Otolaryngology (ENT)

Otolaryngology, also known as Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT), encompasses a wide array of concerns including hearing issues, sinus problems, sleep difficulties, and even cosmetic issues.

Learn more about otolaryngology (ENT)/head and neck surgery at Mount Sinai Health System

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A

Diseases & Conditions
Acoustic neuroma
An acoustic neuroma is a slow-growing tumor of the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. This nerve is called the vestibular cochlear nerve. It is behind the ear, right under the brain. An acoustic...

Diseases & Conditions
Acoustic trauma
Acoustic trauma is injury to the hearing mechanisms in the inner ear. It is due to very loud noise.

Surgery
Adenoid removal
Adenoid removal is surgery to take out the adenoid glands. The adenoid glands sit behind your nose above the roof of your mouth in the nasopharynx. Air passes over these glands when you take a breath. The...

Diseases & Conditions
Allergies
An allergy is an immune response or reaction to substances that are usually not harmful. immune response

Diseases & Conditions
Anaplastic thyroid cancer
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer of the thyroid gland.

Tests
Anti-DNase B blood test
Anti-DNase B is a blood test to look for antibodies to a substance (protein) produced by group A streptococcus. This is the bacteria that cause strep throat. . strep throat When used together with the ASLO...

Tests
Antistreptolysin O titer
Antistreptolysin O (ASO) titer is a blood test to measure antibodies against streptolysin O, a substance produced by group A streptococcus bacteria. Antibodies are proteins our bodies produce when they...

Tests
Audiometry
An audiometry exam tests your ability to hear sounds. Sounds vary, based on their loudness (intensity) and the speed of sound wave vibrations (tone). Hearing occurs when sound waves stimulate the nerves...

Diseases & Conditions
Aural polyps
An aural polyp is a growth in the outside (external) ear canal or middle ear. It may be attached to the eardrum (tympanic membrane), or it may grow from the middle ear space.

B

Tests
BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response
Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) is a test to measure the brain wave activity that occurs in response to clicks or certain tones.

Diseases & Conditions
Benign ear cyst or tumor
Benign ear cysts are lumps or growths in the ear. They are benign.

Diseases & Conditions
Benign positional vertigo
Benign positional vertigo is the most common type of vertigo. Vertigo is the feeling that you are spinning or that everything is spinning around you. It may occur when you move your head in a certain position...

Self-Care Instructions
Benign positional vertigo - aftercare
Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo

Surgery
Botulinum toxin injection - larynx
Botulimum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to muscles so they relax. BTX is the toxin that causes botulism, a rare but serious illness. It is safe when used...

Diseases & Conditions
Branchial cleft cyst
A branchial cleft cyst is a birth defect. It is caused when fluid fills a space, or sinus, left in the neck when a baby develops in the womb. After the baby is born, it appears as a lump in the neck or...

Injury
Broken or dislocated jaw
A broken jaw is a break (fracture) in the jaw bone. A dislocated jaw means the lower part of the jaw has moved out of its normal position at one or both joints where the jaw bone connects to the skull ...

C

Tests
Caloric stimulation
Caloric stimulation is a test that uses differences in temperature to diagnose damage to the acoustic nerve. This is the nerve that is involved in hearing and balance. The test also checks for damage to...

Diseases & Conditions
Canker sore
A canker sore is a painful, open sore in the mouth. Canker sores are white or yellow and surrounded by a bright red area. They are not cancerous. A canker sore is not the same as a fever blister (cold sore...

Diseases & Conditions
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a blood clot in an area at the base of the brain. blood clot

Diseases & Conditions
Choanal atresia
Choanal atresia is a narrowing or blockage of the nasal airway by tissue. It is a congenital condition, meaning it is present at birth.

Diseases & Conditions
Cholesteatoma
Cholesteatoma is a type of skin cyst that is located in the middle ear and mastoid bone in the skull. cyst

Diseases & Conditions
Cleft lip and palate
Cleft lip and palate are birth defects that affect the upper lip and the roof of the mouth.

Surgery
Cleft lip and palate repair
Cleft lip and cleft palate repair is surgery to fix birth defects of the upper lip and palate (roof of the mouth).

Discharge Instructions
Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge
Orofacial cleft - discharge; Craniofacial birth defect repair - discharge; Cheiloplasty - discharge; Cleft rhinoplasty - discharge; Palatoplasty - discharge; Tip rhinoplasty - discharge

Special Topics
Cochlear implant
A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that helps people hear. It can be used for people who are deaf or very hard of hearing.

Special Topics
Colds and flus - antibiotics
Antibiotics DO NOT cure colds and flus.

Diseases & Conditions
Common cold
The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, headache, or other symptoms.

Surgery
Cosmetic ear surgery
Cosmetic ear surgery is a procedure to improve the appearance of the ear. The most common procedure is to move very large or prominent ears closer to the head.

Diseases & Conditions
Craniopharyngioma
A craniopharyngioma is a noncancerous (benign) tumor that develops at the base of the brain near the pituitary gland. tumor

Diseases & Conditions
Croup
Croup is an infection of the upper airways that causes breathing difficulty and a "barking" cough. Croup is due to swelling around the vocal cords. It is common in infants and children. breathing difficulty

Diseases & Conditions
Cystic hygroma
A cystic hygroma is a growth that often occurs in the head and neck area. It is a birth defect.

D

Self-Care Instructions
Devices for hearing loss

Self-Care Instructions
Dizziness and vertigo - aftercare
Meniere disease - aftercare; Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

E

Special Topics
Ear - blocked at high altitudes
The air pressure outside of your body changes as altitude changes. This creates a difference in pressure on the two sides of the eardrum. You may feel pressure and blockage in the ears as a result. pressure...

Diseases & Conditions
Ear barotrauma
Ear barotrauma is discomfort in the ear due to pressure differences between the inside and outside of the eardrum. It may include damage to the ear.

Symptoms
Ear discharge
Ear discharge is drainage of blood, ear wax, pus, or fluid from the ear. ear wax

Tests
Ear drainage culture
An ear drainage culture is a lab test. This test checks for germs that can cause infection. The sample taken for this test can contain fluid, pus, wax, or blood from the ear.

Injury
Ear emergencies
Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal, ruptured eardrums, sudden hearing loss, and severe infections.

Tests
Ear examination
An ear exam is performed when a health care provider looks inside your ear using an instrument called an otoscope.

Diseases & Conditions
Ear infection - acute
Ear infections are one of the most common reasons parents take their children to the health care provider. The most common type of ear infection is called otitis media. It is caused by swelling and infection...

Diseases & Conditions
Ear infection - chronic
Chronic ear infection is fluid, swelling, or an infection behind the eardrum that does not go away or keeps coming back. It causes long-term or permanent damage to the ear. It often involves a hole in the...

In-depth Report
Ear infections
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ear infections.

Surgery
Ear tube insertion
Ear tube insertion involves placing tubes through the eardrums. The eardrum is the thin layer of tissue that separates the outer and middle ear. Note: This article focuses on ear tube insertion in children...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what to ask your doctor

Diseases & Conditions
Ear wax
The ear canal is lined with hair follicles. The ear canal also has glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. The wax will most often make its way to the opening of the ear. There it will fall out or...

Symptoms
Earache
An earache is a sharp, dull, or burning pain in one or both ears. The pain may last a short time or be ongoing. Related conditions include: Otitis mediaSwimmer's earMalignant otitis externa Otitis media...

Surgery
Eardrum repair
Eardrum repair refers to one or more surgical procedures that are done to correct a tear or other damage to the eardrum (tympanic membrane). Ossiculoplasty is the repair of the small bones in the middle...

Tests
Electronystagmography
Electronystagmography is a test that looks at eye movements to see how well two nerves in the brain are working. These nerves are: Vestibular nerve (eighth cranial nerve), which runs from the brain to the...

Surgery
Emergency airway puncture
Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle into the airway in the throat. It is done to treat life-threatening choking.

Surgery
Endotracheal intubation
Endotracheal intubation is a medical procedure in which a tube is placed into the windpipe (trachea) through the mouth or nose. In most emergency situations, it is placed through the mouth.

Diseases & Conditions
Enlarged adenoids
The adenoids are lymph tissues that sit in your upper airway between your nose and the back of your throat. They are similar to the tonsils. Enlarged adenoids means this tissue is swollen.

Diseases & Conditions
Epiglottitis
Epiglottitis is inflammation of the epiglottis. This is the tissue that covers the trachea (windpipe). Epiglottitis can be a life-threatening disease.

Surgery
Epley maneuver
The Epley maneuver is a series of head movements to relieve symptoms of benign positional vertigo. Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). BPPV is caused by...

Diseases & Conditions
Epstein pearls
Epstein pearls are whitish-yellow cysts.  These form on the gums and roof of the mouth in a newborn baby. newborn baby Milia are a similar kind of skin problem in babies. Milia

Diseases & Conditions
Ethmoiditis
Ethmoiditis is an infection of the ethmoidal cells in the sinuses. These are the air-filled spaces behind the nose and between the eyes. Ethmoiditis is a type of sinusitis. sinusitis

Diseases & Conditions
Eustachian tube patency
Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space....

F

Diseases & Conditions
Facial trauma
Facial trauma is an injury of the face.  It may include the facial bones such as the upper jaw bone (maxilla).

Diseases & Conditions
Flu
The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. It spreads easily. This article discusses influenza types A and B. Another type of the flu is the swine flu (H1N1). swine flu (H1N1).

Injury
Foreign body in the nose
This article discusses first aid for a foreign object placed into the nose.

Diseases & Conditions
Fusion of the ear bones
Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the middle ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Fusion or fixation of the bones leads to hearing loss, because the bones are not moving...

G

Diseases & Conditions
Geographic tongue
Geographic tongue is characterized by irregular patches on the surface of the tongue. This gives it a map-like appearance.

Diseases & Conditions
Gingivostomatitis
Gingivostomatitis is an infection of the mouth and gums that leads to swelling and sores. It may be due to a virus or bacteria.

Diseases & Conditions
Glomus jugulare tumor
A glomus jugulare tumor is a tumor of the part of the temporal bone in the skull that involves the middle and inner ear structures. This tumor can affect the ear, upper neck, base of the skull, and the...

Diseases & Conditions
Glomus tympanum tumor
A glomus tympanum tumor is a tumor of the middle ear and bone behind the ear (mastoid).

Diseases & Conditions
Glossitis
Glossitis is a problem in which the tongue is swollen and inflamed. This often makes the surface of the tongue appear smooth. Geographic tongue is a type of glossitis. Geographic tongue

Tests
Gum biopsy
A gum biopsy is a surgery in which a small piece of gingival (gum) tissue is removed and examined. biopsy

H

Symptoms
Hearing loss
Hearing loss is being partly or totally unable to hear sound in one or both ears.

Diseases & Conditions
Hearing loss - infants
Hearing loss is not being able to hear sound in one or both ears. Infants may lose all of their hearing or just part of it.

Self-Care Instructions
Hearing loss and music
Noise induced hearing loss - music; Sensory hearing loss - music

Diseases & Conditions
Herpes - oral
Oral herpes is an infection of the lips, mouth, or gums due to the herpes simplex virus. It causes small, painful blisters commonly called cold sores or fever blisters. Oral herpes is also called herpes...

Symptoms
Hoarseness
Hoarseness refers to a difficulty making sounds when trying to speak. Vocal sounds may be weak, breathy, scratchy, or husky, and the pitch or quality of the voice may change.

I

Special Topics
Immune response
The immune response is how your body recognizes and defends itself against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful.

Diseases & Conditions
Infectious myringitis
Infectious myringitis is an infection that causes painful blisters on the eardrum (tympanum). blisters

J

Diseases & Conditions
Juvenile angiofibroma
Juvenile angiofibroma is a noncancerous growth that causes bleeding in the nose and sinuses. It is most often seen in boys and young adult men.

L

Diseases & Conditions
Labyrinthitis
Labyrinthitis is irritation and swelling of the inner ear. It can cause vertigo and hearing loss.

Self-Care Instructions
Labyrinthitis - aftercare
Bacterial labyrinthitis - aftercare; Serous labyrinthitis - aftercare; Neuronitis - vestibular - aftercare; Vestibular neuronitis - aftercare; Viral neurolabyrinthitis - aftercare; Vestibular neuritis vertigo...

Diseases & Conditions
Lacrimal gland tumor
A lacrimal gland tumor is a tumor in one of the glands that produces tears. The lacrimal gland is located under the outer part of each eyebrow. Lacrimal gland tumors can be harmless (benign) or cancerous...

Diseases & Conditions
Laryngeal nerve damage
Laryngeal nerve damage is injury to one or both of the nerves that are attached to the voice box.

Surgery
Laryngectomy
Laryngectomy is surgery to remove all or part of the larynx (voice box).

Diseases & Conditions
Laryngitis
Laryngitis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the voice box (larynx). The problem is most often associated with hoarseness or loss of voice. hoarseness

Tests
Laryngoscopy
Laryngoscopy is an exam of the voice box (larynx). It can be done using a small mirror held just below the back of your palate, or a rigid or flexible viewing tube called a laryngoscope placed in your mouth...

Tests
Laryngoscopy and nasolarynoscopy
Laryngoscopy is an exam of the back of your throat, including your voice box (larynx). Your voice box contains your vocal cords and allows you to speak.

Self-Care Instructions
Living with hearing loss

Diseases & Conditions
Ludwig angina
Ludwig angina is an infection of the floor of the mouth under the tongue. It is due to a bacterial infection of the teeth or jaw.

M

Diseases & Conditions
Malignant otitis externa
Malignant otitis externa is a disorder that involves infection and damage of the bones of the ear canal and at the base of the skull.

Surgery
Mastoidectomy
A mastoidectomy is surgery to remove cells in the hollow, air-filled spaces in the skull behind the ear within the mastoid bone. These cells are called mastoid air cells.

Diseases & Conditions
Mastoiditis
Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid bone of the skull. The mastoid is located just behind the ear.

Diseases & Conditions
Mononucleosis
Mononucleosis, or mono, is a viral infection that causes fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, most often in the neck.

Symptoms
Mouth sores
There are different types of mouth sores. They can occur anywhere in the mouth including bottom of the mouth, inner cheeks, gums, lips, and tongue.

Diseases & Conditions
Mouth ulcers
Mouth ulcers are sores or open lesions in the mouth. ulcers

Diseases & Conditions
Ménière disease
Ménière disease is an inner ear disorder that affects balance and hearing.

Special Topics
Ménière disease - self-care
Hydrops - self-care; Endolymphatic hydrops - self-care; Dizziness - Ménière self-care; Vertigo - Ménière self-care; Loss of balance - Ménière self-care; Primary endolymphatic hydrops - self-care; Auditory...

N

Discharge Instructions
Nasal corticosteroid sprays
Steroid nasal sprays; Allergies - nasal corticosteroid sprays

Tests
Nasal endoscopy
Nasal endoscopy is a test to view the inside of the nose and sinuses to check for problems.

Self-Care Instructions
Nasal fracture - aftercare
Broken nose

Tests
Nasal mucosal biopsy
A nasal mucosal biopsy is the removal of a small piece of tissue from the lining of the nose so that it can be checked for disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Nasal polyps
Nasal polyps are soft, sac-like growths on the lining of the nose or sinuses.

Diseases & Conditions
Nasal septal hematoma
A nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood within the septum of the nose. The septum is the part of the nose between the nostrils. An injury disrupts the blood vessels so that fluid and blood may...

Tests
Nasopharyngeal culture
Nasopharyngeal culture is a test that examines a sample of secretions from the uppermost part of the throat, behind the nose, to detect organisms that can cause disease.

Surgery
Neck dissection
Neck dissection is surgery to examine and remove the lymph nodes in the neck.

Discharge Instructions
Neck dissection - discharge
Radical neck dissection - discharge; Modified radical neck dissection - discharge; Selective neck dissection - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Nonallergic rhinopathy
Rhinitis is a condition that includes a runny nose, sneezing, and nasal stuffiness. When hay allergies (hayfever) or a cold are not causing these symptoms, the condition is called nonallergic rhinitis....

Injury
Nose fracture
A nose fracture is a break in the bone or cartilage over the bridge, or in the sidewall or septum (structure that divides the nostrils) of the nose.

Symptoms
Nosebleed
A nosebleed is loss of blood from the tissue lining the nose. Bleeding most often occurs in one nostril only.

Symptoms
Nystagmus
Nystagmus is a term to describe fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes that may be: Side to side (horizontal nystagmus)Up and down (vertical nystagmus)Rotary (rotary or torsional nystagmus) Side to...

O

Diseases & Conditions
Obstructive sleep apnea - adults
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a problem in which your breathing pauses during sleep. This occurs because of narrowed or blocked airways.

Diseases & Conditions
Occupational hearing loss
Occupational hearing loss is damage to the inner ear from noise or vibrations due to certain types of jobs.

Diseases & Conditions
Oral cancer
Oral cancer is cancer that starts in the mouth.

Diseases & Conditions
Oral human papillomavirus infection
Human papillomavirus infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The infection is caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV can cause genital warts and lead to cervical cancer. Certain...

Self-Care Instructions
Oral mucositis - self-care
Cancer treatment - mucositis; Cancer treatment - mouth pain; Cancer treatment - mouth sores; Chemotherapy - mucositis; Chemotherapy - mouth pain; Chemotherapy - mouth sores; Radiation therapy - mucositis...

Tests
Orbit CT scan
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the orbit is an imaging method. It uses x-rays to create detailed pictures of the eye sockets (orbits), eyes and surrounding bones.

Tests
Oropharynx lesion biopsy
An oropharynx lesion biopsy is surgery in which tissue from an abnormal growth or mouth sore is removed and checked for problems.

Diseases & Conditions
Otitis
Otitis is a term for infection or inflammation of the ear.

Diseases & Conditions
Otitis media with effusion
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is thick or sticky fluid behind the eardrum in the middle ear. It occurs without an ear infection. ear infection

Diseases & Conditions
Otosclerosis
Otosclerosis is an abnormal bone growth in the middle ear that causes hearing loss. hearing loss

Diseases & Conditions
Ozena
Ozena is a disease of the nose in which the bony ridges and mucous membranes of the nose waste away. Ozena is also called atrophic rhinitis.

P

Diseases & Conditions
Palatal myoclonus
Palatal myoclonus is a fast spasm (contraction) of the muscles in the roof of the mouth.

Diseases & Conditions
Parathyroid cancer
Parathyroid cancer is a cancerous (malignant) growth in a parathyroid gland. malignant

Diseases & Conditions
Perichondritis
Perichondritis is an infection of the skin and tissue surrounding the cartilage of the outer ear.

Diseases & Conditions
Peritonsillar abscess
Peritonsillar abscess is a collection of infected material in the area around the tonsils.

Diseases & Conditions
Petrositis
Petrositis most often refers to infection of the temporal bone, the bone in the skull that surrounds the ear. This infection goes deep to the inner ear. It is sometimes associated with otitis media (a middle...

Diseases & Conditions
Pharyngitis - sore throat
Pharyngitis, or sore throat, is discomfort, pain, or scratchiness in the throat. It often makes it painful to swallow.

Diseases & Conditions
Pharyngitis - viral
Pharyngitis, or sore throat, is swelling, discomfort, pain, or scratchiness in the throat at, and just below the tonsils. Pharyngitis

Diseases & Conditions
Pharyngomaxillary space abscess
Pharyngomaxillary space abscess is swelling and irritation (inflammation) or pus in the area between the throat and upper jawbone.

R

Diseases & Conditions
Retropharyngeal abscess
Retropharyngeal abscess is a collection of pus in the tissues in the back of the throat. It can be a life-threatening medical condition.

Surgery
Rhinoplasty
Rhinoplasty is surgery to repair or reshape the nose.

Diseases & Conditions
Ruptured eardrum
A ruptured eardrum is an opening or hole in the eardrum. The eardrum is a thin piece of tissue that separates the outer and middle ear. Damage to the eardrum may harm hearing.

S

Self-Care Instructions
Saline nasal washes
Salt water washes; Nasal irrigation; Nasal lavage; Sinusitis - nasal wash

Diseases & Conditions
Salivary duct stones
Salivary duct stones are deposits of minerals in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. Salivary duct stones are a type of salivary gland disorder. salivary gland disorder

Tests
Salivary gland biopsy
Salivary gland biopsy is the removal of cells or a piece of tissue from a salivary gland for exam.

Diseases & Conditions
Salivary gland infections
Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). The infection may be due to bacteria or viruses. There are 3 pairs of major salivary glands: Parotid glands -- These are the two largest...

Diseases & Conditions
Salivary gland tumors
Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland or in the tubes (ducts) that drain the salivary glands.

Symptoms
Sensorineural deafness
Sensorineural deafness is a type of hearing loss. It occurs from damage to the inner ear, the nerve that runs from the ear to the brain (auditory nerve), or the brain.

Surgery
Septoplasty
Septoplasty is surgery performed to correct any problems in the nasal septum, the structure inside the nose that separates the nose into two chambers.

Discharge Instructions
Septoplasty - discharge
Nasal septum repair; Submucus resection of the septum

Tests
Sialogram
A sialogram is an x-ray of the salivary ducts and glands. x-ray The salivary glands are located on each side of the head, in the cheeks and under the jaw. They release saliva into the mouth.

Tests
Sinus CT scan
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the sinus is an imaging test that uses x-rays to make detailed pictures of the air-filled spaces inside the face (sinuses).

Tests
Sinus MRI scan
A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the sinuses creates detailed pictures of the air-filled spaces inside the skull. These spaces are called the sinuses. The test is noninvasive. MRI uses powerful...

Diseases & Conditions
Sinusitis
Sinusitis is present when the tissue lining the sinuses become swollen or inflamed. It occurs as the result of an inflammatory reaction or an infection from a virus, bacteria, or fungus.

In-depth Report
Sinusitis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis.

Self-Care Instructions
Sinusitis in adults - aftercare
Sinus infection - self-care; Rhinosinusitis - self-care

Symptoms
Smell - impaired
Impaired smell is the partial or total loss or abnormal perception of the sense of smell.

Self-Care Instructions
Snoring - adults

Diseases & Conditions
Speech disorders - children
A speech disorder is a condition in which a person has problems creating or forming the speech sounds needed to communicate with others. This can make the child's speech difficult to understand. Common...

Diseases & Conditions
Strep throat
Strep throat is a disease that causes a sore throat (pharyngitis). It is an infection with a germ called group A streptococcus bacteria.

Tests
Streptococcal screen
A streptococcal screen is a test to detect group A streptococcus. This type of bacteria is the most common cause of strep throat. strep throat

Symptoms
Stridor
Stridor is an abnormal, high-pitched, musical breathing sound. It is caused by a blockage in the throat or voice box (larynx). It is most often heard when taking in a breath.

Symptoms
Stuffy or runny nose - children
A stuffy or congested nose occurs when the tissues lining the nose become swollen. The swelling is due to inflamed blood vessels. The problem may also include nasal discharge or "runny nose. " If excess...

Diseases & Conditions
Swimmer's ear
Swimmer's ear is inflammation, irritation, or infection of the outer ear and ear canal. The medical term for swimmer's ear is otitis externa. Swimmer's ear may be sudden and short-term (acute) or long-term...

T

Self-Care Instructions
Talking to someone with hearing loss

Symptoms
Taste - impaired
Taste impairment means there is a problem with your sense of taste. Problems range from distorted taste to a complete loss of the sense of taste. A complete inability to taste is rare.

Diseases & Conditions
Throat or larynx cancer
Throat cancer is cancer of the vocal cords, larynx (voice box), or other areas of the throat.

Diseases & Conditions
Thrush - children and adults
Thrush is a yeast infection of the tongue and lining of the mouth.

Diseases & Conditions
Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is cancer of the thyroid gland that starts in cells that release a hormone called calcitonin. These cells are called "C" cells. The thyroid gland is located inside the...

Diseases & Conditions
Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma
Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is the most common cancer of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located inside the front of the lower neck.

Symptoms
Tinnitus
Tinnitus is the medical term for "hearing" noises in your ears. It occurs when there is no outside source of the sounds. Tinnitus is often called "ringing in the ears. " It may also sound like blowing,...

Tests
Tongue biopsy
A tongue biopsy is a minor surgery that is done to remove a small piece of the tongue. The tissue is then examined under a microscope.

Symptoms
Tongue problems
Tongue problems include pain, swelling, or a change in how the tongue looks.

Diseases & Conditions
Tongue tie
Tongue tie is when the bottom of the tongue is attached to the floor of the mouth. This may make it hard for the tip of the tongue to move freely.

Discharge Instructions
Tonsil and adenoid removal - discharge
Adenoidectomy - discharge; Removal of adenoid glands - discharge; Tonsillectomy - discharge

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Tonsil removal - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about tonsil removal; Tonsillectomy - what to ask your doctor

Surgery
Tonsillectomy
Tonsillectomy is a surgery to remove the tonsils. The tonsils are glands at the back of your throat. The tonsils are often removed along with the adenoid glands. That surgery is called adenoidectomy and...

Diseases & Conditions
Tonsillitis
Tonsillitis is inflammation (swelling) of the tonsils.

Diseases & Conditions
Tracheitis
Tracheitis is a bacterial infection of the windpipe (trachea).

Diseases & Conditions
Tracheomalacia - acquired
Acquired tracheomalacia is a weakness and floppiness of the walls of the windpipe (trachea, or airway). It develops after birth. Congenital tracheomalacia is a related topic. Congenital tracheomalacia

Diseases & Conditions
Tracheomalacia - congenital
Congenital tracheomalacia is weakness and floppiness of the walls of the windpipe (trachea). Congenital means it is present at birth. Acquired tracheomalacia is a related topic. Acquired tracheomalacia

Surgery
Tracheostomy
A tracheostomy is a surgical procedure to create an opening through the neck into the trachea (windpipe). A tube is most often placed through this opening to provide an airway and to remove secretions from...

Self-Care Instructions
Tracheostomy care
Respiratory failure - tracheostomy care; Ventilator - tracheostomy care; Respiratory insufficiency - tracheostomy care

Self-Care Instructions
Tracheostomy tube - eating
Trach - eating

Self-Care Instructions
Tracheostomy tube - speaking
Trach - speaking

Surgery
Turbinate surgery
The inside walls of the nose have 3 pairs of long thin bones covered with a layer of tissue that can expand. These bones are called nasal turbinates. Allergies or other nasal problems can cause the turbinates...

Tests
Tympanometry
Tympanometry is a test used to detect problems in the middle ear.

U

Tests
Upper airway biopsy
Upper airway biopsy is surgery to remove a small piece of tissue from the nose, mouth, and throat area. The tissue will be examined under the microscope by a pathologist.

Diseases & Conditions
Uvulitis
Uvulitis is inflammation of the uvula. This is the small tongue-shaped tissue that hangs from the top of the back part of the mouth. Uvulitis is usually associated with inflammation of other mouth parts...

Surgery
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP)
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is surgery to open the upper airways by taking out extra tissue in the throat. It may be done to treat mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or severe snoring. (OSA)

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Diseases & Conditions
Vertigo-associated disorders
Vertigo is a sensation of motion or spinning that is often described as dizziness. Vertigo Vertigo is not the same as being lightheaded. People with vertigo feel as though they are actually spinning or...

Special Topics
Vitamin C and colds