Obstetrics & Gynecology

Also called OB/GYN, obstetrics and gynecology are actually two distinct medical specialties. Obstetrics is the science of delivering babies and gynecology deals with the health of a woman’s reproductive system. 

Learn more about obstetrics and gynecology at the Mount Sinai Health System

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Tests
17-OH progesterone
17-OH progesterone is a blood test that measures the amount of 17-OH progesterone. This is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands and sex glands. adrenal glands

A

Diseases & Conditions
ABO incompatibility
A, B, AB, and O are the 4 major blood types. The types are based on small substances (molecules) on the surface of the blood cells. When people who have one blood type receive blood from someone with a...

Diseases & Conditions
Abnormal uterine bleeding
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is bleeding from the uterus that is longer than usual or that occurs at an irregular time. Bleeding may be heavier or lighter than usual and occur often or randomly. AUB...

Surgery
Abortion - medical
Medical abortion is the use of medicine to end an undesired pregnancy. The medicine helps remove the fetus and placenta from the mother's womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic...

Surgery
Abortion - surgical
Surgical abortion is a procedure that ends an undesired pregnancy by removing the fetus and placenta from the mother's womb (uterus). Surgical abortion is not the same as miscarriage. Miscarriage is when...

Discharge Instructions
Abortion - surgical - aftercare
Termination - aftercare

Diseases & Conditions
Absent menstrual periods - primary
Absence of a woman's monthly menstrual period is called amenorrhea. Primary amenorrhea is when a girl has not yet started her monthly periods, and she: Has gone through other normal changes that occur during...

Diseases & Conditions
Absent menstrual periods - secondary
Absence of a woman's monthly menstrual period is called amenorrhea. Secondary amenorrhea is when a woman who has been having normal menstrual cycles stops getting her periods for 6 months or longer.

Self-Care Instructions
Aches and pains during pregnancy

Diseases & Conditions
Actinomycosis
Actinomycosis is a long-term (chronic) bacterial infection that commonly affects the face and neck.

Diseases & Conditions
Adenomyosis
Adenomyosis is a thickening of the walls of the uterus. It occurs when endometrial tissue grows into the outer muscular walls of the uterus. Endometrial tissue forms the lining of the uterus.

Diseases & Conditions
Adhesion
Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue that form between two surfaces inside the body and cause them to stick together.

Self-Care Instructions
After a C-section - in the hospital
Cesarean section - in the hospital; Postpartum - cesarean

Self-Care Instructions
After vaginal delivery - in the hospital
After vaginal birth; Pregnancy - after vaginal delivery; Postpartum care - after vaginal delivery

Special Topics
Aging changes in the female reproductive system
Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly from changing hormone levels. One clear sign of aging occurs when your menstrual periods stop permanently. This is known as menopause. hormone...

Special Topics
Alcohol and pregnancy
Pregnant women are strongly urged not to drink alcohol during pregnancy. Drinking alcohol while pregnant has been shown to cause harm to a baby as it develops in the womb. Alcohol used during pregnancy...

Tests
Alpha fetoprotein
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the liver and yolk sac of a developing baby during pregnancy. AFP levels go down soon after birth. It is likely that AFP has no normal function in adults...

Self-Care Instructions
Am I in labor?
False labor; Braxton Hicks contractions; Prodromal labor; Latent labor; Pregnancy - labor

Tests
Amniocentesis
Amniocentesis is a test that can be done during pregnancy to look for certain problems in the developing baby. These problems include: Birth defectsGenetic problemsInfectionLung development Birth defects...

Special Topics
Amniotic fluid
Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy. It is contained in the amniotic sac.

Surgery
Anterior vaginal wall repair
Anterior vaginal wall repair is a surgical procedure. This surgery tightens the front (anterior) wall of the vagina. anterior

Surgery
Artificial urinary sphincter
Sphincters are muscles that allow your body to hold in urine. An inflatable artificial (man-made) sphincter is a medical device. This device keeps urine from leaking. It is used when your urinary sphincter...

Diseases & Conditions
Asherman syndrome
Asherman syndrome is the formation of scar tissue in the uterine cavity. The problem most often develops after uterine surgery.

Special Topics
Assisted delivery with forceps
Pregnancy - forceps; Labor - forceps

Diseases & Conditions
Asymptomatic bacteriuria
Most of the time, your urine is sterile. This means there is no bacteria growing. On the other hand, if you have symptoms of a bladder or kidney infection, bacteria will be present and growing in your urine...

B

Special Topics
BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing
Breast cancer - BRCA1 and BRCA2; Ovarian cancer - BRCA1 and BRCA2

Self-Care Instructions
Baby supplies you need
Newborn care - baby supplies

Self-Care Instructions
Bacterial vaginosis - aftercare
Nonspecific vaginitis - aftercare; BV

Diseases & Conditions
Bartholin cyst or abscess
Bartholin abscess is the buildup of pus that forms a lump (swelling) in one of the Bartholin glands. These glands are found on each side of the vaginal opening. swelling

Self-Care Instructions
Bed rest during pregnancy

Self-Care Instructions
Benefits of breastfeeding
Nursing your baby; Lactation; Deciding to breastfeed

Special Topics
Birth control - slow release methods
Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. These hormones are normally made in a woman's ovaries. These hormones are called estrogen and progestin. Both of these hormones prevent...

Special Topics
Birth control and family planning
Your choice of a birth control method depends on a number of factors, including your health, how often you have sex, and whether or not you want children.

In-depth Report
Birth control options for women
An in-depth report on the birth control options available to women.

Special Topics
Birth control pills
Birth control pills (BCPs) contain man-made forms of 2 hormones called estrogen and progestin. These hormones are made naturally in a woman's ovaries. BCPs can contain both of these hormones, or have progestin...

Self-Care Instructions
Birth control pills - combination
The pill - combination; Oral contraceptives - combination; OCP - combination; Contraception - combination; BCP - combination

Self-Care Instructions
Birth control pills - progestin only
Mini-pill; The pill - progestin; Oral contraceptives - progestin; OCP - progestin; Contraception - progestin; BCP - progestin

Tests
Blood typing
Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. Blood typing is done so you can safely donate your blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also done to see if you have a substance called...

Tests
Bone mineral density test
A bone mineral density (BMD) test measures how much calcium and other types of minerals are in an area of your bone. This test helps your health care provider detect osteoporosis and predict your risk for...

Diseases & Conditions
Breast cancer
Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast. There are two main types of breast cancer: Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes (ducts) that carry milk from the breast to the nipple. Most...

In-depth Report
Breast cancer
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

Special Topics
Breast cancer screening
Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening

Diseases & Conditions
Breast infection
A breast infection is an infection in the tissue of the breast.

Symptoms
Breast lump
A breast lump is swelling, growth, or mass in the breast. Breast lumps in both men and women raise concern for breast cancer, even though most lumps are not cancer. breast cancer

Self-Care Instructions
Breast milk - pumping and storing
Milk - human; Human milk; Milk - breast; Breast pump information; Breastfeeding - pump

Symptoms
Breast pain
Breast pain is any discomfort or pain in the breast.

Special Topics
Breast self-exam
A breast self-exam is a check-up a woman does at home to look for changes or problems in the breast tissue. Many women feel that doing this is important to their health. However, experts do not agree about...

Self-Care Instructions
Breast skin and nipple changes
Inverted nipple; Nipple discharge; Breast feeding - nipple changes; Breastfeeding - nipple changes

Tests
Breast ultrasound
Breast ultrasound is a test that uses sound waves to examine the breasts.

Special Topics
Breastfeeding - resources

Self-Care Instructions
Breastfeeding - self-care
Nursing mothers - self-care; Breast feeding - self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Breastfeeding - skin and nipple changes
Inverted nipple; Nipple discharge; Breast feeding - nipple changes; Breastfeeding - nipple changes

Special Topics
Breech birth
Pregnancy - breech; Delivery - breech

C

Surgery
C-section
A C-section is the delivery of a baby by making an opening in the mother's lower belly area. It is also called a cesarean delivery.

Tests
CA-125 blood test
The CA-125 blood test measures the level of the protein CA-125 in the blood.

Special Topics
Calcium and bones

Special Topics
Calcium supplements
WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth and bones. Getting enough calcium over your lifetime can help prevent osteoporosis...

Self-Care Instructions
Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones
Osteoporosis - calcium; Osteoporosis - low bone density

Special Topics
Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women
Radiotherapy - fertility; Radiation - fertility; Chemotherapy - fertility; Sexual dysfunction - cancer treatment

Tests
Catecholamine blood test
This test measures the levels of catecholamines in the blood. Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. The three catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine, and dopamine...

Special Topics
Certified nurse-midwife

Diseases & Conditions
Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina.

In-depth Report
Cervical cancer
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cervical cancer.

Self-Care Instructions
Cervical cancer - screening and prevention
Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine

Diseases & Conditions
Cervical dysplasia
Cervical dysplasia refers to abnormal changes in the cells on the surface of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina. cervix The changes are not...

Diseases & Conditions
Cervical polyps
Cervical polyps are fingerlike growths on the lower part of the uterus that connects with the vagina (cervix). cervix

Diseases & Conditions
Cervicitis
Cervicitis is swelling or inflamed tissue of the end of the uterus (cervix). cervix

Special Topics
Cervix

Surgery
Cervix cryosurgery
Cervix cryosurgery is a procedure to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue in the cervix. cervix

Diseases & Conditions
Chancroid
Chancroid is a bacterial infection that is spread through sexual contact.

Diseases & Conditions
Chlamydia
Chlamydia is an infection. It is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It is most often spread through sexual contact. Chlamydia trachomatis

Diseases & Conditions
Chlamydia infections in women
Chlamydia is an infection that can be passed from one person to another through sexual contact. This type of infection is known as sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Special Topics
Choosing the right health care provider for pregnancy and childbirth
Prenatal care - health care provider; Pregnancy care - health care provider

Diseases & Conditions
Choriocarcinoma
Choriocarcinoma is a fast-growing cancer that occurs in a woman's uterus (womb). The abnormal cells start in the tissue that would normally become the placenta. This is the organ that develops during pregnancy...

Tests
Chorionic villus sampling
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test some pregnant women have to screen their baby for genetic problems.

Tests
Colposcopy - directed biopsy
A colposcopy is a special way of looking at the cervix. It uses a light and a low-powered microscope to make the cervix appear much larger. This helps your health care provider find and then biopsy abnormal...

Self-Care Instructions
Common symptoms during pregnancy
Prenatal care - common symptoms

Special Topics
Condoms - male
A condom is a thin cover worn on the penis during intercourse. Using a condom will help prevent: Female partners from becoming pregnantGetting an infection spread through sexual contact, or from giving...

Tests
Cone biopsy
A cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove a sample of abnormal tissue from the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina. Abnormal changes in the...

Tests
Cord blood testing
Cord blood refers to a sample of blood collected from the umbilical cord when a baby is born. The umbilical cord is the cord connecting the baby to the mother's womb. Cord blood testing can be done to evaluate...

Tests
Culdocentesis
Culdocentesis is a procedure that checks for abnormal fluid in the space just behind the vagina. This area is called the cul-de-sac. vagina

Diseases & Conditions
Cystitis - acute
Acute cystitis is an infection of the bladder or lower urinary tract. Acute means that the infection begins suddenly.

Diseases & Conditions
Cystitis - noninfectious
Cystitis is a problem in which pain, pressure, or burning in the bladder is present. Most often, this problem is caused by germs such as bacteria. Cystitis may also be present when there is no infection...

Tests
Cystometric study
Cystometric study measures the amount of fluid in the bladder when you first feel the need to urinate, when you are able to sense fullness, and when your bladder is completely full.

D

Surgery
D and C
D and C (dilation and curettage) is a procedure to scrape and collect the tissue (endometrium) from inside the uterus. Dilation (D) is a widening of the cervix to allow instruments into the uterus. Curettage...

Special Topics
Deciding about an IUD
Contraception - IUD; Birth control - IUD; Intrauterine - deciding; Mirena - deciding; ParaGard - deciding

Special Topics
Deciding about hormone therapy
HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

Special Topics
Delivery presentations
Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation

Diseases & Conditions
Developmental disorders of the female genital tract
Developmental disorders of the female reproductive tract are problems in the reproductive organs of a baby girl. They occur while she is growing in her mother's womb. Female reproductive organs include...

Diseases & Conditions
Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale)
Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) is a sexually transmitted disease that is rarely seen in the United States.

E

Self-Care Instructions
Eating right during pregnancy
Prenatal care - eating right

Diseases & Conditions
Eclampsia
Eclampsia is the new onset of seizures or coma in a pregnant woman with preeclampsia. These seizures are not related to an existing brain condition. seizures

Diseases & Conditions
Ectopic pregnancy
An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that occurs outside the womb (uterus). It may be fatal to the mother.

Special Topics
Emergency contraception
Emergency contraception is a birth control method to prevent pregnancy in women. It can be used: birth control method After a sexual assault or rapeWhen a condom breaks or a diaphragm slips out of placeWhen...

Special Topics
Ending pregnancy with medicines
Abortion pill

Tests
Endocervical Gram stain
Endocervical Gram stain is a method to detect bacteria on tissue from the cervix. This is done using a special series of stains.

Tests
Endocervical culture
Endocervical culture is a laboratory test that helps identify infection in the female genital tract.

Surgery
Endometrial ablation
Endometrial ablation is a surgery or procedure done to disrupt the lining of the uterus in order to minimize heavy or prolonged menstrual flow. This lining is called the endometrium. The surgery may be...

Tests
Endometrial biopsy
Endometrial biopsy is the removal of a small piece of tissue from the lining of the uterus (endometrium) for examination. biopsy

Diseases & Conditions
Endometrial polyps
Endometrium is the lining of the inside of the womb (uterus). Overgrowth of this lining can create polyps. Polyps are fingerlike growths that attach to the wall of the uterus. They can be as small as a...

Diseases & Conditions
Endometriosis
Endometriosis occurs when cells from the lining of your womb (uterus) grow in other areas of your body. This can cause pain, heavy bleeding, bleeding between periods, and problems getting pregnant (infertility...

In-depth Report
Endometriosis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of endometriosis.

Diseases & Conditions
Endometritis
Endometritis is an inflammation or irritation of the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). It is not the same as endometriosis. endometriosis

Special Topics
Epidural block - pregnancy
Delivery - epidural; Labor - epidural

Special Topics
Episiotomy
Labor - episiotomy; Vaginal delivery - episiotomy

Self-Care Instructions
Episiotomy - aftercare
Perineal laceration - aftercare; Vaginal birth perineal tear - aftercare; Postpartum care - episiotomy - aftercare; Labor - episiotomy aftercare; Vaginal delivery - episiotomy aftercare

Tests
Estradiol blood test
An estradiol test measures the amount of a hormone called estradiol in the blood. Estradiol is one of the main types of estrogens.

Diseases & Conditions
Excessive or unwanted hair in women
Most of the time, women have fine hair above their lips and on their chin, chest, abdomen, or back. The growth of coarse dark hair in these areas (more typical of male-pattern hair growth) is called hirsutism...

Self-Care Instructions
Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones
Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise

F

Tests
FTA-ABS blood test
The FTA-ABS test is used to detect antibodies to the bacteria Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis. Treponema pallidum, syphilis

Special Topics
Female condoms
The female condom is a device used for birth control. Like a male condom, it creates a barrier to prevent the sperm from getting to the egg. birth control

Diseases & Conditions
Femoral nerve dysfunction
Femoral nerve dysfunction is a loss of movement or sensation in parts of the legs due to damage to the femoral nerve.

Special Topics
Fetal development
Learn how your baby is conceived and how your baby develops inside the mother's womb.

Tests
Fetal echocardiography
Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves (ultrasound) to evaluate the baby's heart for problems before birth. ultrasound

Tests
Fetal scalp pH testing
Fetal scalp pH testing is a procedure performed when a woman is in active labor to determine if the baby is getting enough oxygen.

Tests
Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution blood test
The fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution test is used to measure the number of the unborn baby's red blood cells in a pregnant woman's blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Fibroadenoma of the breast
Fibroadenoma of the breast is a benign tumor. Benign tumor means it is not a cancer.

Diseases & Conditions
Fibrocystic breasts
Fibrocystic breasts are painful, lumpy breasts. Formerly called fibrocystic breast disease, this common condition is, in fact, not a disease. Many women experience these normal breast changes, usually around...

Tests
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test
The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, located on the underside of the brain.

Diseases & Conditions
Fractured clavicle in the newborn
A fractured clavicle in the newborn is a broken collar bone in a baby that was just delivered.

G

Diseases & Conditions
Genital herpes
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). This article focuses on HSV type 2 infection.

Self-Care Instructions
Genital herpes - self-care
Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care

Symptoms
Genital sores - female
Sores or lesions on the female genitalia or in the vagina may occur for many reasons.

Diseases & Conditions
Genital warts
Genital warts are soft growths on the skin and mucous membranes of the genitals. They may be found on the penis, vulva, urethra, vagina, cervix, and around and in the anus. vulva Genital warts are spread...

Diseases & Conditions
Gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy.

Self-Care Instructions
Gestational diabetes - self-care
Pregnancy - gestational diabetes; Prenatal care - gestational diabetes

Nutrition
Gestational diabetes diet
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that starts during pregnancy. Eating a balanced, healthy diet can help you manage gestational diabetes. The diet recommendations that follow are for women...

Diseases & Conditions
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of pregnancy-related conditions that develop inside a woman's uterus (womb). The abnormal cells start in the tissue that would normally become the placenta...

Tests
Glucose screening tests during pregnancy
A glucose screening test is a routine test during pregnancy that checks a pregnant woman's blood glucose (sugar) level. Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (diabetes) that starts or is found during...

Discharge Instructions
Going home after a C-section
Cesarean - going home

Diseases & Conditions
Gonococcal arthritis
Gonococcal arthritis is inflammation of a joint due to a gonorrhea infection. Gonococcal arthritis is a type of septic arthritis. This is inflammation of a joint due to a bacterial or fungal infection....

Diseases & Conditions
Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Self-Care Instructions
Group B streptococcus - pregnancy
GBS - pregnancy

Diseases & Conditions
Gumma
A gumma is a soft, tumor-like growth of the tissues (granuloma) that occurs in people with syphilis.

H

Tests
HCG blood test - qualitative
A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin in your blood. HCG is a hormone produced in the body during pregnancy. human chorionic gonadotropin Other HCG...

Tests
HCG blood test - quantitative
A quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test measures the specific level of HCG in the blood. HCG is a hormone produced in the body during pregnancy. Other HCG tests include: HCG urine testHCG...

Tests
HCG in urine
This type of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test measures the specific level of HCG in the urine. HCG is a hormone produced in the body during pregnancy. Other HCG tests include: HCG in blood serum...

Diseases & Conditions
HELLP syndrome
HELLP syndrome is a group of symptoms that occur in pregnant women who have: H: hemolysis (the breakdown of red blood cells)EL: elevated liver enzymesLP: low platelet count H: hemolysis (the breakdown of...

Diseases & Conditions
HIV/AIDS in pregnant women and infants
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the virus attacks and weakens the immune system. As the immune system weakens, the person is at...

Special Topics
HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv. html. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Tests
HPV DNA test
The HPV DNA test is used to check for high-risk HPV infection in women. HPV infection around the genitals is common. It can be spread during sex. Some types of HPV can cause cervical cancer and other cancers...

Special Topics
HPV vaccine
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine protects against infection by certain strains of HPV. HPV can cause cervical cancer and genital warts. vaccine cervical cancer genital warts HPV has also been linked...

Special Topics
Health screenings for women age 65 and older
You should visit your health care provider from time to time, even if you are healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a...

Special Topics
Health screenings for women ages 18 to 39
You should visit your health care provider from time to time, even if you are healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a...

Special Topics
Health screenings for women ages 40 to 64
You should visit your health care provider from time to time, even if you are healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a...

In-depth Report
Herpes simplex
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of herpes simplex.

Diseases & Conditions
Hydatidiform mole
Hydatidiform mole (HM) is a rare mass or growth that forms inside the womb (uterus) at the beginning of a pregnancy. It is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). gestational trophoblastic disease...

Special Topics
Hydramnios
Amniotic fluid disorder; Polyhydramnios; Pregnancy complications - hydramnios

Diseases & Conditions
Hyperemesis gravidarum
Hyperemesis gravidarum is extreme, persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. It can lead to dehydration, weight loss, and electrolyte imbalances. Morning sickness is mild nausea and vomiting that...

Diseases & Conditions
Hypogonadism
Hypogonadism occurs when the body's sex glands produce little or no hormones. In men, these glands (gonads) are the testes. In women, these glands are the ovaries.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
Hypogonadism is a condition in which the male testes or the female ovaries produce little or no sex hormones. Hypogonadism testes Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a form of hypogonadism that is due...

Surgery
Hysterectomy
Hysterectomy is surgery to remove a woman's womb (uterus). The uterus is a hollow muscular organ that nourishes the developing baby during pregnancy.

Discharge Instructions
Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge
Abdominal hysterectomy - discharge; Supracervical hysterectomy - discharge; Radical hysterectomy - discharge; Removal of the uterus - discharge

Discharge Instructions
Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - discharge
Supracervical hysterectomy - discharge; Removal of the uterus - discharge; Laparoscopic hysterectomy - discharge; Total laparoscopic hysterectomy - discharge; TLH - discharge; Laparoscopic supracervical...

Discharge Instructions
Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge
Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge

Tests
Hysterosalpingography
Hysterosalpingography is a special x-ray using dye to look at the womb (uterus) and fallopian tubes.

Surgery
Hysteroscopy
Hysteroscopy is a procedure to look at the inside of the womb (uterus). Your health care provider can look at the: Opening to the womb (cervix)Inside of the wombOpenings of the fallopian tubes Opening to...

I

Special Topics
Imperforate hymen

Surgery
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a woman's egg and a man's sperm in a laboratory dish. In vitro means outside the body. Fertilization means the sperm has attached to and entered the egg.

Special Topics
Inducing labor
Labor induction; Pregnancy - inducing labor; Prostaglandin - inducing labor; Oxytocin - inducing labor

Diseases & Conditions
Infertility
Infertility means you cannot get pregnant (conceive). There are 2 types of infertility: Primary infertility refers to couples who have not become pregnant after at least 1 year having sex without using...

Special Topics
Infertility - resources

In-depth Report
Infertility in women
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of female infertility.

Special Topics
Insufficient cervix
Incompetent cervix; Weak cervix; Pregnancy - insufficient cervix; Premature labor - insufficient cervix; Preterm labor - insufficient cervix

Diseases & Conditions
Intraductal papilloma
Intraductal papilloma is a small, noncancerous (benign) tumor that grows in a milk duct of the breast. tumor

Special Topics
Intrauterine
Intrauterine means "inside the uterus."

Surgery
Intrauterine devices (IUD)
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic T-shaped device used for birth control. It is inserted into the uterus where it stays to prevent pregnancy. birth control

Diseases & Conditions
Intrauterine growth restriction
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to the poor growth of a baby while in the mother's womb during pregnancy.

K

Self-Care Instructions
Kegel exercises - self-care
Pelvic muscle strengthening exercises; Pelvic floor exercises

L

Tests
LH response to GnRH blood test
LH response to GnRH is a blood test to help determine if your pituitary gland can correctly respond to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). LH stands for luteinizing hormone.

Special Topics
Large for gestational age (LGA)
Large for gestational age means that a fetus or infant is larger or more developed than normal for the baby's gestational age. Gestational age is the age of a fetus or baby that starts on the first day...

Self-Care Instructions
Living with endometriosis
Pelvic pain - living with endometriosis; Endometrial implant - living with endometriosis; Endometrioma - living with endometriosis

Self-Care Instructions
Living with uterine fibroids
Leiomyoma - living with fibroids; Fibromyoma - living with fibroids; Myoma - living with fibroids; Vaginal bleeding - living with fibroids; Uterine bleeding - living with fibroids; Pelvic pain - living...

Self-Care Instructions
Losing weight after pregnancy

Tests
Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test
The LH blood test measures the amount of luteinizing hormone (LH) in blood. LH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, located on the underside of the brain.

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphogranuloma venereum
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection.

M

Tests
Mammogram
A mammogram is an x-ray picture of the breasts. It is used to find breast tumors and cancer. x-ray

Special Topics
Mammogram - calcifications
Calcifications are tiny deposits of calcium in your breast tissue. They are often seen on a mammogram. mammogram

Self-Care Instructions
Managing menopause at home
Perimenopause - self-care; Hormone replacement therapy - self-care; HRT- self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Managing pain during labor
Pregnancy - pain during labor; Birth - managing pain

Self-Care Instructions
Managing your weight gain during pregnancy
Prenatal care - managing your weight

Self-Care Instructions
Medicines for osteoporosis
Alendronate (Fosamax); Ibandronate (Boniva); Risedronate (Actonel); Zoledronic acid (Reclast); Raloxifene (Evista); Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Romosozumab (Evenity); Low bone density - medicines...

Diseases & Conditions
Menopause
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when her periods (menstruation) stop. Most often, it is a natural, normal body change that most often occurs between ages 45 to 55. After menopause, a woman can no...

In-depth Report
Menopause
An in-depth report on the treatment of menopause-related symptoms.

In-depth Report
Menstrual disorders
An in-depth report on the causes, treatment, and prevention of menstrual disorders.

Diseases & Conditions
Miscarriage
A miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy. Pregnancy losses after the 20th week are called stillbirths. Miscarriage is a naturally occurring event, unlike medical...

Diseases & Conditions
Miscarriage - threatened
A threatened miscarriage is a condition that indicates the potential for a miscarriage or early pregnancy loss. It might take place before the 20th week of pregnancy.

Diseases & Conditions
Mittelschmerz
Mittelschmerz is one-sided, lower abdominal pain that affects some women. It occurs at or around the time when an egg is released from the ovaries (ovulation).

Special Topics
Monitoring your baby before labor
Prenatal care - monitoring; Pregnancy care - monitoring; Non-stress test - monitoring; NST- monitoring; Contraction stress test - monitoring; CST- monitoring; Biophysical profile - monitoring; BPP - monitoring

Symptoms
Morning sickness
Morning sickness is nausea and vomiting that can occur at any time of the day during pregnancy. nausea and vomiting

Self-Care Instructions
Morning sickness
Pregnancy - morning sickness; Prenatal care - morning sickness

N

Diseases & Conditions
Nabothian cyst
A nabothian cyst is a lump filled with mucus on the surface of the cervix or cervical canal. The cervix is located at the lower end of the womb (uterus) at the top of the vagina. It is about 1 inch (2....

Diseases & Conditions
Nipple discharge
Nipple discharge is any fluid that comes out of the nipple area in your breast.

Tests
Nuchal translucency test
The nuchal translucency test measures the nuchal fold thickness. This is an area of tissue at the back of an unborn baby's neck. Measuring this thickness helps assess the risk for Down syndrome and other...

O

In-depth Report
Osteoporosis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of osteoporosis.

Diseases & Conditions
Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer is cancer that starts in the ovaries. The ovaries are the female reproductive organs that produce eggs.

In-depth Report
Ovarian cancer
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ovarian cancer.

Diseases & Conditions
Ovarian cysts
An ovarian cyst is a sac filled with fluid that forms on or inside an ovary. This article is about cysts that form during your monthly menstrual cycle, called functional cysts. Functional cysts are not...

Diseases & Conditions
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a problem that is sometimes seen in women who take fertility medicines that stimulate egg production.

Diseases & Conditions
Ovarian overproduction of androgens
Ovarian overproduction of androgens is a condition in which the ovaries make too much testosterone. This leads to the development of male characteristics in a woman. Androgens from other parts of the body...

Nutrition
Overcoming breastfeeding problems
Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest option for both mom and baby. They recommend that babies feed only on breast milk for the first 6 months, and then continue to have breast milk...

Tests
Ovulation home test
An ovulation home test is used by women. It helps determine the time in the menstrual cycle when getting pregnant is most likely. The test detects a rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) in the urine. A rise...

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Symptoms
Painful menstrual periods
Painful menstrual periods are periods in which a woman has crampy lower abdominal pain, which can be sharp or aching and come and go. Back pain and/or leg pain may also be present. Some pain during your...

Tests
Pap test
The Pap test checks for cervical cancer. Cells scraped from the opening of the cervix are examined under a microscope. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina...

Tests
Pelvic CT scan
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the pelvis is an imaging method that uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the area between the hip bones. This part of the body is called the pelvic area...

Special Topics
Pelvic floor muscle training exercises
Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor.

Diseases & Conditions
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of a woman's womb (uterus), ovaries, or fallopian tubes.

Self-Care Instructions
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) - aftercare
PID - aftercare; Oophoritis - aftercare; Salpingitis - aftercare; Salpingo - oophoritis - aftercare; Salpingo - peritonitis - aftercare; STD - PID aftercare; Sexually transmitted disease - PID aftercare...

Surgery
Pelvic laparoscopy
Pelvic laparoscopy is surgery to examine pelvic organs. It uses a viewing tool called a laparoscope. The surgery is also used to treat certain diseases of the pelvic organs.

Tests
Pelvic ultrasound - abdominal
A pelvic (transabdominal) ultrasound is an imaging test. It is used to examine organs in the pelvis.

Tests
Pelvis MRI scan
A pelvis MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan is an imaging test that uses a machine with powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the area between the hip bones. This part of the body is...

Special Topics
Placenta abruptio
Premature placental separation; Placental separation; Placental abruption; Vaginal bleeding - abruption; Pregnancy - abruption

Diseases & Conditions
Placenta abruption - definition
The placenta is the organ that supplies food and oxygen to the baby during pregnancy. Placental abruption occurs when the placenta detaches from the wall of the womb (uterus) before delivery. The most common...

Diseases & Conditions
Placenta previa
Placenta previa is a problem of pregnancy in which the placenta grows in the lowest part of the womb (uterus) and covers all or part of the opening to the cervix. cervix The placenta grows during pregnancy...

Diseases & Conditions
Placental insufficiency
The placenta is the link between you and your baby. When the placenta does not work as well as it should, your baby can get less oxygen and nutrients from you. As a result, your baby may: Not grow wellShow...

Diseases & Conditions
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a woman has increased levels of male hormones (androgens). Many problems occur as a result of this increase of hormones, including: Menstrual irregularitiesInfertilitySkin...

Symptoms
Polyhydramnios
Polyhydramnios occurs when too much amniotic fluid builds up during pregnancy. It is also called amniotic fluid disorder, or hydramnios.

Self-Care Instructions
Positioning your baby for breastfeeding
Breastfeeding positions; Bonding with your baby

Diseases & Conditions
Postpartum depression
Postpartum depression is moderate to severe depression in a woman after she has given birth. It may occur soon after delivery or up to a year later. Most of the time, it occurs within the first 3 months...

Self-Care Instructions
Pre-existing diabetes and pregnancy
Pregnancy - diabetes; Diabetes and pregnancy care; Pregnancy with diabetes

Diseases & Conditions
Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia is high blood pressure and signs of liver or kidney damage that occur in women after the 20th week of pregnancy. While rare, preeclampsia also may occur in a woman after delivering her baby...

Self-Care Instructions
Preeclampsia - self-care
Toxemia - self-care; PIH - self-care; Pregnancy-induced hypertension - self-care

Special Topics
Pregnancy - health risks
If you are trying to get pregnant, you should try to follow healthy habits. You should stick to these behaviors from the time you are trying to get pregnant all the way through your pregnancy. Do not smoke...

Special Topics
Pregnancy - identifying fertile days
Fertile days are the days a woman is most likely to get pregnant. Infertility is a related topic. Infertility

Diseases & Conditions
Pregnancy and herpes
Newborn infants can become infected with herpes virus during pregnancy, during labor or delivery, or after birth.

Special Topics
Pregnancy and the flu
During pregnancy, it is harder for a woman's immune system to fight infections. This makes a pregnant woman more likely to get the flu and other diseases. flu Pregnant women are more likely than nonpregnant...

Self-Care Instructions
Pregnancy and travel
Prenatal care - travel

Self-Care Instructions
Pregnancy and work
Prenatal care - work

Special Topics
Pregnancy care
Getting good care before, during, and after your pregnancy is very important. It can help your baby grow and develop and keep you both healthy. It is the best way to be sure your little one gets a head...

Tests
Pregnancy test
A pregnancy test measures a hormone in the body called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy. It appears in the blood and urine of pregnant women as early as 10...

Diseases & Conditions
Premature ovarian failure
Premature ovarian failure is reduced function of the ovaries (including decreased production of hormones).

Special Topics
Premature rupture of membranes
PROM; PPROM; Pregnancy complications - premature rupture

Symptoms
Premenstrual breast changes
Premenstrual swelling and tenderness of both breasts occurs during the second half of the menstrual cycle.

Diseases & Conditions
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a condition in which a woman has severe depression symptoms, irritability, and tension before menstruation. The symptoms of PMDD are more severe than those seen...

Diseases & Conditions
Premenstrual syndrome
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to a wide range of symptoms. The symptoms start during the second half of the menstrual cycle (14 or more days after the first day of your last menstrual period). These...

In-depth Report
Premenstrual syndrome
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Self-Care Instructions
Premenstrual syndrome - self-care
PMS - self-care; Premenstrual dysphoric disorder - self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Prenatal care in your first trimester
Pregnancy care - first trimester

Self-Care Instructions
Prenatal care in your second trimester
Pregnancy care - second trimester

Self-Care Instructions
Prenatal care in your third trimester
Pregnancy third trimester

Self-Care Instructions
Preterm labor
Pregnancy complications - preterm

Self-Care Instructions
Problems sleeping during pregnancy
Prenatal care - sleeping; Pregnancy care - sleeping

Q

Tests
Quadruple screen test
The quadruple screen test is a blood test done during pregnancy to determine whether the baby is at risk for certain birth defects.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Questions to ask your doctor about getting pregnant
What to ask your doctor - pregnancy; What to ask your doctor - conception; Questions - infertility

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Questions to ask your doctor about hospital care after delivery
What to ask your doctor about hospital care for mom

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Questions to ask your doctor about labor and delivery
Questions - labor; Questions - delivery; What to ask your doctor - labor and delivery; Questions - how to prepare for delivery

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Questions to ask your doctor about post pregnancy care
What to ask your doctor about home care for mom; Pregnancy - what to ask your doctor about home care for mom

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Questions to ask your doctor about staying healthy during pregnancy
What to ask your doctor about staying healthy during pregnancy; Pregnancy - what to ask your doctor about staying healthy; Healthy pregnancy - what to ask your doctor

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Tests
RPR test
RPR (rapid plasma reagin) is a screening test for syphilis. It measures substances (proteins) called antibodies that are present in the blood of people who may have the disease. syphilis antibodies

Tests
Rectal culture
Rectal culture is a lab test to identify bacteria and other germs in the rectum that can cause gastrointestinal symptoms and disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Retroversion of the uterus
Retroversion of the uterus occurs when a woman's uterus (womb) tilts backward rather than forward. It is commonly called a "tipped uterus."

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Special Topics
Safe sex
Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from giving an infection to your partner.

Tests
Serotonin blood test
The serotonin test measures the level of serotonin in the blood.

Tests
Serum herpes simplex antibodies
Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies to the herpes simplex virus (HSV), including HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 most often causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital...

Tests
Serum progesterone
Serum progesterone is a test to measure the amount of progesterone in the blood. Progesterone is a hormone produced mainly in the ovaries. Progesterone plays a key role in pregnancy. It is produced after...

Special Topics
Sexual assault - prevention
Sexual assault is any type of sexual activity or contact that occurs without your consent. This includes rape (forced penetration) and unwanted sexual touching. Sexual assault is always the fault of the...

Special Topics
Sexual violence
Sexual violence is any sexual activity or contact that occurs without your consent. It may involve physical force or the threat of force. It may occur due to coercion or threats. If you have been the victim...

Diseases & Conditions
Sheehan syndrome
Sheehan syndrome is a condition that can occur in a woman who bleeds severely during childbirth. Sheehan syndrome is a type of hypopituitarism. hypopituitarism

Self-Care Instructions
Skin and hair changes during pregnancy
Dermatosis of pregnancy; Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy; Melasma - pregnancy; Prenatal skin changes

Special Topics
Small for gestational age (SGA)
Small for gestational age means that a fetus or an infant is smaller or less developed than normal for the baby's sex and gestational age. Gestational age is the age of a fetus or baby that starts on the...

Self-Care Instructions
Steps to take before you get pregnant

Special Topics
Sterilization surgery - making a decision
A sterilization surgery is a procedure done to permanently prevent future pregnancies. The following information is about deciding to have a sterilization surgery.

Self-Care Instructions
Strategies for getting through labor
Pregnancy - getting through labor

Diseases & Conditions
Stress urinary incontinence
Stress urinary incontinence occurs when your bladder leaks urine during physical activity or exertion. It may happen when you cough, sneeze, lift something heavy, change positions, or exercise.

Diseases & Conditions
Subareolar abscess
Subareolar abscess is an abscess, or growth, on the areolar gland. The areolar gland is located in the breast under or below the areola (colored area around the nipple). abscess

Diseases & Conditions
Syphilis
Syphilis is a bacterial infection that is most often spread through sexual contact.

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Self-Care Instructions
Teenage pregnancy
Prenatal care - teenage pregnancy

Tests
Testosterone
A testosterone test measures the amount of the male hormone, testosterone, in the blood. Both men and women produce this hormone. The test described in this article measures the total amount of testosterone...

Self-Care Instructions
Timing of breastfeeding
Breastfeeding pattern; Nursing frequency

Special Topics
Tips for labor coaches
Pregnancy - labor coach; Delivery - labor coach

Diseases & Conditions
Toxic shock syndrome
Toxic shock syndrome is a serious disease that involves fever, shock, and problems with several body organs. shock

Diseases & Conditions
Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis is an infection due to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasma gondii

Tests
Transvaginal ultrasound
Transvaginal ultrasound is a test used to look at a woman's uterus, ovaries, tubes, cervix and pelvic area. cervix Transvaginal means across or through the vagina. The ultrasound probe will be placed inside...

Diseases & Conditions
Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomonas vaginalis.

Surgery
Tubal ligation
Tubal ligation is surgery to close a woman's fallopian tubes. (It is sometimes called "tying the tubes.") The fallopian tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. A woman who has this surgery can no longer...

Discharge Instructions
Tubal ligation - discharge
Sterilization surgery - female - discharge; Tubal sterilization - discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge; Contraception - tubal

Surgery
Tubal ligation reversal
Tubal ligation reversal is surgery done to allow a woman who has had her tubes tied (tubal ligation) to become pregnant again. The fallopian tubes are reconnected in this reversal surgery. A tubal ligation...

Diseases & Conditions
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is a rare condition that occurs only in identical twins while they are in the womb.

Special Topics
Types of hormone therapy
HRT- types; Estrogen replacement therapy - types; ERT- types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone types

U

Tests
Ultrasound pregnancy
A pregnancy ultrasound is an imaging test that uses sound waves to create a picture of how a baby is developing in the womb. It is also used to check the female pelvic organs during pregnancy.

Diseases & Conditions
Urge incontinence
Urge incontinence occurs when you have a strong, sudden need to urinate that is difficult to delay. The bladder then squeezes, or spasms, and you lose urine.

In-depth Report
Urinary incontinence
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of urinary incontinence.

Surgery
Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension
Retropubic suspension is surgery to help control stress incontinence. This is urine leakage that happens when you laugh, cough, sneeze, lift things, or exercise. The surgery helps close your urethra and...

Surgery
Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape
Placement of tension-free vaginal tape is surgery to help control stress urinary incontinence. This is urine leakage that happens when you laugh, cough, sneeze, lift things, or exercise. The surgery helps...

Surgery
Urinary incontinence - urethral sling procedures
Vaginal sling procedures are types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence. This is urine leakage that happens when you laugh, cough, sneeze, lift things, or exercise. The procedure helps...

Discharge Instructions
Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge
Open retropubic colposuspension - discharge; Laparoscopic retropubic colposuspension - discharge; Needle suspension - discharge; Burch colposuspension - discharge; VOS - discharge; Urethral sling - discharge...

Self-Care Instructions
Urinary tract infection in women - self-care
UTI - self-care; Cystitis - self-care; Bladder infection - self-care

Surgery
Uterine artery embolization
Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a procedure to treat fibroids without surgery. Uterine fibroids are noncancerous (benign) tumors that develop in the uterus (womb). fibroids During the procedure, the...

Discharge Instructions
Uterine artery embolization - discharge
Uterine fibroid embolization - discharge; UFE - discharge; UAE - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Uterine fibroids
Uterine fibroids are tumors that grow in a woman's womb (uterus). These growths are typically not cancerous (benign).

In-depth Report
Uterine fibroids and hysterectomy
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of uterine fibroids.

Diseases & Conditions
Uterine prolapse
Uterine prolapse occurs when the womb (uterus) drops down and presses into the vaginal area.

Diseases & Conditions
Uterine sarcoma
Uterine sarcoma is a rare cancer of the uterus (womb). It is not the same as endometrial cancer, a much more common cancer that starts in the lining of the uterus. Uterine sarcoma most often starts in the...

V

Tests
VDRL test
The VDRL test is a screening test for syphilis. It measures substances (proteins), called antibodies, which your body may produce if you have come in contact with the bacteria that cause syphilis. syphilis...

Special Topics
Vacuum-assisted delivery
Pregnancy - vacuum system; Labor - vacuum assisted

Special Topics
Vagina
The vagina is the female body part that connects the womb (uterus) and cervix to the outside of the body. cervix

Special Topics
Vaginal birth after C-section
VBAC; Pregnancy - VBAC; Labor - VBAC; Delivery - VBAC

Symptoms
Vaginal bleeding between periods
This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual periods. Such bleeding may be called "intermenstrual bleeding." Related topics include: Dysfunctional uterine bleedingHeavy...

Self-Care Instructions
Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy
Miscarriage - vaginal bleeding; Threatened abortion - vaginal bleeding

Self-Care Instructions
Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

Symptoms
Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy
Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy is any discharge of blood from the vagina during pregnancy.

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginal cancer
Vaginal cancer is cancer of the vagina, a female reproductive organ.

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginal cysts
A cyst is a closed pocket or pouch of tissue. It can be filled with air, fluid, pus, or other material. A vaginal cyst occurs on or under the lining of the vagina.

Discharge Instructions
Vaginal delivery - discharge
Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginal dryness
Vaginal dryness is present when the tissues of the vagina are not well-lubricated and healthy.

Symptoms
Vaginal itching and discharge - adult and adolescent
Vaginal discharge refers to secretions from the vagina. The discharge may be: vagina Thick, pasty, or thinClear, cloudy, bloody, white, yellow, or greenOdorless or have a bad odor Thick, pasty, or thin...

Symptoms
Vaginal itching and discharge - child
Itching, redness, and swelling of the skin of the vagina and the surrounding area (vulva) is a common problem in girls before the age of puberty. Vaginal discharge may also be present. The color, smell...

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginal or uterine bleeding
Vaginal bleeding normally occurs during a woman's menstrual cycle, when she gets her period. Every woman's period is different. Most women have cycles between 24 and 34 days apart. It usually lasts 4 to...

Special Topics
Vaginal sponge and spermicides
Spermicides and vaginal sponges are two over-the-counter birth control methods used during sex to prevent pregnancy. Over-the-counter means that they can be purchased without a prescription. birth control...

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginal yeast infection
Vaginal yeast infection is an infection of the vagina. It is most commonly due to the fungus Candida albicans. Candida albicans

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginismus
Vaginismus is a spasm of the muscles surrounding the vagina that occurs against your will. The spasms makes the vagina very narrow and can prevent sexual activity and medical exams. vagina

Self-Care Instructions
Vaginitis - self-care
Vulvovaginitis - self-care; Yeast infections - vaginitis

Tests
Vaginitis test - wet mount
The vaginitis wet mount test is a test to detect an infection of the vagina.

Special Topics
Virilization
Virilization is a condition in which a female develops characteristics associated with male hormones (androgens), or when a newborn has characteristics of male hormone exposure at birth.

Special Topics
Vulva
The vulva is made up of the female genital parts that are outside the body. It includes the "lips" or folds of skin (labia), clitoris, and the openings to the urethra and vagina. vagina

Diseases & Conditions
Vulvar cancer
Vulvar cancer is cancer that starts in the vulva. Vulvar cancer most often affects the labia, the folds of skin outside the vagina. In some cases, vulvar cancer starts on the clitoris or in glands on the...

Diseases & Conditions
Vulvodynia
Vulvodynia is a pain disorder of the vulva. This is the outside area of a woman's genitals. Vulvodynia causes severe pain, burning, and stinging of the vulva. vulva

Diseases & Conditions
Vulvovaginitis
Vulvovaginitis or vaginitis is swelling or infection of the vulva and vagina. Vaginitis is a common problem that can affect women and girls of all ages.

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Special Topics
What causes bone loss?
Osteoporosis - causes; Low bone density - causes

Self-Care Instructions
What to bring to your labor and delivery
Prenatal care - what to bring

Self-Care Instructions
What to include in your birth plan
Pregnancy - birth plan

Special Topics
When you pass your due date
Pregnancy complications - post-term; Pregnancy complications - overdue

Self-Care Instructions
When your baby is stillborn
Stillbirth; Fetal demise; Pregnancy - stillborn

Self-Care Instructions
Women and sexual problems
Frigidity - self-care; Sexual dysfunction - female - self-care

Special Topics
Women's health
Women's health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and conditions that affect a woman's physical and emotional well-being.

Y

Special Topics
Your baby in the birth canal
During labor and delivery, your baby must pass through your pelvic bones to reach the vaginal opening. The goal is to find the easiest way out. Certain body positions give the baby a smaller shape, which...

Z

Diseases & Conditions
Zika virus disease
Zika is a virus passed to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever, joint pain, rash, and red eyes (conjunctivitis).