Surgery

Surgery is a medical specialty that diagnoses and treats disorders and injuries through operative techniques. Surgeons also perform laparoscopic surgery, which involves making much smaller cuts in the body to achieve the same results.

Learn more about surgery at the Mount Sinai Health System

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A

Surgery
Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open
Open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is surgery to fix a widened part in your aorta. This is called an aneurysm. The aorta is the large artery that carries blood to your belly (abdomen), pelvis,...

Discharge Instructions
Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge
AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge

Surgery
Abdominal exploration
Abdominal exploration is surgery to look at the organs and structures in your belly area (abdomen). This includes your: AppendixBladderGallbladderIntestinesKidney and uretersLiverPancreasSpleenStomachUterus...

Surgery
Abdominal wall surgery
Abdominal wall surgery is a procedure that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It is also called a tummy tuck. It can range from a simple mini-tummy tuck...

Surgery
Adrenal gland removal
Adrenal gland removal is an operation in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are part of the endocrine system and are located just above the kidneys. adrenal glands

Diseases & Conditions
Anal fissure
An anal fissure is a small split or tear in the thin moist tissue (mucosa) lining the lower rectum (anus). mucosa

Special Topics
Anastomosis
An anastomosis is a surgical connection between two structures. It usually means a connection that is created between tubular structures, such as blood vessels or loops of intestine. For example, when part...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - adult
What to ask your doctor about anesthesia - adult

Surgery
Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries
Angioplasty is a procedure to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels that supply blood to your legs. Fatty deposits can build up inside the arteries and block blood flow. A stent is a small, metal mesh...

Discharge Instructions
Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - peripheral artery- discharge...

Diseases & Conditions
Anorectal abscess
An anorectal abscess is a collection of pus in the area of the anus and rectum.

Tests
Anoscopy
Anoscopy is a method to look at the: AnusAnal canalLower rectum Anus Anal canal Lower rectum

Surgery
Anti-reflux surgery
Anti-reflux surgery is a treatment for acid reflux, also known as GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease). GERD is a condition in which food or stomach acid comes back up from your stomach into the esophagus...

Discharge Instructions
Anti-reflux surgery - children - discharge
Fundoplication - children - discharge; Nissen fundoplication - children - discharge; Belsey (Mark IV) fundoplication - children - discharge; Toupet fundoplication - children - discharge; Thal fundoplication...

Surgery
Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular
Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is surgery to repair a widened area in your aorta. This is called an aneurysm. The aorta is the large artery that carries blood to your belly, pelvis...

Discharge Instructions
Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular - discharge
AAA repair - endovascular - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular - discharge; EVAR - discharge; Endovascular aneurysm repair - discharge

Surgery
Appendectomy
An appendectomy is surgery to remove the appendix.

B

Self-Care Instructions
Bathroom safety - children
Well child - bathroom safety

Tests
Biopsy
A biopsy is the removal of a small piece of tissue for laboratory examination.

In-depth Report
Breast cancer
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

Surgery
Breast lift
A breast lift, or mastopexy, is cosmetic breast surgery to lift the breasts. The surgery may also involve changing the position of the areola and nipple.

Symptoms
Breast lump
A breast lump is swelling, growth, or mass in the breast. Breast lumps in both men and women raise concern for breast cancer, even though most lumps are not cancer. breast cancer

Surgery
Breast lump removal
Breast lump removal is surgery to remove a lump that may be breast cancer. Tissue around the lump is also removed. This surgery is called a lumpectomy. When a noncancerous tumor such as a fibroadenoma of...

Surgery
Breast reconstruction - implants
After a mastectomy, some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery is called breast reconstruction. It can be performed at the same time as mastectomy (immediate...

Surgery
Breast reconstruction - natural tissue
After a mastectomy, some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery is called breast reconstruction. It can be performed at the same time as a mastectomy (immediate...

Surgery
Breast reduction
Breast reduction is surgery to reduce the size of the breasts.

C

Diseases & Conditions
Cardiac tamponade
Cardiac tamponade is pressure on the heart that occurs when blood or fluid builds up in the space between the heart muscle and the outer covering sac of the heart.

Surgery
Carotid artery surgery
Carotid artery surgery is a procedure to restore proper blood flow to the brain. The carotid artery brings needed blood to your brain and face. You have one of these arteries on each side of your neck....

Self-Care Instructions
Central venous catheter - dressing change
Central venous access device - dressing change; CVAD - dressing change

Self-Care Instructions
Central venous catheter - flushing
Central venous access device - flushing; CVAD - flushing

Special Topics
Choosing the best doctor

Self-Care Instructions
Closed suction drain with bulb
Bulb drain; Jackson-Pratt drain; JP drain; Blake drain; Wound drain; Surgical drain

In-depth Report
Colon and rectal cancers
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of colorectal cancer.

Surgery
Colostomy
Colostomy is a surgical procedure that brings one end of the large intestine out through an opening (stoma) made in the abdominal wall. Stools moving through the intestine drain through the stoma into a...

Surgery
Conscious sedation for surgical procedures
Conscious sedation is a combination of medicines to help you relax (a sedative) and to block pain (an anesthetic) during a medical or dental procedure. You will probably stay awake but may not be able to...

Discharge Instructions
Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge
Breast augmentation - discharge; Breast implants - discharge; Implants - breast - discharge; Breast lift with augmentation - discharge; Breast reduction - discharge

Discharge Instructions
Craniosynostosis repair - discharge
Craniectomy - child - discharge; Synostectomy - discharge; Strip craniectomy - discharge; Endoscopy-assisted craniectomy - discharge; Sagittal craniectomy - discharge; Frontal-orbital advancement - discharge...

D

Special Topics
Dacron graft
A Dacron graft is made out of a man-made (synthetic) polyester material. It is used to replace natural body tissues. Most Dacron grafts are in the shape of a tube to replace or repair blood vessels. A Dacron...

Tests
Diagnostic laparoscopy
Diagnostic laparoscopy is a procedure that allows a doctor to look directly at the contents of the abdomen or pelvis.

Surgery
Diaphragmatic hernia repair - congenital
Diaphragmatic hernia repair is surgery to correct an opening or space in a baby's diaphragm. This opening is called a hernia. It is a rare type of birth defect. (Congenital means the problem is present...

Special Topics
Dissect
Dissect means to cut or separate tissues. Doctors dissect tissue during surgery. Most of the time, this is done to remove a part of the body that is thought to be diseased. Pathologists dissect dead bodies...

E

Special Topics
Electrocauterization
Electrocauterization is the process of heating tissue with electricity.

Diseases & Conditions
Esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer is cancer that starts in the esophagus. This is the tube through which food moves from the mouth to the stomach.

Diseases & Conditions
Esophageal perforation
An esophageal perforation is a hole in the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube food passes through as it goes from the mouth to the stomach.

F

Surgery
Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy
A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding tube through the skin and the stomach wall. It goes directly into the stomach.

Surgery
Femoral hernia repair
Femoral hernia repair is surgery to repair a hernia near the groin or upper thigh. A femoral hernia is tissue that bulges out of a weak spot in the groin. Usually this tissue is part of the intestine. femoral...

Tests
Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid
Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid gland is a procedure to remove thyroid cells for examination. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located inside the front of the lower neck.

Special Topics
Fistula
A fistula is an abnormal connection between two body parts, such as an organ or blood vessel and another structure. Fistulas are usually the result of an injury or surgery. Infection or inflammation can...

G

Surgery
Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic
Laparoscopic gallbladder removal is surgery to remove the gallbladder using a medical device called a laparoscope.

Surgery
Gallbladder removal - open
Open gallbladder removal is surgery to remove the gallbladder through a large cut in your abdomen.

Diseases & Conditions
Gallstones
Gallstones are hard deposits that form inside the gallbladder. Gallstones may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball.

In-depth Report
Gallstones and gallbladder disease
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gallstones.

Surgery
Gastrectomy
Gastrectomy is surgery to remove part or all of the stomach. If only part of the stomach is removed, it is called partial gastrectomyIf the whole stomach is removed, it is called total gastrectomy If only...

Surgery
Gastric bypass surgery
Gastric bypass is surgery that helps you lose weight by changing how your stomach and small intestine handle the food you eat. After the surgery, your stomach will be smaller. You will feel full with less...

Discharge Instructions
Gastric bypass surgery - discharge
You had gastric bypass surgery to help you lose weight. Your surgeon used staples to divide your stomach into a small upper section, called a pouch, and a larger bottom section. Then your surgeon sewed...

In-depth Report
Gastroesophageal reflux disease and heartburn
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of GERD.

Diseases & Conditions
Gastrointestinal fistula
A gastrointestinal fistula is an abnormal opening in the stomach or intestines that allows the contents to leak. Leaks that go through to a part of the intestines are called entero-enteral fistulas. Leaks...

Surgery
Gastroschisis repair
Gastroschisis repair is a procedure done on an infant to correct a birth defect that causes an opening in the skin and muscles covering the belly (abdominal wall). The opening allows the intestines and...

Self-Care Instructions
Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus
Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus

Self-Care Instructions
Getting out of bed after surgery

H

Surgery
Hemorrhoid surgery
Hemorrhoids are swollen veins around the anus. They may be inside the anus (internal hemorrhoids) or outside the anus (external hemorrhoids). Hemorrhoids Often hemorrhoids do not cause problems. But if...

Self-Care Instructions
Hemovac drain
Surgical drain; Hemovac drain - caring for; Hemovac drain - emptying; Hemovac drain - changing dressing

I

Surgery
Ileostomy
An ileostomy is used to move waste out of the body. This surgery is done when the colon or rectum is not working properly. The word "ileostomy" comes from the words "ileum" and "stoma. " Your ileum is the...

Surgery
Imperforate anus repair
Imperforate anus repair is surgery to correct a birth defect involving the rectum and anus. An imperforate anus defect prevents most or all stool from passing out of the rectum.  imperforate anus

Surgery
Intestinal obstruction repair
Intestinal obstruction repair is surgery to relieve a bowel obstruction. A bowel obstruction occurs when the contents of the intestines cannot pass through and exit the body. A complete obstruction is a...

Discharge Instructions
Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge
Repair of volvulus - discharge; Reduction of intussusception - discharge; Release of adhesions - discharge; Hernia repair - discharge; Tumor resection - discharge

J

Self-Care Instructions
Jejunostomy feeding tube
Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum tube

L

Surgery
Laparoscopic gastric banding
Laparoscopic gastric banding is surgery to help with weight loss. The surgeon places a band around the upper part of your stomach to create a small pouch to hold food. The band limits the amount of food...

Discharge Instructions
Laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge
Lap-Band - discharge; LAGB - discharge; Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding - discharge; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge; Obesity gastric banding discharge; Weight loss...

Surgery
Large bowel resection
Large bowel resection is surgery to remove all or part of your large bowel. This surgery is also called colectomy. The large bowel is also called the large intestine or colon. Removal of the entire colon...

Discharge Instructions
Large bowel resection - discharge
Ascending colectomy - discharge; Descending colectomy - discharge; Transverse colectomy - discharge; Right hemicolectomy - discharge; Left hemicolectomy - discharge; Hand assisted bowel surgery - discharge...

Special Topics
Laser therapy
Laser therapy is a medical treatment that uses a strong beam of light to cut, burn, or destroy tissue. The term LASER stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.

Surgery
Liver transplant
Liver transplant is surgery to replace a diseased liver with a healthy liver.

Symptoms
Lump in the abdomen
A lump in the abdomen is a small area of swelling or bulge of tissue in the belly. bulge of tissue in the belly

Tests
Lymph node biopsy
A lymph node biopsy is the removal of lymph node tissue for examination under a microscope. The lymph nodes are small glands that make white blood cells (lymphocytes), which fight infection. Lymph nodes...

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphatic obstruction
Lymphatic obstruction is a blockage of the lymph vessels that drain fluid from tissues throughout the body and allow immune cells to travel where they are needed. Lymphatic obstruction may cause lymphedema...

M

Surgery
Mastectomy
A mastectomy is surgery to remove the entire breast. Most of the time, some of the skin and the nipple are also removed. The surgery is most often done to treat breast cancer. breast cancer

Discharge Instructions
Mastectomy - discharge
Breast removal surgery - discharge; Nipple-sparing mastectomy - discharge; Total mastectomy - discharge; Simple mastectomy - discharge; Modified radical mastectomy - discharge; Breast cancer - mastectomy...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Mastectomy and breast reconstruction - what to ask your doctor
Mastectomy - what to ask your doctor; Breast reconstruction - what to ask your doctor; TRAM flap - what to ask your doctor; Latissimus dorsi flap - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about...

Tests
Mediastinoscopy with biopsy
Mediastinoscopy with biopsy is a procedure in which a lighted instrument (mediastinoscope) is inserted in the space in the chest between the lungs (mediastinum). Tissue is taken (biopsy) from any unusual...

Diseases & Conditions
Mesenteric artery ischemia
Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that supply the small and large intestines. These are called the mesenteric arteries.

Diseases & Conditions
Mesenteric venous thrombosis
Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is a blood clot in one or more of the major veins that drain blood from the intestine. The superior mesenteric vein is most commonly involved. blood clot

Surgery
Mitral valve surgery - open
Mitral valve surgery is used to repair or replace the mitral valve in your heart. Blood flows between the different chambers in the heart through valves that connect the chambers. One of these is the mitral...

Diseases & Conditions
Myocardial contusion
Myocardial contusion is a bruise of the heart muscle.

N

Self-Care Instructions
Nasogastric feeding tube
Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube

Diseases & Conditions
Necrotizing granuloma
A granuloma is a clump of cells that forms when the immune system tries to fight off a harmful substance but cannot remove it from the body. A necrotizing granuloma is an area of inflammation in which tissue...

O

Surgery
Omphalocele repair
Omphalocele repair is a procedure done on an infant to correct a birth defect in the wall of the belly (abdomen) in which all or part of the small intestine, liver, and large intestine stick out of the...

Special Topics
Ostomy - resources

P

Surgery
Pancreas transplant
A pancreas transplant is surgery to implant a healthy pancreas from a donor into a person with diabetes. Pancreas transplants give the person a chance to stop taking insulin injections.

Surgery
Parathyroid gland removal
Parathyroidectomy is surgery to remove the parathyroid glands or parathyroid tumors. The parathyroid glands are right behind your thyroid gland in your neck. These glands help your body control the calcium...

Surgery
Peripheral artery bypass - leg
Peripheral artery bypass is surgery to reroute the blood supply around a blocked artery in one of your legs. Fatty deposits can build up inside the arteries and block them. blocked artery in one of your...

Self-Care Instructions
Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing
PICC - flushing

Diseases & Conditions
Peritonitis
Peritonitis is an inflammation (irritation) of the peritoneum. This is the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs.

Surgery
Portacaval shunting
Portacaval shunting is a surgical treatment to create new connections between two blood vessels in your abdomen. It is used to treat people who have severe liver problems.

Diseases & Conditions
Pyloric stenosis - infant
Pyloric stenosis is a narrowing of the pylorus, the opening from the stomach into the small intestine.  This article describes the condition in infants.

Surgery
Pyloroplasty
Pyloroplasty is surgery to widen the opening in the lower part of the stomach (pylorus) so that stomach contents can empty into the small intestine (duodenum). duodenum The pylorus is a thick, muscular...

R

Tests
Rectal biopsy
A rectal biopsy is a procedure to remove a small piece of tissue from the rectum for examination.

Diseases & Conditions
Rectal prolapse
Rectal prolapse occurs when the rectum sags and comes through the anal opening.

Surgery
Rectal prolapse repair
Rectal prolapse repair is surgery to fix a rectal prolapse. This is a condition in which the last part of the intestine (called the rectum) sticks out through the anus. rectal prolapse

S

Surgery
Skin graft
A skin graft is a patch of skin that is removed by surgery from one area of the body and transplanted, or attached, to another area.

Surgery
Small bowel resection
Small bowel resection is surgery to remove part or all of your small bowel. It is done when part of your small bowel is blocked or diseased. The small bowel is also called the small intestine. Most digestion...

Discharge Instructions
Small bowel resection - discharge
Small intestine surgery - discharge; Bowel resection - small intestine - discharge; Resection of part of the small intestine - discharge; Enterectomy - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Small intestinal ischemia and infarction
Intestinal ischemia and infarction occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the arteries that supply the small intestine.

Surgery
Spleen removal
Spleen removal is surgery to remove a diseased or damaged spleen. This surgery is called splenectomy. The spleen is in the upper part of the belly, on the left side underneath the ribcage. The spleen helps...

Discharge Instructions
Spleen removal - child - discharge
Splenectomy - child - discharge; Spleen removal - child - discharge

Discharge Instructions
Spleen removal - laparoscopic - adults - discharge
Splenectomy - microscopic - discharge; Laparoscopic splenectomy - discharge

Discharge Instructions
Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge
Splenectomy - adult - discharge; Spleen removal - adult - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Splenic infarction
Splenic infarction is the death of tissue (necrosis) in the spleen due to a blockage in blood flow.

Surgery
Stent
A stent is a tiny tube placed into a hollow structure in your body. This structure can be an artery, a vein, or another structure such as the tube that carries urine (ureter). The stent holds the structure...

Special Topics
Surgical excision
Surgical excision is the removal of tissue using a sharp knife (scalpel) or other cutting instrument.

Self-Care Instructions
Surgical wound care - open
Surgical incision care; Open wound care

T

Diseases & Conditions
Thyroid cancer
Thyroid cancer is a cancer that starts in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located inside the front of your lower neck.

Surgery
Thyroid gland removal
Thyroid gland removal is surgery to remove all or part of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located inside the front of the lower neck. The thyroid gland is part of the hormone...

Discharge Instructions
Thyroid gland removal - discharge
Total thyroidectomy - discharge; Partial thyroidectomy - discharge; Thyroidectomy - discharge; Subtotal thyroidectomy - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Thyroid nodule
A thyroid nodule is a growth (lump) in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck, just above where your collarbones meet in the middle.

Surgery
Total abdominal colectomy
Total abdominal colectomy is the removal of the large intestine from the lowest part of the small intestine (ileum) to the rectum. After it is removed, the end of the small intestine is sewn to the rectum...

Discharge Instructions
Total colectomy or proctocolectomy - discharge
End ileostomy - colectomy or proctolectomy - discharge; Continent ileostomy - discharge; Ostomy - colectomy or proctolectomy - discharge; Restorative proctocolectomy - discharge; Ileal-anal resection -...

Self-Care Instructions
Total parenteral nutrition
Hyperalimentation; TPN; Malnourishment - TPN; Malnutrition - TPN

Surgery
Total proctocolectomy and ileal-anal pouch
Total proctocolectomy and ileal-anal pouch surgery is the removal of the large intestine and most of the rectum. The surgery is done in one or two stages.

Surgery
Total proctocolectomy with ileostomy
Total proctocolectomy with ileostomy is surgery to remove all of the colon (large intestine) and rectum.

Surgery
Tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia repair
Tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia repair is surgery to repair two birth defects in the esophagus and trachea.

Surgery
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a procedure to create new connections between two blood vessels in your liver. You may need this procedure if you have severe liver problems.

U

Diseases & Conditions
Umbilical hernia
An umbilical hernia is an outward bulging (protrusion) of the lining of the abdomen or part of the abdominal organ(s) through the area around the belly button.

Surgery
Umbilical hernia repair
Umbilical hernia repair is surgery to repair an umbilical hernia. An umbilical hernia is a sac (pouch) formed from the inner lining of your belly (abdominal cavity) that pushes through a hole in the abdominal...

V

Surgery
Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment
Varicose veins are swollen, twisted, painful veins that have filled with blood. Varicose veins

Surgery
Varicose vein stripping
Vein stripping is surgery to remove varicose veins in the legs.

Surgery
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy is surgery to help with weight loss. The surgeon removes a large portion of your stomach. The new, smaller stomach is about the size of a banana. It limits the amount of food...

W

In-depth Report
Weight control and diet
An in-depth report on losing and managing weight safely for health benefits.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Weight-loss surgery - after - what to ask your doctor
Gastric bypass - after - what to ask your doctor; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - after - what to ask your doctor; Gastric banding - after - what to ask your doctor; Vertical sleeve surgery - after - what to...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Weight-loss surgery - before - what to ask your doctor
Gastric bypass - before - what to ask your doctor; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - before - what to ask your doctor; Gastric banding - before - what to ask your doctor; Vertical sleeve surgery - before - what...

Self-Care Instructions
Wet-to-dry dressing changes
Dressing changes; Wound care - dressing change

Y

Self-Care Instructions
Your diet after gastric bypass surgery
Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass