndrome - discharge; Post-thrombotic syndrome - discharge

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - foot ulcers
Diabetic foot ulcer; Ulcer - foot

Surgery
Distal splenorenal shunt
A distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS) is a type of surgery done to relieve extra pressure in the portal vein. The portal vein carries blood from your digestive organs to your liver.

Tests
Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg
This test uses ultrasound to look at the blood flow in the large arteries and veins in the arms or legs. ultrasound

Tests
Duplex ultrasound
A duplex ultrasound is a test to see how blood moves through your arteries and veins. ultrasound

E

Surgery
Endovascular embolization
Endovascular embolization is a procedure to treat abnormal blood vessels in the brain and other parts of the body. It is an alternative to open surgery. This procedure cuts off the blood supply to a certain...

Tests
Extremity angiography
Extremity angiography is a test used to see the arteries in the hands, arms, feet, or legs. It is also called peripheral angiography. Angiography uses x-rays and a special dye to see inside the arteries...

G

Diseases & Conditions
Gangrene
Gangrene is the death of tissue in part of the body.

Diseases & Conditions
Giant cell arteritis
Giant cell arteritis is inflammation and damage to the blood vessels that supply blood to the head, neck, upper body and arms. It is also called temporal arteritis.

H

Special Topics
Heart disease and women
People often do not consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the leading killer of women over age 25. It kills nearly twice as many women in the United States as all types...

Self-Care Instructions
Hemodialysis access - self care
Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal...

Diseases & Conditions
High blood pressure - medicine-related
Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by a chemical substance or medicine. high blood pressure

Tests
His bundle electrography
His bundle electrography is a test that measures electrical activity in a part of the heart that carries the signals that control the time between heartbeats (contractions).

I

Tests
Intracardiac electrophysiology study (EPS)
Intracardiac electrophysiology study (EPS) is a test to look at how well the heart's electrical signals are working. It is used to check for abnormal heartbeats or heart rhythms. heart rhythms

L

Tests
Left heart ventricular angiography
Left heart ventricular angiography is a procedure to look at the left-sided heart chambers and the function of the left-sided valves. It is sometimes combined with coronary angiography.

Tests
Limb plethysmography
Limb plethysmography is a test that compares blood pressure in the legs and arms.

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphangitis
Lymphangitis is an infection of the lymph vessels (channels). It is a complication of some bacterial infections.

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphatic obstruction
Lymphatic obstruction is a blockage of the lymph vessels that drain fluid from tissues throughout the body and allow immune cells to travel where they are needed. Lymphatic obstruction may cause lymphedema...

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphofollicular hyperplasia
Lymphofollicular hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells found in lymph node. These follicles contain normal white blood cells called lymphocytes. Your body produces more lymphocytes to help prevent...

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphoid hyperplasia
Lymphoid hyperplasia is an increase in the number of normal cells (called lymphocytes) that are contained in lymph nodes. This most often happens when there is an infection with bacteria, viruses, or other...

M

Tests
Magnetic resonance angiography
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is an MRI exam of the blood vessels. Unlike traditional angiography that involves placing a tube (catheter) into the body, MRA is noninvasive. MRI

Diseases & Conditions
Malignant hypertension
Malignant hypertension is very high blood pressure that comes on suddenly and quickly. high blood pressure

Tests
Mesenteric angiography
Mesenteric angiography is a test used took look at the blood vessels that supply the small and large intestines. Angiography is an imaging test that uses x-rays and a special dye to see inside the arteries...

Diseases & Conditions
Mesenteric artery ischemia
Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that supply the small and large intestines. These are called the mesenteric arteries.

Diseases & Conditions
Mesenteric venous thrombosis
Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is a blood clot in one or more of the major veins that drain blood from the intestine. The superior mesenteric vein is most commonly involved. blood clot

P

Special Topics
Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants
A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel and reaches deep into a larger blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs...

Tests
Pericardiocentesis
Pericardiocentesis is a procedure that uses a needle to remove fluid from the pericardial sac. This is the tissue that surrounds the heart.

Special Topics
Peripheral arterial line - infants
A peripheral arterial line (PAL) is a small, short, plastic catheter that is put through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. Health care providers sometimes call it an "art line. " This article addresses...

Surgery
Peripheral artery bypass - leg
Peripheral artery bypass is surgery to reroute the blood supply around a blocked artery in one of your legs. Fatty deposits can build up inside the arteries and block them. blocked artery in one of your...

Discharge Instructions
Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge
Aortobifemoral bypass - discharge; Femoropopliteal - discharge; Femoral popliteal - discharge; Aorta-bifemoral bypass - discharge; Axillo-bifemoral bypass - discharge; Ilio-bifemoral bypass - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Peripheral artery disease - legs
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a condition of the blood vessels that supply the legs and feet. It occurs due to narrowing of the arteries in the legs. This causes decreased blood flow, which can injure...

In-depth Report
Peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Self-Care Instructions
Peripheral artery disease of the legs - self-care
Peripheral vascular disease - self-care; Intermittent claudication - self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing
PICC - flushing

Tests
Pulmonary angiography
Pulmonary angiography is a test to see how blood flows through the lung. Angiography is an imaging test that uses x-rays and a special dye to see inside the arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry...

R

Diseases & Conditions
Renal vein thrombosis
Renal vein thrombosis is a blood clot that develops in the vein that drains blood from the kidney. blood clot

Tests
Renal venogram
A renal venogram is a test to look at the veins in the kidney. It uses x-rays and a special dye (called contrast). x-rays X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation like light, but of higher energy...

Diseases & Conditions
Renovascular hypertension
Renovascular hypertension is high blood pressure due to narrowing of the arteries that carry blood to the kidneys. This condition is also called renal artery stenosis. high blood pressure

S

Diseases & Conditions
Sick sinus syndrome
Normally, the heartbeat starts in an area in the top chambers of the heart (atria). This area is the heart's pacemaker. It is called the sinoatrial node, sinus node or SA node. Its role is to keep the heart...

Diseases & Conditions
Stasis dermatitis and ulcers
Stasis dermatitis is a change in the skin that results in the pooling of blood in the veins of the lower leg. Ulcers are open sores that can result from untreated stasis dermatitis.

Surgery
Stent
A stent is a tiny tube placed into a hollow structure in your body. This structure can be an artery, a vein, or another structure such as the tube that carries urine (ureter). The stent holds the structure...

Self-Care Instructions
Sterile technique
Sterile gloves; Wound care - sterile technique; Catheter care - sterile technique

Tests
Stress echocardiography
Stress echocardiography is a test that uses ultrasound imaging to show how well your heart muscle is working to pump blood to your body. It is most often used to detect a decrease in blood flow to the heart...

Diseases & Conditions
Superficial thrombophlebitis
Thrombophlebitis is a swollen or inflamed vein due to a blood clot. Superficial refers to veins just below the skin's surface. blood clot

Tests
Swan-Ganz - right heart catheterization
Swan-Ganz catheterization (also called right heart catheterization or pulmonary artery catheterization) is the passing of a thin tube (catheter) into the right side of the heart and the arteries leading...

T

Self-Care Instructions
Taking care of your vascular access for hemodialysis
Arteriovenous fistula; A-V fistula; A-V graft; Tunneled catheter

Diseases & Conditions
Thrombophlebitis
Thrombophlebitis is swelling (inflammation) of a vein. A blood clot (thrombus) in the vein can cause this swelling. blood clot

Diseases & Conditions
Tricuspid regurgitation
Blood that flows between different chambers of your heart must pass through a heart valve. These valves open up enough so that blood can flow through. They then close, keeping blood from flowing backward...

V

Surgery
Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment
Varicose veins are swollen, twisted, painful veins that have filled with blood. Varicose veins

Surgery
Varicose vein stripping
Vein stripping is surgery to remove varicose veins in the legs.

Diseases & Conditions
Varicose veins
Varicose veins are swollen, twisted, and enlarged veins that you can see under the skin. They are often red or blue in color. They most often appear in the legs, but can occur in other parts of the body...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about varicose veins; Venous insufficiency - what to ask your doctor; Vein stripping - what to ask your doctor

Tests
Venogram
A venogram is a way to look at veins in your body. It uses x-rays and a radiographic contrast material. It is most often used to look at veins in the legs and belly area (abdomen). x-rays Veins are not...

Tests
Venogram - leg
Venography for legs is a test used to see the veins in the leg. X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, like visible light is. However, these rays are of higher energy. Therefore, they can go through...

Diseases & Conditions
Venous insufficiency
Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins have problems sending blood from the legs back to the heart.

W

Diseases & Conditions
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW)
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a condition in which there is an extra electrical pathway in the heart that leads to periods of rapid heart rate (tachycardia). tachycardia WPW syndrome is one of...