Pulmonology

Pulmonology is a branch of medicine concerned with diagnosis and treatment of lung and respiratory conditions. Some of the most common conditions are asthma, cystic fibrosis, sleep problems, muscular dystrophy, lung disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Learn more about pulmonology at the Mount Sinai Health System

We've found 194
total results for Pulmonology.
results for Pulmonology that begins with
ALL # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A

Tests
ACE blood test
The ACE test measures the level of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the blood. enzyme

Tests
Acid-fast stain
The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body substance is infected with the bacteria that causes tuberculosis (TB) and other illnesses. TB

Diseases & Conditions
Acute bronchitis
Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main passages that carry air to the lungs. This swelling narrows the airways, which makes it harder to breathe. Other symptoms of bronchitis are a...

Diseases & Conditions
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung condition that prevents enough oxygen from getting to the lungs and into the blood. Infants can also have respiratory distress syndrome...

Self-Care Instructions
Allergies, asthma, and dust
Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust

Self-Care Instructions
Allergies, asthma, and molds
Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen

Self-Care Instructions
Allergies, asthma, and pollen
Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen

Tests
Alpha-1 antitrypsin blood test
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a laboratory test to measure the amount of AAT in your blood. The test is also done to check for abnormal forms of AAT.

Diseases & Conditions
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a condition in which the body does not make enough of AAT, a protein that protects the lungs and liver from damage. The condition can lead to COPD and liver disease...

Diseases & Conditions
Alveolar abnormalities
Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in the lungs, called alveoli. Alveoli allow oxygen to enter the blood. They are very thin to let oxygen move from the lungs to the blood vessels,...

Diseases & Conditions
Asbestosis
Asbestosis is a lung disease that occurs from breathing in asbestos fibers.

Diseases & Conditions
Aspiration pneumonia
Pneumonia is a breathing condition in which there is inflammation (swelling) or an infection of the lungs or large airways. Aspiration pneumonia occurs when food, saliva, liquids, or vomit is breathed into...

Diseases & Conditions
Asthma
Asthma is a chronic disease that causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. It leads to breathing difficulty such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.

Discharge Instructions
Asthma - child - discharge
Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge

Self-Care Instructions
Asthma - control drugs
Asthma - inhaled corticosteroids; Asthma - long-acting beta-agonists; Asthma - leukotriene modifiers; Asthma - cromolyn; Bronchial asthma - control drugs; Wheezing - control drugs; Reactive airway disease...

Self-Care Instructions
Asthma - quick-relief drugs
Asthma - quick-relief drugs - short-acting beta-agonists; Asthma - quick-relief drugs - bronchodilators; Asthma - quick-relief drugs - oral steroids; Asthma - rescue drugs; Bronchial asthma - quick relief...

Self-Care Instructions
Asthma and school
Asthma action plan - school; Wheezing - school; Reactive airway disease - school; Bronchial asthma - school

In-depth Report
Asthma in adults
An in-depth report on how asthma is diagnosed, treated, and managed in adults.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Asthma in adults - what to ask the doctor
What to ask your doctor about asthma - adult

Diseases & Conditions
Asthma in children
Asthma is a disease that causes the airways to swell and get narrow. It leads to wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. Asthma

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Asthma in children - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about asthma - child

In-depth Report
Asthma in children and adolescents
An in-depth report on how asthma is diagnosed, treated, and managed in children and adolescents.

Diseases & Conditions
Atelectasis
Atelectasis is the collapse of part or, much less commonly, all of a lung.

Diseases & Conditions
Atypical pneumonia
Pneumonia is inflamed or swollen lung tissue due to infection with a germ. With atypical pneumonia, the infection is caused by different bacteria than the more common ones that cause pneumonia. Atypical...

B

Diseases & Conditions
Blastomycosis
Blastomycosis is an infection caused by breathing in the Blastomyces dermatitidis fungus. The fungus is found in decaying wood and soil. Blastomyces dermatitidis

Tests
Blood gases
Blood gases are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood.  They also determine the acidity (pH) of your blood.

Symptoms
Blue discoloration of the skin
A bluish color to the skin or mucous membrane is usually due to a lack of oxygen in the blood. The medical term is cyanosis.

Symptoms
Breath sounds
Breath sounds are the noises produced by the structures of the lungs during breathing.

Symptoms
Breathing difficulty
Breathing difficulty may involve: Difficult breathing Uncomfortable breathingFeeling like you are not getting enough air Difficult breathing  Uncomfortable breathing Feeling like you are not getting enough...

Symptoms
Breathing difficulty - lying down
Breathing difficulty while lying down is an abnormal condition in which a person has a problem breathing normally when lying flat. The head must be raised by sitting or standing to be able to breathe deeply...

Diseases & Conditions
Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis is a disease in which the large airways in the lungs are damaged. This causes the airways to become permanently wider. Bronchiectasis can be present at birth or infancy or develop later in...

Diseases & Conditions
Bronchiolitis
Bronchiolitis is swelling and mucus buildup in the smallest air passages in the lungs (bronchioles). It is usually due to a viral infection.

Discharge Instructions
Bronchiolitis - discharge
RSV bronchiolitis - discharge; Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a long-term (chronic) lung condition that affects newborn babies who were either put on a breathing machine after birth or were born very early (prematurely). chronic

Tests
Bronchoscopic culture
Bronchoscopic culture is a laboratory exam to check a piece of tissue or fluid from the lungs for infection-causing germs.

Tests
Bronchoscopy
Bronchoscopy is a test to view the airways and diagnose lung disease. It may also be used during the treatment of some lung conditions.

Diseases & Conditions
Byssinosis
Byssinosis is a disease of the lungs. It is caused by breathing in cotton dust or dusts from other vegetable fibers such as flax, hemp, or sisal while at work.

C

Diseases & Conditions
CMV pneumonia
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can occur in people who have a suppressed immune system.

Tests
CO2 blood test
CO2 is carbon dioxide. This article discusses the laboratory test to measure the amount of carbon dioxide in the liquid part of your blood, called the serum. In the body, most of the CO2 is in the form...

Self-Care Instructions
COPD - control drugs
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler...

Self-Care Instructions
COPD - how to use a nebulizer
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - nebulizer

Special Topics
COPD - managing stress and your mood
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - emotions; Stress - COPD; Depression - COPD

Self-Care Instructions
COPD - quick-relief drugs
COPD - quick-relief drugs; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Chronic obstructive airways disease - quick-relief drugs; Chronic obstructive lung disease - quick-relief drugs; Chronic...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
COPD - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about COPD; Emphysema - what to ask your doctor; Chronic bronchitis - what to ask your doctor; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - what to ask your doctor

Special Topics
COPD and other health problems
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - comorbidities; COPD - comorbidities

Self-Care Instructions
COPD flare-ups
COPD exacerbation; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation; Emphysema exacerbation; Chronic bronchitis exacerbation

Tests
CT angiography - chest
CT angiography combines a CT scan with the injection of dye. This technique is able to create pictures of the blood vessels in the chest and upper abdomen. CT stands for computed tomography.

Diseases & Conditions
Central sleep apnea
Central sleep apnea is a sleep disorder in which breathing stops over and over during sleep. sleep disorder

Diseases & Conditions
Chemical pneumonitis
Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lungs or breathing difficulty due to inhaling chemical fumes or breathing in and choking on certain chemicals. breathing difficulty

Tests
Chest CT
A chest CT (computed tomography) scan is an imaging method that uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the chest and upper abdomen.

Tests
Chest MRI
A chest MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan is an imaging test that uses powerful magnetic fields and radio waves to create pictures of the chest (thoracic area). It does not use radiation (x-rays).

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease. Having COPD makes it hard to breathe. There are two main forms of COPD: Chronic bronchitis, which involves a long-term cough with mucusEmphysema...

Discharge Instructions
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge
COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults -...

Symptoms
Clubbing of the fingers or toes
Clubbing is changes in the areas under and around the toenails and fingernails that occur with some disorders. The nails also show changes.

Diseases & Conditions
Coal worker's pneumoconiosis
Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that results from breathing in dust from coal, graphite, or man-made carbon over a long time. CWP is also known as black lung disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)
A collapsed lung occurs when air escapes from the lung. The air then fills the space outside of the lung, between the lung and chest wall. This buildup of air puts pressure on the lung, so it cannot expand...

Diseases & Conditions
Community-acquired pneumonia in adults
Pneumonia is a breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This type of pneumonia is found in people who have not...

Diseases & Conditions
Cor pulmonale
Cor pulmonale is a condition that causes the right side of the heart to fail. Long-term high blood pressure in the arteries of the lung and right ventricle of the heart can lead to cor pulmonale.

Diseases & Conditions
Costochondritis
All but your lowest 2 ribs are connected to your breastbone by cartilage. This cartilage can become inflamed and cause pain. This condition is called costochondritis. It is a common cause of chest pain...

Symptoms
Cough
Coughing is an important way to keep your throat and airways clear. But too much coughing may mean you have a disease or disorder. Some coughs are dry. Others are productive. A productive cough is one...

Symptoms
Coughing up blood
Coughing up blood is the spitting up of blood or bloody mucus from the lungs and throat (respiratory tract). Hemoptysis is the medical term for coughing up blood from the respiratory tract.

Diseases & Conditions
Cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis is a disease that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs, digestive tract, and other areas of the body. It is one of the most common chronic lung diseases in children and young...

Nutrition
Cystic fibrosis - nutrition
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening disease that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive tract. People with CF need to eat foods that are high in calories and protein throughout...

Tests
Cytology exam of pleural fluid
A cytology exam of pleural fluid is a laboratory test to detect cancer cells and certain other cells in the area that surrounds the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study...

D

Tests
D-dimer test
D-dimer tests are used to check for blood clotting problems. Blood clots can cause health problems, such as: Blood clots Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)Pulmonary embolism (PE)StrokeDisseminated intravascular...

Self-Care Instructions
Day to day with COPD
COPD - day to day; Chronic obstructive airways disease - day to day; Chronic obstructive lung disease - day to day; Chronic bronchitis - day to day; Emphysema - day to day; Bronchitis - chronic - day to...

Self-Care Instructions
Deep breathing after surgery
Lung complications - deep breathing exercises; Pneumonia - deep breathing exercises

Diseases & Conditions
Disseminated tuberculosis
Disseminated tuberculosis is a mycobacterial infection in which mycobacteria have spread from the lungs to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph system. lymph system

Diseases & Conditions
Drug-induced pulmonary disease
Drug-induced pulmonary disease is lung disease brought on by a bad reaction to a medicine.  Pulmonary means related to the lungs.

E

Diseases & Conditions
Empyema
Empyema is a collection of pus in the space between the lung and the inner surface of the chest wall (pleural space).

Tests
Endoscopic ultrasound
Endoscopic ultrasound is a type of imaging test. It is used to see organs in and near the digestive tract.

Self-Care Instructions
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction
Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise; Exercise-induced asthma

Self-Care Instructions
Exercising and asthma at school
Asthma - exercise school; Exercise - induced asthma - school

F

Injury
Foreign object - inhaled
If you breathe a foreign object into your nose, mouth, or respiratory tract, it may become stuck. This can cause breathing problems or choking. The area around the object also can become inflamed or infected...

Injury
Foreign object - swallowed
If you swallow a foreign object, it can get stuck along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the esophagus (swallowing tube) to the colon (large intestine). This can lead to a blockage or tear in the GI...

G

Diseases & Conditions
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare disorder in which blood vessels become inflamed. This leads to damage in major organs of the body. It was formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis.

H

Diseases & Conditions
Histoplasmosis - acute (primary) pulmonary
Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis is a respiratory infection that is caused by inhaling the spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. spores Histoplasma capsulatum

Diseases & Conditions
Hospital-acquired pneumonia
Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that occurs during a hospital stay. This type of pneumonia can be very severe. Sometimes, it can be fatal.

Self-Care Instructions
How to breathe when you are short of breath
Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed...

Self-Care Instructions
How to use a nebulizer
Nebulizer - how to use; Asthma - how to use a nebulizer; COPD - how to use a nebulizer; Wheezing - nebulizer; Reactive airway - nebulizer; COPD - nebulizer; Chronic bronchitis - nebulizer; Emphysema - nebulizer

Self-Care Instructions
How to use an inhaler - no spacer
Metered-dose inhaler (MDI) administration - no spacer; Bronchial nebulizer; Wheezing - nebulizer; Reactive airway - nebulizer; COPD - nebulizer; Chronic bronchitis - nebulizer; Emphysema - nebulizer

Self-Care Instructions
How to use an inhaler - with spacer
Metered-dose inhaler (MDI) administration - with spacer; Asthma - inhaler with spacer; Reactive airway disease - inhaler with spacer; Bronchial asthma - inhaler with spacer

Self-Care Instructions
How to use your peak flow meter
Peak flow meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter

Special Topics
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is inflammation of the lungs due to breathing in a foreign substance, usually certain types of dust, fungus, or molds.

Symptoms
Hyperventilation
Hyperventilation is rapid and deep breathing. It is also called overbreathing, and it may leave you feeling breathless.

Special Topics
Hypoventilation
Hypoventilation is breathing that is too shallow or too slow to meet the needs of the body. If a person hypoventilates, the body's carbon dioxide level rises. This causes a buildup of acid and too little...

I

Diseases & Conditions
Idiopathic hypersomnia
Idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) is a sleep disorder in which a person is excessively sleepy (hypersomnia) during the day and has great difficulty being awakened from sleep. Idiopathic means there is not a clear...

Diseases & Conditions
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring or thickening of the lungs without a known cause.

Diseases & Conditions
Industrial bronchitis
Industrial bronchitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large airways of the lungs that occurs in some people who work around certain dusts, fumes, smoke, or other substances. bronchitis

Symptoms
Intercostal retractions
Intercostal retractions occur when the muscles between the ribs pull inward. The movement is most often a sign that the person has a breathing problem. Intercostal retractions are a medical emergency.

Diseases & Conditions
Interstitial lung disease
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a group of lung disorders in which the lung tissues become inflamed and then damaged.

Discharge Instructions
Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge
Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial...

Diseases & Conditions
Irregular sleep-wake syndrome
Irregular sleep-wake syndrome is sleeping without any real schedule.

K

Diseases & Conditions
Kaposi sarcoma
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue. tumor

L

Diseases & Conditions
Legionnaire disease
Legionnaire disease is an infection of the lungs and airways. It is caused by Legionella bacteria. Legionella

Tests
Lung diffusion testing
Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This is an important part of lung testing, because the major function of the lungs is to allow oxygen to "diffuse" or pass into the blood...

Diseases & Conditions
Lung disease
Lung disease is any problem in the lungs that prevents the lungs from working properly. There are three main types of lung disease: Airway diseases -- These diseases affect the tubes (airways) that carry...

Special Topics
Lung disease - resources

Tests
Lung gallium scan
Lung gallium scan is a type of nuclear scan that uses radioactive gallium to identify swelling (inflammation) in the lungs. nuclear scan

Tests
Lung needle biopsy
A lung needle biopsy is a method to remove a piece of lung tissue for examination. If it is done through the wall of your chest, it is called a transthoracic lung biopsy.

Tests
Lung plethysmography
Lung plethysmography is a test used to measure how much air you can hold in your lungs. plethysmography

Special Topics
Lung problems and volcanic smog
Volcanic smog is also called vog. It forms when a volcano erupts and releases gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic smog can irritate the lungs and make existing lung problems worse.

M

Self-Care Instructions
Make peak flow a habit
Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow

Diseases & Conditions
Malignant mesothelioma
Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon cancerous tumor. It mainly affects the lining of the lung and chest cavity (pleura) or lining of the abdomen (peritoneum). It is due to long-term asbestos exposure...

Diseases & Conditions
Metastatic pleural tumor
Metastatic pleural tumor is a type of cancer that has spread from another organ to the thin membrane (pleura) surrounding the lungs. cancer

Special Topics
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Coronaviruses; CoV

Diseases & Conditions
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Pneumonia is inflamed or swollen lung tissue due to infection with a germ. Mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M pneumoniae). Mycoplasma pneumoniae M pneumoniae . This...

N

In-depth Report
Narcolepsy
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy.

Diseases & Conditions
Natural short sleeper
A natural short sleeper is someone who sleeps a lot less in a 24-hour period than is expected for people of the same age, without being abnormally sleepy.

Injury
Near drowning
"Near drowning" means a person almost died from not being able to breathe (suffocating) under water. If a person has been rescued from a near-drowning situation, quick first aid and medical attention are...

Tests
Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test
Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening is a blood test that screens newborns for cystic fibrosis (CF). cystic fibrosis

Diseases & Conditions
Nicotine and tobacco
The nicotine in tobacco can be addictive like alcohol, cocaine, and morphine.

Special Topics
Nicotine replacement therapy
Nicotine replacement therapy is a treatment to help people stop smoking. It uses products that supply low doses of nicotine. These products do not contain many of the toxins found in smoke. The goal of...

In-depth Report
Non-small cell lung cancer
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

O

Diseases & Conditions
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some obese people in which poor breathing leads to lower oxygen and higher carbon dioxide levels in the blood.

In-depth Report
Obstructive sleep apnea
An in-depth report about the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of obstructive sleep apnea.

Diseases & Conditions
Obstructive sleep apnea - adults
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a problem in which your breathing pauses during sleep. This occurs because of narrowed or blocked airways.

Diseases & Conditions
Occupational asthma
Occupational asthma is a lung disorder in which substances found in the workplace cause the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. This leads to attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness...

Self-Care Instructions
Oxygen safety
COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care...

P

Tests
PPD skin test
The PPD skin test is a method used to diagnose silent (latent) tuberculosis (TB) infection. PPD stands for purified protein derivative. tuberculosis

Diseases & Conditions
Parainfluenza
Parainfluenza refers to a group of viruses that lead to upper and lower respiratory infections.

Diseases & Conditions
Parapneumonic pleural effusion
Pleural effusion is a buildup of fluid in the pleural space. The pleural space is the area between the layers of the tissue lining the lung and the chest cavity. Pleural effusion In a person with parapneumonic...

Diseases & Conditions
Pediatric sleep apnea
With pediatric sleep apnea, a child's breathing pauses during sleep because the airway has become narrowed or partly blocked.

Tests
Plethysmography
Plethysmography is used to measure changes in volume in different parts of the body. The test may be done to check for blood clots in the arms and legs. It is also done to measure how much air you can hold...

Diseases & Conditions
Pleural effusion
A pleural effusion is a buildup of fluid between the layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity.

Tests
Pleural fluid Gram stain
The pleural fluid Gram stain is a test to diagnose bacterial infections in the lungs.

Tests
Pleural fluid analysis
Pleural fluid analysis is a test that examines a sample of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the lungs (pleura) and the wall of the chest...

Tests
Pleural fluid culture
Pleural fluid culture is a test that examines a sample of fluid that has collected in the pleural space to see if you have an infection or understand the cause of buildup of fluid in this space. The pleural...

Tests
Pleural fluid smear
Pleural fluid smear is a laboratory test to check for bacteria, fungi, or abnormal cells in a sample of the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside...

Tests
Pleural needle biopsy
Pleural biopsy is a procedure to remove a sample of the pleura. This is the thin tissue that lines the chest cavity and surrounds the lungs. The biopsy is done to check the pleura for disease of infection...

Diseases & Conditions
Pleurisy
Pleurisy is an inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest (the pleura) that leads to chest pain when you take a breath or cough.

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is a fungal infection of the lungs. The disease used to be called Pneumocystis carini or PCP pneumonia. Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumocystis carini

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumomediastinum
Pneumomediastinum is air in the mediastinum. The mediastinum is the space in the middle of the chest, between the lungs and around the heart.

In-depth Report
Pneumonia
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pneumonia.

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumonia - weakened immune system
Pneumonia is a lung infection. It can be caused by many different germs, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. This article discusses pneumonia that occurs in a person who has a hard time fighting off...

Discharge Instructions
Pneumonia in adults - discharge
Bronchopneumonia adults - discharge; Lung infection adults - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumonia in children - community acquired
Pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. This type of pneumonia occurs in healthy children who have not...

Discharge Instructions
Pneumonia in children - discharge
Lung infection - children discharge; Bronchopneumonia - children discharge

Tests
Polysomnography
Polysomnography is a sleep study. This test records certain body functions as you sleep, or try to sleep. Polysomnography is used to diagnose sleep disorders.

Special Topics
Positive airway pressure treatment
Positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment uses a machine to pump air under pressure into the airway of the lungs. This helps keep the windpipe open during sleep. The forced air delivered by CPAP (continuous...

Self-Care Instructions
Postural drainage
Chest physical therapy; CPT; COPD - postural drainage; Cystic fibrosis - postural drainage; Bronchopulmonary dysplasia - postural drainage

Diseases & Conditions
Primary alveolar hypoventilation
Primary alveolar hypoventilation is a rare disorder in which a person does not take enough breaths per minute. The lungs and airways are normal.

Diseases & Conditions
Psittacosis
Psittacosis is an infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, a type of bacteria found in the droppings of birds. Birds spread the infection to humans. Chlamydophila psittaci,

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary actinomycosis
Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare lung infection caused by bacteria.

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease in which a type of protein builds up in the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs, making breathing difficult. Pulmonary means related to the lungs.

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula
Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery and vein in the lungs. As a result, blood passes through the lungs without receiving enough oxygen.

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary aspergilloma
Pulmonary aspergilloma is a mass caused by a fungal infection. It usually grows in lung cavities. The infection can also appear in the brain, kidney, or other organs.

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary embolus
A pulmonary embolus is a blockage of an artery in the lungs. The most common cause of the blockage is a blood clot. blood clot

Tests
Pulmonary function tests
Pulmonary function tests are a group of tests that measure breathing and how well the lungs are functioning.

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. It makes the right side of the heart work harder than normal.

Self-Care Instructions
Pulmonary hypertension - at home
Pulmonary hypertension - self care; Activity - pulmonary hypertension; Preventing infections - pulmonary hypertension; Oxygen - pulmonary hypertension

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary nocardiosis
Pulmonary nocardiosis is an infection of the lung with the bacteria, Nocardia asteroides. Nocardia asteroides

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary tuberculosis
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs. It may spread to other organs.

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a very rare disease. It leads to high blood pressure in the lung arteries (pulmonary hypertension). pulmonary hypertension

Tests
Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan
A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan involves two nuclear scan tests to measure breathing (ventilation) and circulation (perfusion) in all areas of the lungs. nuclear scan

R

Tests
RSV antibody test
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibody test is a blood test that measures the levels of antibodies (immunoglobulins) the body makes after an infection with RSV. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

Symptoms
Rapid shallow breathing
A normal breathing rate for an adult at rest is 8 to 16 breaths per minute. For an infant, a normal rate is up to 44 breaths per minute. Tachypnea is the term that your health care provider uses to describe...

Special Topics
Respiratory
The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing.

Diseases & Conditions
Respiratory acidosis
Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when the lungs cannot remove all of the carbon dioxide the body produces. This causes body fluids, especially the blood, to become too acidic.

Diseases & Conditions
Respiratory alkalosis
Respiratory alkalosis is a condition marked by a low level of carbon dioxide in the blood due to breathing excessively.

Diseases & Conditions
Rheumatoid lung disease
Rheumatoid lung disease is a group of lung problems related to rheumatoid arthritis. The condition can include: rheumatoid arthritis Blockage of the small airways (bronchiolitis obliterans)Fluid in the...

Diseases & Conditions
Rheumatoid pneumoconiosis
Rheumatoid pneumoconiosis (RP, also known as Caplan syndrome) is swelling (inflammation) and scarring of the lungs. It occurs in people with rheumatoid arthritis who have breathed in dust, such as from...

Special Topics
Risks of tobacco
Knowing the serious health risks of using tobacco may help motivate you to quit. Using tobacco over a long time can increase your risk for many health problems.

Tests
Routine sputum culture
Routine sputum culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs that cause infection. Sputum is the material that comes up from air passages when you cough deeply.

Symptoms
Ruidos respiratorios
Los ruidos respiratorios son los producidos por las estructuras de los pulmones durante la respiración.

S

Diseases & Conditions
Sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis is a disease in which inflammation occurs in the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, eyes, skin, and/or other tissues.

Self-Care Instructions
Signs of an asthma attack
Asthma attack - signs; Reactive airway disease - asthma attack; Bronchial asthma - attack

Diseases & Conditions
Silicosis
Silicosis is a lung disease caused by breathing in (inhaling) silica dust.

Diseases & Conditions
Simple pulmonary eosinophilia
Simple pulmonary eosinophilia is inflammation of the lungs from an increase in eosinophils, a type of white blood cell. Pulmonary means related to the lungs.

Diseases & Conditions
Sleep paralysis
Sleep paralysis is a condition in which you are unable to move or speak right as you're falling asleep or waking up. During an episode of sleep paralysis, you are totally aware of what is happening.

Special Topics
Smoking and COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - smoking; COPD - secondhand smoke

Self-Care Instructions
Smoking and asthma

Special Topics
Smoking cessation medications
Your health care provider can prescribe medicines to help you quit tobacco use. These medicines do not contain nicotine and are not habit-forming. They work in a different way than nicotine patches, gums...

Diseases & Conditions
Solitary fibrous tumor
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a noncancerous tumor of the lining of the lung and chest cavity, an area called the pleura. SFT used to be called localized fibrous mesothelioma. tumor

Diseases & Conditions
Solitary pulmonary nodule
A solitary pulmonary nodule is a round or oval spot (lesion) in the lung that is seen with a chest x-ray or CT scan. chest x-ray CT scan

Tests
Sputum Gram stain
A sputum Gram stain is a laboratory test used to detect bacteria in a sputum sample. Sputum is the material that comes up from your air passages when you cough very deeply. The Gram stain method is one...

Self-Care Instructions
Stay away from asthma triggers
Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers

Special Topics
Stop smoking support programs
It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers usually have a much better chance of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs are offered by hospitals, health departments, community...

Tests
Sweat electrolytes test
Sweat electrolytes is a test that measures the level of chloride in sweat. Sweat chloride test is the standard test used to diagnose cystic fibrosis.

T

Tests
Thoracentesis
Thoracentesis is a procedure to remove fluid from the space between the lining of the outside of the lungs (pleura) and the wall of the chest.

Special Topics
Tips on how to quit smoking
There are many ways to quit smoking. There are also resources to help you. Family members, friends, and co-workers may be supportive. But to be successful, you must really want to quit. The tips below can...

Diseases & Conditions
Tracheal rupture
A tracheal or bronchial rupture is a tear or break in the windpipe (trachea) or bronchial tubes, the major airways leading to the lungs. A tear can also occur in the tissue lining the windpipe.

Self-Care Instructions
Tracheostomy care
Respiratory failure - tracheostomy care; Ventilator - tracheostomy care; Respiratory insufficiency - tracheostomy care

Self-Care Instructions
Traveling with breathing problems
Oxygen - travel; Collapsed lung - travel; Chest surgery - travel; COPD - travel; Chronic obstructive airways disease - travel; Chronic obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; Emphysema...

U

Self-Care Instructions
Using an incentive spirometer
Lung complications - incentive spirometer; Pneumonia - incentive spirometer

Self-Care Instructions
Using oxygen at home
Oxygen - home use; COPD - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive airways disease - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive lung disease - home oxygen; Chronic bronchitis - home oxygen; Emphysema - home oxygen; Chronic...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Using oxygen at home - what to ask your doctor
Oxygen - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about home oxygen; Hypoxia - oxygen at home

V

Diseases & Conditions
Viral pneumonia
Pneumonia is inflamed or swollen lung tissue due to infection with a germ. Viral pneumonia is caused by a virus.

W

Self-Care Instructions
Water safety and drowning

Symptoms
Wheezing
Wheezing is a high-pitched whistling sound during breathing. It occurs when air moves through narrowed breathing tubes in the lungs.