Infectious Disease

Infectious diseases are caused by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and can easily spread from one person to another. Some infectious diseases are mild and require nothing more than bed rest while others can be life threatening and warrant hospitalization.

Learn more about infectious disease at Mount Sinai Health System 

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A

Tests
ACE blood test
The ACE test measures the level of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the blood. enzyme

Diseases & Conditions
Abscess
An abscess is a collection of pus in any part of the body. In most cases, the area around an abscess is swollen and inflamed.

Tests
Acid-fast stain
The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body substance is infected with the bacteria that causes tuberculosis (TB) and other illnesses. TB

Diseases & Conditions
Actinomycosis
Actinomycosis is a long-term (chronic) bacterial infection that commonly affects the face and neck.

Tests
Aerobic bacteria
Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that can grow and live when oxygen is present.

Diseases & Conditions
Agammaglobulinemia
Agammaglobulinemia is an inherited disorder in which a person has very low levels of protective immune system proteins called immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins are a type of antibody. Low levels of these...

Diseases & Conditions
Amebiasis
Amebiasis is an infection of the intestines. It is caused by the microscopic parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Entamoeba histolytica

Diseases & Conditions
Amebic liver abscess
Amebic liver abscess is a collection of pus in the liver in response to an intestinal parasite called Entamoeba histolytica. Entamoeba histolytica

Tests
Anaerobic bacteria
Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. They play a role in conditions such as appendicitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Anthrax
Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Infection in humans most often involves the skin, gastrointestinal tract, or lungs. Bacillus anthracis

Tests
Anthrax blood test
The anthrax blood test is used to measure substances (proteins) called antibodies, which are produced by the body in reaction to the bacteria that cause anthrax. antibodies anthrax

Tests
Anti-DNase B blood test
Anti-DNase B is a blood test to look for antibodies to a substance (protein) produced by group A streptococcus. This is the bacteria that cause strep throat. . strep throat When used together with the ASLO...

Special Topics
Antibiotic resistance
Antimicrobials - resistance; Antimicrobial agents - resistance; Drug-resistant bacteria

Diseases & Conditions
Ascariasis
Ascariasis is an infection with the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Ascaris lumbricoides

Diseases & Conditions
Aspergillosis
Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response due to the aspergillus fungus. allergic response

Tests
Aspergillosis precipitin
Aspergillosis precipitin is a laboratory test to detect antibodies in the blood resulting from exposure to the fungus aspergillus. aspergillus

Diseases & Conditions
Aspiration pneumonia
Pneumonia is a breathing condition in which there is inflammation (swelling) or an infection of the lungs or large airways. Aspiration pneumonia occurs when food, saliva, liquids, or vomit is breathed into...

Diseases & Conditions
Asymptomatic HIV infection
Asymptomatic HIV infection is the second stage of HIV/AIDS. During this stage, there are no symptoms of HIV infection. This stage is also called chronic HIV infection or clinical latency. HIV/AIDS During...

Diseases & Conditions
Asymptomatic bacteriuria
Most of the time, your urine is sterile. This means there is no bacteria growing. On the other hand, if you have symptoms of a bladder or kidney infection, bacteria will be present and growing in your urine...

Diseases & Conditions
Athlete's foot
Athlete's foot is an infection of the feet caused by fungus. The medical term is tinea pedis, or ringworm of the foot.

Diseases & Conditions
Atypical pneumonia
Pneumonia is inflamed or swollen lung tissue due to infection with a germ. With atypical pneumonia, the infection is caused by different bacteria than the more common ones that cause pneumonia. Atypical...

Diseases & Conditions
Avian influenza
Avian influenza A viruses cause the flu infection in birds. The viruses that cause the disease in birds can change (mutate) so it can spread to humans. flu

B

Tests
B and T cell screen
B and T cell screen is a laboratory test to determine the amount of T and B cells (lymphocytes) in the blood.

Special Topics
Babies and shots
Immunizations (vaccinations) are important to keep your child healthy. This article discusses how to ease the pain of shots for babies.

Tests
Bile culture
Bile culture is a laboratory test to detect disease-causing germs (bacteria, viruses, or fungi) in the biliary system.

Diseases & Conditions
Blastomycosis
Blastomycosis is an infection caused by breathing in the Blastomyces dermatitidis fungus. The fungus is found in decaying wood and soil. Blastomyces dermatitidis

Tests
Blood culture
A blood culture is a laboratory test to check for bacteria or other germs in a blood sample.

Special Topics
Bloodborne pathogens
Bloodborne infections

Tests
Bone marrow culture
Bone marrow culture is an examination of the soft, fatty tissue found inside certain bones. The bone marrow tissue produces blood cells. This test is done to look for an infection inside the bone marrow...

Diseases & Conditions
Botulism
Botulism is a rare but serious illness caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. The bacteria may enter the body through wounds, or by eating them from improperly canned or preserved food. Clostridium botulinum

Diseases & Conditions
Brain abscess
A brain abscess is a collection of pus, immune cells, and other material in the brain, caused by a bacterial or fungal infection.

Tests
Bronchoscopic culture
Bronchoscopic culture is a laboratory exam to check a piece of tissue or fluid from the lungs for infection-causing germs.

Diseases & Conditions
Brucellosis
Brucellosis is a bacterial infection that occurs from contact with animals carrying brucella bacteria.

C

Tests
CMV blood test
The CMV blood test determines the presence of substances (proteins) called antibodies to a virus called cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the blood. antibodies

Diseases & Conditions
CMV pneumonia
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can occur in people who have a suppressed immune system.

Diseases & Conditions
CMV retinitis
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a viral infection of the retina of the eye resulting in inflammation.

Special Topics
COVID-19 and face masks
COVID-19 - face coverings; Coronavirus - face masks

Tests
COVID-19 antibody test
This blood test shows if you have antibodies against the virus that causes COVID-19. Antibodies are proteins produced by the body in response to harmful substances, such as viruses and bacteria. Antibodies...

Symptoms
COVID-19 symptoms
COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory illness caused by a new, or novel, virus called SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 is spreading quickly throughout the world and within the United States. COVID-19 symptoms...

Special Topics
COVID-19 vaccines
COVID-19 vaccines are used to boost the body's immune system and protect against COVID-19. These vaccines are a vital tool to help stop the COVID-19 pandemic.

Self-Care Instructions
COVID-19 vaccines - what to expect

Tests
COVID-19 virus test
Testing for the virus that causes COVID-19 involves taking a mucus sample from your upper respiratory tract. This test is used to diagnose COVID-19. The COVID-19 virus test is not used to test your immunity...

Tests
CSF coccidioides complement fixation test
CSF coccidioides complement fixation is a test that checks for infection due to the fungus coccidioides in the cerebrospinal (CSF) fluid. This is the fluid surrounding the brain and spine. The name of this...

Tests
CSF smear
A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) smear is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in the space around the spinal cord and brain. CSF protects the brain and spinal cord...

Tests
CSF-VDRL test
The CSF-VDRL test is used to help diagnose neurosyphilis. It looks for substances (proteins) called antibodies, which are sometimes produced by the body in reaction to the syphilis-causing bacteria. neurosyphilis...

Tests
Campylobacter serology test
Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look for antibodies to bacteria called campylobacter. antibodies

Diseases & Conditions
Candida auris infection
Candida auris (C auris) is a type of yeast (fungus). It can cause a severe infection in hospital or nursing home patients. These patients are often already very sick. Candida auris C auris C auris infections...

Diseases & Conditions
Candida infection of the skin
Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection of the skin. The medical name of the condition is cutaneous candidiasis.

Tests
Capillary nail refill test
The capillary nail refill test is a quick test done on the nail beds. It is used to monitor dehydration and the amount of blood flow to tissue. dehydration

Diseases & Conditions
Cat-scratch disease
Cat-scratch disease is an infection with bartonella bacteria that is believed to be transmitted by cat scratches, cat bites, or flea bites.

Special Topics
Central line infections - hospitals
Central line-associated bloodstream infection; CLABSI; Peripherally inserted central catheter - infection; PICC - infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device ...

Tests
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture
A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in the space around the spinal cord. CSF protects the brain and spinal cord from...

Diseases & Conditions
Chagas disease
Chagas disease is an illness caused by tiny parasites and spread by insects. The disease is common in South and Central America.

Diseases & Conditions
Chancroid
Chancroid is a bacterial infection that is spread through sexual contact.

Diseases & Conditions
Chiggers
Chiggers are tiny, 6-legged wingless organisms (larvae) that mature to become a type of mite. Chiggers are found in tall grass and weeds. Their bite causes severe itching.

Special Topics
Chikungunya virus
Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya

Diseases & Conditions
Chlamydia
Chlamydia is an infection. It is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It is most often spread through sexual contact. Chlamydia trachomatis

Diseases & Conditions
Chlamydia infections in women
Chlamydia is an infection that can be passed from one person to another through sexual contact. This type of infection is known as sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Diseases & Conditions
Chlamydial infections - male
Chlamydia infection in males is an infection of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that drains urine from the bladder. It passes through the penis. This type of infection is passed from one person to...

Diseases & Conditions
Cholera
Cholera is a bacterial infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea.

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic granulomatous disease
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder in which certain immune system cells do not function properly. This leads to repeated and severe infections.

Special Topics
Cleaning to prevent the spread of germs
Disinfection procedures

Tests
Coccidioides complement fixation
Coccidioides complement fixation is a blood test that looks for substances (proteins) called antibodies, which are produced by the body in reaction to the fungus Coccidioides immitis. This fungus causes...

Tests
Coccidioides precipitin test
Coccidioides precipitin is a blood test that looks for infections due to a fungus called coccidioides, which causes the disease coccidioidomycosis or valley fever. coccidioidomycosis

In-depth Report
Colds and the flu
An in-depth report on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of colds and flu.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - adult
What to ask your doctor about colds and the flu - adult; Influenza - what to ask your doctor - adult; Upper respiratory infection - what to ask your doctor - adult; URI - what to ask your doctor - adult...

Special Topics
College students and the flu
Every year, the flu spreads across college campuses nationwide. Close living quarters, shared restrooms, and a lot of social activities make a college student more likely to catch the flu. This article...

Diseases & Conditions
Colorado tick fever
Colorado tick fever is a viral infection. It is spread by the bite of the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni). Dermacentor andersoni

Tests
Complement fixation test to C burnetii
The complement fixation test to Coxiella burnetii (C burnetii) is a blood test that checks for infection due to bacteria called C burnetii, which causes Q fever. Coxiella burnetii C burnetii C burnetii...

Diseases & Conditions
Coronavirus
Coronaviruses are a family of viruses. Infection with these viruses can cause mild to moderate respiratory illnesses, such as the common cold. Some coronaviruses cause severe illness that can lead to pneumonia...

Diseases & Conditions
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness that causes fever, coughing, and shortness of breath. COVID-19 is highly infectious, and it has spread throughout the world. Most people get...

Diseases & Conditions
Creeping eruption
Creeping eruption is a human infection with dog or cat hookworm larvae (immature worms). hookworm

Diseases & Conditions
Cryptococcosis
Cryptococcosis is infection with the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcus gattii

Diseases & Conditions
Cryptosporidium enteritis
Cryptosporidium enteritis is an infection of the small intestine that causes diarrhea. The parasite cryptosporidium causes this infection.

Tests
Culture - colonic tissue
A colonic tissue culture is a lab test to check for the cause of disease. The sample of tissue for the test is taken from the large intestine during a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy.

Tests
Culture - duodenal tissue
A duodenal tissue culture is a laboratory exam to check a piece of tissue from the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). The test is to look for organisms that cause infection.

Diseases & Conditions
Culture-negative endocarditis
Culture-negative endocarditis is an infection and inflammation of the lining of one or more heart valves, but no endocarditis-causing germs can be found in a blood culture. This is because certain germs...

Diseases & Conditions
Cysticercosis
Cysticercosis is an infection by a parasite called Taenia solium (T solium). It is a pork tapeworm that creates cysts in different areas in the body. Taenia solium T solium

Diseases & Conditions
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a disease caused by a type of herpes virus.

D

Special Topics
DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) DTaP vaccine information statement (VIS) -- www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/dtap.html. www.cdc...

Diseases & Conditions
Dengue fever
Dengue fever is a virus-caused disease that is spread by mosquitoes.

Diseases & Conditions
Diphtheria
Diphtheria is an acute infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. acute Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Diseases & Conditions
Diskitis
Diskitis is swelling (inflammation) and irritation of the space between the bones of the spine (intervertebral disk space).

Diseases & Conditions
Disseminated tuberculosis
Disseminated tuberculosis is a mycobacterial infection in which mycobacteria have spread from the lungs to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph system. lymph system

Discharge Instructions
Diverticulitis and diverticulosis - discharge
Diverticular disease - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale)
Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) is a sexually transmitted disease that is rarely seen in the United States.

Self-Care Instructions
Drinking water safely during cancer treatment
Chemotherapy - drinking water safely; Immunosuppression - drinking water safely; Low white blood cell count - drinking water safely; Neutropenia - drinking water safely

E

Diseases & Conditions
E coli enteritis
E coli enteritis is swelling (inflammation) of the small intestine from Escherichia coli (E coli) bacteria. It is the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea. E coli Escherichia coli E coli

Diseases & Conditions
ECHO virus
Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead to infections in different parts of the body, and skin rashes.

Tests
ELISA blood test
ELISA stands for enzyme-linked immunoassay. It is a commonly used laboratory test to detect antibodies in the blood. An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful...

Tests
ESR
ESR stands for erythrocyte sedimentation rate. It is commonly called a "sed rate." It is a test that indirectly measures how much inflammation is in the body.

Tests
Ear drainage culture
An ear drainage culture is a lab test. This test checks for germs that can cause infection. The sample taken for this test can contain fluid, pus, wax, or blood from the ear.

Diseases & Conditions
Ebola virus disease
Ebola is a severe and often deadly disease caused by a virus. Symptoms include fever, diarrhea, vomiting, bleeding, and often, death. Ebola can occur in humans and other primates (gorillas, monkeys, and...

Diseases & Conditions
Echinococcosis
Echinococcosis is an infection caused by either the Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm. The infection is also called hydatid disease. Echinococcus granulosus Echinococcus multilocularis

Diseases & Conditions
Ehrlichiosis
Ehrlichiosis is a bacterial infection transmitted by the bite of a tick.

Diseases & Conditions
Empyema
Empyema is a collection of pus in the space between the lung and the inner surface of the chest wall (pleural space).

Diseases & Conditions
Encephalitis
Encephalitis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, most often due to infections.

Special Topics
Endemic

Diseases & Conditions
Endocarditis
Endocarditis is inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and heart valves (endocardium). It is caused by a bacterial or, rarely a fungal infection.

Diseases & Conditions
Endocarditis - children
The inner lining of the heart chambers and heart valves is called the endocardium. Endocarditis occurs when this tissue becomes swollen or inflamed, most often due to infection at the heart valves.

Tests
Endocervical Gram stain
Endocervical Gram stain is a method to detect bacteria on tissue from the cervix. This is done using a special series of stains.

Tests
Endocervical culture
Endocervical culture is a laboratory test that helps identify infection in the female genital tract.

Special Topics
Enterotoxin
An enterotoxin is a substance that is harmful to your digestive system. It is produced by certain bacteria. The enterotoxin enters your stomach and intestines if you eat contaminated food or water. This...

Discharge Instructions
Enterovirus D68
Non-polio enterovirus

Diseases & Conditions
Epidural abscess
An epidural abscess is a collection of pus (infected material) and germs between the outer covering of the brain and spinal cord and the bones of the skull or spine. The abscess causes swelling in the area...

Tests
Epstein-Barr virus antibody test
Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is a cause of the infection mononucleosis. antibodies EBV mononucleosis

Diseases & Conditions
Erysipelas
Erysipelas is a type of skin infection. It affects the outermost layer of the skin and the local lymph nodes.

Tests
Esophageal culture
Esophageal culture is a laboratory test that checks for infection-causing germs (bacteria, viruses, or fungi) in a sample of tissue from the esophagus.

F

Tests
FTA-ABS blood test
The FTA-ABS test is used to detect antibodies to the bacteria Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis. Treponema pallidum, syphilis

Diseases & Conditions
Familial Mediterranean fever
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down through families (inherited). It involves repeated fevers and inflammation that often affects the lining of the abdomen, chest, or joints...

Tests
Fecal culture
A fecal culture is a lab test to find organisms in the stool (feces) that can cause gastrointestinal symptoms and disease.

Tests
Fecal smear
Fecal smear is a laboratory test of a stool sample. This test is done to check for bacteria and parasites. Presence of organisms in stool shows diseases in the digestive tract.

Tests
Fibrinopeptide A blood test
Fibrinopeptide A is a substance released as blood clots in your body. A test can be done to measure the level of this substance in your blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Fish tapeworm infection
Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish.

Diseases & Conditions
Flu
The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. It spreads easily. This article discusses influenza types A and B. Another type of the flu is the swine flu (H1N1). swine flu (H1N1).

Diseases & Conditions
Food poisoning
Food poisoning occurs when you swallow food or water that contains bacteria, parasites, viruses, or the toxins made by these germs. Most cases are caused by common bacteria such as staphylococcus or E coli...

Diseases & Conditions
Fungal arthritis
Fungal arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint by a fungal infection. It is also called mycotic arthritis.

G

Tests
Gallium scan
A gallium scan is a test to look for swelling (inflammation), infection, or cancer in the body. It uses a radioactive material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. nuclear medicine A related...

Diseases & Conditions
Gangrene
Gangrene is the death of tissue in part of the body.

Diseases & Conditions
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene is a potentially deadly form of tissue death (gangrene). gangrene

Tests
Gastric tissue biopsy and culture
Gastric tissue biopsy is the removal of stomach tissue for examination. A culture is a laboratory test that examines the tissue sample for bacteria and other organisms that can cause disease. biopsy

Diseases & Conditions
Genital herpes
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). This article focuses on HSV type 2 infection.

Self-Care Instructions
Genital herpes - self-care
Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care

Symptoms
Genital sores - male
A male genital sore is any sore or lesion that appears on the penis, scrotum, or male urethra.

Diseases & Conditions
Giardia infection
Giardia, or giardiasis, is a parasitic infection of the small intestine. A tiny parasite called Giardia lamblia causes it. Giardia lamblia

Diseases & Conditions
Gonococcal arthritis
Gonococcal arthritis is inflammation of a joint due to a gonorrhea infection. Gonococcal arthritis is a type of septic arthritis. This is inflammation of a joint due to a bacterial or fungal infection....

Diseases & Conditions
Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Tests
Gram stain
A Gram stain is a test used to identify bacteria. It is one of the most common ways to quickly diagnose bacterial infection in the body.

Tests
Gram stain of skin lesion
A Gram stain of a skin lesion is a laboratory test that uses special stains to detect and identify bacteria in a sample from the skin. The Gram stain method is one of the most commonly used techniques to...

Tests
Gram stain of tissue biopsy
Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test a sample of tissue taken from a biopsy. biopsy The Gram stain method can be used on almost any specimen. It is an excellent technique...

Tests
Gram stain of urethral discharge
A Gram stain of urethral discharge is a test used to identify bacteria in fluid from the tube that drains urine from the bladder (urethra).

Diseases & Conditions
Gram-negative meningitis
Meningitis is present when the membranes covering of the brain and spinal cord become swollen and inflamed. This covering is called the meninges. Meningitis Bacteria are one type of germ that may cause...

Tests
Granulocyte
Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that has small granules. These granules contain proteins. The specific types of granulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Granulocytes, specifically...

Self-Care Instructions
Group B streptococcus - pregnancy
GBS - pregnancy

Diseases & Conditions
Gumma
A gumma is a soft, tumor-like growth of the tissues (granuloma) that occurs in people with syphilis.

H

Diseases & Conditions
H influenzae meningitis
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Meningitis Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. Haemophilus influenzae...

Diseases & Conditions
H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)
The H1N1 virus (swine flu) is an infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. It is caused by the H1N1 influenza virus.

Diseases & Conditions
HIV/AIDS
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the virus attacks and weakens the immune system. As the immune system weakens, the person is at...

Special Topics
HIV/AIDS - resources

Diseases & Conditions
HIV/AIDS in pregnant women and infants
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the virus attacks and weakens the immune system. As the immune system weakens, the person is at...

Special Topics
HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil Vaccine®
Note: Information for the HPV vaccine can be found here. here

Special Topics
HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv. html. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Tests
HPV DNA test
The HPV DNA test is used to check for high-risk HPV infection in women. HPV infection around the genitals is common. It can be spread during sex. Some types of HPV can cause cervical cancer and other cancers...

Special Topics
HPV vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix®
Note: The Cervarix® vaccine is no longer being offered. Information for the HPV vaccine can be found here. here

Special Topics
Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hib.pdf. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis...

Diseases & Conditions
Hand-foot-mouth disease
Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat.

Diseases & Conditions
Hantavirus
Hantavirus is a life-threatening viral infection spread to humans by rodents.

Special Topics
Hazardous materials
HazCom; Hazard communication; Material Safety Data Sheet; MSDS

Special Topics
Help prevent hospital errors
Medical errors - prevention; Patient safety - hospital errors

Diseases & Conditions
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome
Shiga-like toxin producing E coli hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS) is a disorder that most often occurs when an infection in the digestive system produces toxic substances. These substances destroy...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis
Hepatitis is swelling and inflammation of the liver.

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver from the hepatitis A virus.

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis A - children
Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of the liver due to the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is the most common type of hepatitis in children.

Special Topics
Hepatitis A vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Hepatitis A Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-a. html. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Other types of viral hepatitis include hepatitis A, hepatitis C, and hepatitis D. hepatitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis B - children
Hepatitis B in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis A and hepatitis C. hepatitis...

Special Topics
Hepatitis B Vaccine - What You Need to Know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Hepatitis B Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-b.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-b.html...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is a viral disease that leads to swelling (inflammation) of the liver. Other types of viral hepatitis include: Hepatitis AHepatitis BHepatitis DHepatitis E Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis C - children
Hepatitis C in children is inflammation of tissue of the liver. It occurs due to infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis A and hepatitis B. hepatitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis D (Delta agent)
Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the hepatitis D virus (previously called the Delta agent). It causes symptoms only in people who also have hepatitis B infection. hepatitis B

Tests
Hepatitis virus panel
The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. It can screen blood samples for more than one kind of hepatitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Hereditary angioedema
Hereditary angioedema is a rare but serious problem with the immune system. The problem is passed down through families. It causes swelling, particularly of the face and airways, and abdominal cramping...

Diseases & Conditions
Herpes - oral
Oral herpes is an infection of the lips, mouth, or gums due to the herpes simplex virus. It causes small, painful blisters commonly called cold sores or fever blisters. Oral herpes is also called herpes...

Special Topics
Herpes - resources

Tests
Herpes viral culture of lesion
Herpes viral culture of a lesion is a laboratory test to check if a skin sore is infected with the herpes virus.

Diseases & Conditions
Herpetic stomatitis
Herpetic stomatitis is a viral infection of the mouth that causes sores and ulcers. These mouth ulcers are not the same as canker sores, which are not caused by a virus. canker sores

Tests
Histoplasma complement fixation
Histoplasma complement fixation is a blood test that checks for infection from a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum (H capsulatum), which causes the disease histoplasmosis. Histoplasma capsulatum H capsulatum...

Tests
Histoplasma skin test
The histoplasma skin test is used to check if you have been exposed to a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum. The fungus causes an infection called histoplasmosis. Histoplasma capsulatum. histoplasmosis

Diseases & Conditions
Histoplasmosis
Histoplasmosis is an infection that occurs from breathing in the spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasma capsulatum

Diseases & Conditions
Histoplasmosis - acute (primary) pulmonary
Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis is a respiratory infection that is caused by inhaling the spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. spores Histoplasma capsulatum

Diseases & Conditions
Hookworm infection
Hookworm infection is caused by roundworms. The disease affects the small intestine and lungs.

Diseases & Conditions
Hospital-acquired pneumonia
Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that occurs during a hospital stay. This type of pneumonia can be very severe. Sometimes, it can be fatal.

I

Tests
Immunoelectrophoresis - blood
Serum immunoelectrophoresis is a lab test that measures proteins called immunoglobulins in the blood. Immunoglobulins are proteins that function as antibodies, which fight infection. There are many types...

Tests
Immunofixation blood test
The immunofixation blood test is used to identify proteins called immunoglobulins in blood. Too much of the same immunoglobulin is usually due to different types of blood cancer. Immunoglobulins are antibodies...

Diseases & Conditions
Impetigo
Impetigo is a common skin infection.

Tests
Indium-labelled WBC scan
A radioactive scan detects abscesses or infections in the body by using a radioactive material. An abscess occurs when pus collects due to an infection. abscess

Diseases & Conditions
Infant botulism
Infant botulism is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. It grows inside a baby's gastrointestinal tract. Clostridium botulinum

Diseases & Conditions
Infectious esophagitis
Esophagitis is a general term for any inflammation, irritation, or swelling of the esophagus. This is the tube that carries food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach.

Special Topics
Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What You Need to Know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Special Topics
Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What You Need to Know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flulive. html. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp...

Special Topics
Isolation precautions

J

Diseases & Conditions
Jock itch
Jock itch is an infection of the groin area caused by a fungus. The medical term is tinea cruris, or ringworm of the groin.

Tests
Joint fluid Gram stain
Joint fluid Gram stain is a laboratory test to identify bacteria in a sample of joint fluid using a special series of stains (colors). The Gram stain method is one of the most commonly used methods to rapidly...

Tests
Joint fluid culture
Joint fluid culture is a laboratory test to detect infection-causing germs in a sample of fluid surrounding a joint.

K

Diseases & Conditions
Kaposi sarcoma
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue. tumor

Diseases & Conditions
Kuru
Kuru is a disease of the nervous system.

L

Tests
Lactic acid test
Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red blood cells. It forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for energy when oxygen levels are low. Times when your body's oxygen level might...

Diseases & Conditions
Legionnaire disease
Legionnaire disease is an infection of the lungs and airways. It is caused by Legionella bacteria. Legionella

Diseases & Conditions
Leishmaniasis
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease spread by the bite of the female sandfly.

Tests
Lepromin skin test
The lepromin skin test is used to determine what type of leprosy a person has.

Diseases & Conditions
Leprosy
Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. This disease causes skin sores, nerve damage, and muscle weakness that gets worse over time. Mycobacterium leprae

Diseases & Conditions
Leptospirosis
Leptospirosis is an infection caused by leptospira bacteria.

Diseases & Conditions
Leukoplakia
Leukoplakia are patches on the tongue, in the mouth, or on the inside of the cheek.

Diseases & Conditions
Listeriosis
Listeriosis is an infection that can occur when a person eats food that has been contaminated with bacteria called Listeria monocytogenes (L monocytogenes). Listeria monocytogenes L monocytogenes

Special Topics
Live zoster (shingles) vaccine, ZVL - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Shingles Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/shingles.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/shingles...

Diseases & Conditions
Ludwig angina
Ludwig angina is an infection of the floor of the mouth under the tongue. It is due to a bacterial infection of the teeth or jaw.

Diseases & Conditions
Lyme disease
Lyme disease is a bacterial infection that is spread through the bite of one of several types of ticks.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Lyme disease - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about Lyme disease; Lyme borreliosis - questions; Bannwarth syndrome - questions

In-depth Report
Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease.

Tests
Lyme disease blood test
The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. The test is used to help diagnose Lyme disease. Lyme disease

Tests
Lymph node culture
Lymph node culture is a laboratory test done on a sample from a lymph node to identify germs that cause infection.

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphadenitis
Lymphadenitis is an infection of the lymph nodes (also called lymph glands). It is a complication of certain bacterial infections. lymph nodes

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphangitis
Lymphangitis is an infection of the lymph vessels (channels). It is a complication of some bacterial infections.

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphatic obstruction
Lymphatic obstruction is a blockage of the lymph vessels that drain fluid from tissues throughout the body and allow immune cells to travel where they are needed. Lymphatic obstruction may cause lymphedema...

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphofollicular hyperplasia
Lymphofollicular hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells found in lymph node. These follicles contain normal white blood cells called lymphocytes. Your body produces more lymphocytes to help prevent...

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphogranuloma venereum
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection.

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphoid hyperplasia
Lymphoid hyperplasia is an increase in the number of normal cells (called lymphocytes) that are contained in lymph nodes. This most often happens when there is an infection with bacteria, viruses, or other...

M

Special Topics
MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella) Vaccine - What You Need to Know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC MMR (Measles, Mumps, & Rubella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mmr.html cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Special Topics
MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella) Vaccine - What You Need to Know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mmrv.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines...

Diseases & Conditions
Malaria
Malaria is a parasitic disease that involves high fevers, shaking chills, flu-like symptoms, and anemia. anemia

Diseases & Conditions
Measles
Measles is a very contagious (easily spread) illness caused by a virus.

Diseases & Conditions
Mediastinitis
Mediastinitis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the chest area between the lungs (mediastinum). This area contains the heart, large blood vessels, windpipe (trachea), food tube (esophagus), thymus...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges.

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis - cryptococcal
Cryptococcal meningitis is a fungal infection of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord. These tissues are called meninges. meningitis

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis - tuberculous
Tuberculous meningitis is an infection of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges).

Special Topics
Meningococcal ACWY Vaccine - What You Need to Know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Meningococcal ACWY Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mening.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningococcal meningitis
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Meningitis Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. The meningococcal...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningococcemia
Meningococcemia is an acute and potentially life-threatening infection of the bloodstream. acute

Diseases & Conditions
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is a "staph" germ (bacteria) that does not get better with the type of antibiotics that usually cure staph infections. Staphylococcus aureus...

Special Topics
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Coronaviruses; CoV

Discharge Instructions
Mild to moderate COVID-19 - discharge
Coronavirus - 2019 discharge; SARS-CoV-2 discharge; COVID-19 recovery; Coronavirus disease - recovery; Recovering from COVID-19

Diseases & Conditions
Molluscum contagiosum
Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin infection that causes raised, pearl-like papules or nodules on the skin. papules nodules

Diseases & Conditions
Mononucleosis
Mononucleosis, or mono, is a viral infection that causes fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, most often in the neck.

Tests
Mononucleosis spot test
The mononucleosis spot test looks for 2 antibodies in the blood. These antibodies appear during or after an infection with the virus that causes mononucleosis, or mono. antibodies

Diseases & Conditions
Mucormycosis
Mucormycosis is a fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs. It occurs in some people with a weakened immune system.

Diseases & Conditions
Mumps
Mumps is a contagious disease that leads to painful swelling of the salivary glands. The salivary glands produce saliva, a liquid that moistens food and helps you chew and swallow. salivary glands

Tests
Mycobacterial culture
Mycobacterial culture is a test to look for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis and other infections caused by similar bacteria. tuberculosis

Diseases & Conditions
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Pneumonia is inflamed or swollen lung tissue due to infection with a germ. Mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M pneumoniae). Mycoplasma pneumoniae M pneumoniae . This...

Diseases & Conditions
Myocarditis - pediatric
Pediatric myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle in an infant or young child.

N

Tests
Nasopharyngeal culture
Nasopharyngeal culture is a test that examines a sample of secretions from the uppermost part of the throat, behind the nose, to detect organisms that can cause disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Necrotizing soft tissue infection
Necrotizing soft tissue infection is a rare but very severe type of bacterial infection. It can destroy the muscles, skin, and underlying tissue. The word "necrotizing" refers to something that causes body...

Diseases & Conditions
Neurosyphilis
Neurosyphilis is a bacterial infection of the brain or spinal cord. It usually occurs in people who have had untreated syphilis for many years. syphilis

Tests
Nitroblue tetrazolium blood test
The nitroblue tetrazolium test checks if certain immune system cells can change a colorless chemical called nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) into a deep blue color.

Diseases & Conditions
Nocardia infection
Nocardia infection (nocardiosis) is a disorder that affects the lungs, brain, or skin. In otherwise healthy people, it may occur as a local infection. But in people with weakened immune systems, it may...

Diseases & Conditions
Noma
Noma is a type of gangrene that destroys mucous membranes of the mouth and other tissues. It occurs in malnourished children in areas where sanitation and cleanliness are lacking. gangrene

Special Topics
Norovirus - hospital
Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus

O

Diseases & Conditions
Osteomyelitis
Osteomyelitis is a bone infection. It is mainly caused by bacteria or other germs.

Discharge Instructions
Osteomyelitis - discharge
Bone infection - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Osteomyelitis in children
Osteomyelitis is a bone infection caused by bacteria or other germs.

P

Tests
PPD skin test
The PPD skin test is a method used to diagnose silent (latent) tuberculosis (TB) infection. PPD stands for purified protein derivative. tuberculosis

Diseases & Conditions
Parainfluenza
Parainfluenza refers to a group of viruses that lead to upper and lower respiratory infections.

Diseases & Conditions
Parapneumonic pleural effusion
Pleural effusion is a buildup of fluid in the pleural space. The pleural space is the area between the layers of the tissue lining the lung and the chest cavity. Pleural effusion In a person with parapneumonic...

Diseases & Conditions
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of a woman's womb (uterus), ovaries, or fallopian tubes.

Self-Care Instructions
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) - aftercare
PID - aftercare; Oophoritis - aftercare; Salpingitis - aftercare; Salpingo - oophoritis - aftercare; Salpingo - peritonitis - aftercare; STD - PID aftercare; Sexually transmitted disease - PID aftercare...

Diseases & Conditions
Perianal streptococcal cellulitis
Perianal streptococcal cellulitis is an infection of the anus and rectum. The infection is caused by streptococcus bacteria.

Tests
Pericardial fluid Gram stain
Pericardial fluid Gram stain is a method of staining a sample of fluid taken from the pericardium. This is the sac surrounding the heart to diagnose a bacterial infection. The Gram stain method is one of...

Tests
Pericardial fluid culture
Pericardial fluid culture is a test performed on a sample of fluid from the sac surrounding the heart. It is done to identify organisms that cause infection. Pericardial fluid gram stain is a related topic...

Diseases & Conditions
Perichondritis
Perichondritis is an infection of the skin and tissue surrounding the cartilage of the outer ear.

Diseases & Conditions
Periorbital cellulitis
Periorbital cellulitis is an infection of the eyelid or skin around the eye.

Diseases & Conditions
Perirenal abscess
Perirenal abscess is a pocket of pus around one or both kidneys. It is caused by an infection. abscess

Tests
Peritoneal fluid culture
Peritoneal fluid culture is a laboratory test performed on a sample of peritoneal fluid. It is done to detect bacteria or fungi that cause infection (peritonitis). peritonitis Peritoneal fluid is the fluid...

Diseases & Conditions
Peritonitis
Peritonitis is an inflammation (irritation) of the peritoneum. This is the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs.

Special Topics
Personal protective equipment
PPE

Diseases & Conditions
Pertussis
Pertussis is a highly contagious bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable, violent coughing. The coughing can make it hard to breathe. A deep "whooping" sound is often heard when the person tries to...

Special Topics
Pets and the immunocompromised person
If you have a weak immune system, having a pet can put you at risk for serious illness from diseases that can spread from animals to humans. Learn what you can do to protect yourself and stay healthy.

Diseases & Conditions
Pharyngitis - viral
Pharyngitis, or sore throat, is swelling, discomfort, pain, or scratchiness in the throat at, and just below the tonsils. Pharyngitis

Tests
Pinworm test
A pinworm test is a method used to identify a pinworm infection. Pinworms are small, thin worms that commonly infect young children, although anyone can be infected. pinworm

Diseases & Conditions
Pinworms
Pinworms are small worms that infect the intestines.

Diseases & Conditions
Plague
Plague is a severe bacterial infection that may cause death.

Tests
Pleural fluid Gram stain
The pleural fluid Gram stain is a test to diagnose bacterial infections in the lungs.

Tests
Pleural fluid analysis
Pleural fluid analysis is a test that examines a sample of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the lungs (pleura) and the wall of the chest...

Tests
Pleural fluid culture
Pleural fluid culture is a test that examines a sample of fluid that has collected in the pleural space to see if you have an infection or understand the cause of buildup of fluid in this space. The pleural...

Diseases & Conditions
Pleurisy
Pleurisy is an inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest (the pleura) that leads to chest pain when you take a breath or cough.

Special Topics
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) - What you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/pcv13.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/pcv13.html CDC review information...

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumococcal meningitis
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Meningitis Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. The pneumococcal...

Special Topics
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/ppv.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is a fungal infection of the lungs. The disease used to be called Pneumocystis carini or PCP pneumonia. Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumocystis carini

In-depth Report
Pneumonia
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pneumonia.

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumonia - weakened immune system
Pneumonia is a lung infection. It can be caused by many different germs, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. This article discusses pneumonia that occurs in a person who has a hard time fighting off...

Discharge Instructions
Pneumonia in adults - discharge
Bronchopneumonia adults - discharge; Lung infection adults - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumonia in children - community acquired
Pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. This type of pneumonia occurs in healthy children who have not...

Discharge Instructions
Pneumonia in children - discharge
Lung infection - children discharge; Bronchopneumonia - children discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Polio
Polio is a viral disease that can affect nerves and can lead to partial or full paralysis. The medical name for polio is poliomyelitis. paralysis

Special Topics
Polio vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Polio Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/ipv.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/ipv.html CDC review...

Self-Care Instructions
Preventing hepatitis A

Self-Care Instructions
Preventing hepatitis B or C

Diseases & Conditions
Prostatitis - bacterial
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland. This problem can be caused by an infection with bacteria. However, this is not a common cause. Acute prostatitis starts quickly. Long-term (chronic) prostatitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Psittacosis
Psittacosis is an infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, a type of bacteria found in the droppings of birds. Birds spread the infection to humans. Chlamydophila psittaci,

Diseases & Conditions
Pubic lice
Pubic lice are tiny wingless insects that infect the pubic hair area and lay eggs there. These lice can also be found in armpit hair, eyebrows, mustache, beard, around the anus, and eyelashes (in children...

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary actinomycosis
Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare lung infection caused by bacteria.

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary aspergilloma
Pulmonary aspergilloma is a mass caused by a fungal infection. It usually grows in lung cavities. The infection can also appear in the brain, kidney, or other organs.

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary nocardiosis
Pulmonary nocardiosis is an infection of the lung with the bacteria, Nocardia asteroides. Nocardia asteroides

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary tuberculosis
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs. It may spread to other organs.

Symptoms
Pulse - bounding
A bounding pulse is a strong throbbing felt over one of the arteries in the body. It is due to a forceful heartbeat. pulse

Diseases & Conditions
Pyogenic liver abscess
Pyogenic liver abscess is a pus-filled pocket of fluid within the liver. Pyogenic means producing pus. abscess

Q

Diseases & Conditions
Q fever
Q fever is an infectious disease caused by bacteria that is spread by domestic and wild animals and ticks.

R

Tests
RPR test
RPR (rapid plasma reagin) is a screening test for syphilis. It measures substances (proteins) called antibodies that are present in the blood of people who may have the disease. syphilis antibodies

Tests
RSV antibody test
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibody test is a blood test that measures the levels of antibodies (immunoglobulins) the body makes after an infection with RSV. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

Diseases & Conditions
Rabies
Rabies is a deadly viral infection that is mainly spread by infected animals.

Diseases & Conditions
Rat-bite fever
Rat-bite fever is a rare bacterial disease spread by the bite of an infected rodent.

Special Topics
Recombinant zoster (shingles) vaccine, RZV - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Recombinant Shingles Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/shingles-recombinant. html. www.cdc.gov/vaccines...

Special Topics
Recovering after stroke
A stroke happens when blood flow to any part of the brain stops. stroke Each person has a different recovery time and need for long-term care. Problems with moving, thinking, and talking often improve in...

Tests
Rectal culture
Rectal culture is a lab test to identify bacteria and other germs in the rectum that can cause gastrointestinal symptoms and disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Relapsing fever
Relapsing fever is a bacterial infection transmitted by a louse or tick. It is characterized by repeated episodes of fever.

Special Topics
Reportable diseases
Reportable diseases are diseases considered to be of great public health importance.   In the United States, local, state, and national agencies (for example, county and state health departments or the...

Diseases & Conditions
Rheumatic fever
Rheumatic fever is a disease that may develop after an infection with group A streptococcus bacteria (such as strep throat or scarlet fever). It can cause severe illness in the heart, joints, skin, and...

Diseases & Conditions
Rickettsialpox
Rickettsialpox is a disease spread by a mite. It causes a chickenpox-like rash on the body. rash

Diseases & Conditions
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a disease caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks.

Diseases & Conditions
Roseola
Roseola is a viral infection that commonly affects infants and young children. It involves a pinkish-red skin rash and high fever.

Tests
Rotavirus antigen test
The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. This is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in children. diarrhea

Special Topics
Rotavirus vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Rotavirus Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/rotavirus.pdf. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/rotavirus...

Tests
Routine sputum culture
Routine sputum culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs that cause infection. Sputum is the material that comes up from air passages when you cough deeply.

Diseases & Conditions
Rubella
Rubella, also known as the German measles, is an infection in which there is a rash on the skin. Congenital rubella is when a pregnant woman with rubella passes it to the baby that is still in her womb...

S

Self-Care Instructions
Safe eating during cancer treatment
Cancer treatment - eating safely; Chemotherapy - eating safely; Immunosuppression - eating safely; Low white blood cell count - eating safely; Neutropenia - eating safely

Diseases & Conditions
Salmonella enterocolitis
Salmonella enterocolitis is a bacterial infection in the lining of the small intestine that is caused by salmonella bacteria. It is a type of food poisoning.

Diseases & Conditions
Scalded skin syndrome
Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is a skin infection caused by staphylococcus bacteria in which the skin becomes damaged and sheds.

Diseases & Conditions
Scarlet fever
Scarlet fever is caused by an infection with bacteria called A streptococcus. This is the same bacteria that cause strep throat. . strep throat

Diseases & Conditions
Schistosomiasis
Schistosomiasis is an infection with a type of blood fluke parasite called schistosomes.

Tests
Screening and diagnosis for HIV
In general, testing for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a 2-step process that involves a screening test and follow-up tests.

Diseases & Conditions
Scrofula
Scrofula is a tuberculosis infection of the lymph nodes in the neck. tuberculosis

Special Topics
Secondary infections
A secondary infection is an infection that occurs during or after treatment for another infection. It may be caused by the first treatment or by changes in the immune system. Two examples of a secondary...

Diseases & Conditions
Sepsis
Sepsis is an illness in which the body has a severe, inflammatory response to bacteria or other germs.

Diseases & Conditions
Septic arthritis
Septic arthritis is inflammation of a joint due to a bacterial or fungal infection. Septic arthritis that is due to the bacteria that cause gonorrhea has different symptoms and is called gonococcal arthritis...

Diseases & Conditions
Septic shock
Septic shock is a serious condition that occurs when a bodywide infection leads to dangerously low blood pressure.

Diseases & Conditions
Septicemia
Septicemia is bacteria in the blood (bacteremia) that often occurs with severe infections. Also called sepsis, septicemia is a serious, life-threatening response to an infection that gets worse very quickly...

Special Topics
Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine (MenB) - What You Need to Know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mening-serogroup.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp...

Tests
Serology for brucellosis
Serology for brucellosis is a blood test to look for the presence of antibodies against brucella. These are the bacteria that cause the disease brucellosis. antibodies brucellosis

Tests
Serum herpes simplex antibodies
Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies to the herpes simplex virus (HSV), including HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 most often causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital...

Discharge Instructions
Severe COVID-19 - discharge
Severe coronavirus 2019 - discharge; Severe SARS-CoV-2 - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious form of pneumonia. Infection with the SARS virus causes acute respiratory distress (severe breathing difficulty), and sometimes death. pneumonia acute...

Diseases & Conditions
Shigellosis
Shigellosis is a bacterial infection of the lining of the intestines. It is caused by a group of bacteria called shigella.

Diseases & Conditions
Shingles
Shingles (herpes zoster) is a painful, blistering skin rash. It is caused by the varicella-zoster virus, a member of the herpes family of viruses. This is the virus that also causes chickenpox. chickenpox

Self-Care Instructions
Shingles - aftercare
Herpes zoster - treatment

In-depth Report
Shingles and chickenpox (Varicella-zoster virus)
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of shingles and chickenpox.

Diseases & Conditions
Skin lesion of blastomycosis
A skin lesion of blastomycosis is a symptom of an infection with the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. The skin becomes infected as the fungus spreads throughout the body. Another form of blastomycosis is...

Tests
Skin or nail culture
A skin or nail culture is a laboratory test to look for and identify germs that cause problems with the skin or nails. It is called a mucosal culture if the sample involves the mucous membranes.

Diseases & Conditions
Sleeping sickness
Sleeping sickness is an infection caused by tiny parasites carried by certain flies. It results in swelling of the brain.

Tests
Small bowel tissue smear/biopsy
Small bowel tissue smear is a lab test that checks for disease in a sample of tissue from the small intestine.

Tests
Small intestine aspirate and culture
Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection in the small intestine.

Diseases & Conditions
Smallpox
Smallpox is a serious disease that is easily passed from person to person (contagious). It is caused by a virus.

Tests
Smear of duodenal fluid aspirate
Smear of duodenal fluid aspirate is an exam of fluid from the duodenum to check for signs of an infection (such as giardia or strongyloides). Rarely, this test is also done in a newborn to check for biliary...

Diseases & Conditions
Spinal cord abscess
Spinal cord abscess is the swelling and irritation (inflammation) and the collection of infected material (pus) and germs in or around the spinal cord.

Special Topics
Spores
A spore is a cell that certain fungi, plants (moss, ferns), and bacteria produce. Spores are involved in reproduction. Certain bacteria make spores as a way to defend themselves. Spores have thick walls...

Diseases & Conditions
Sporotrichosis
Sporotrichosis is a long-term (chronic) skin infection that is caused by a fungus called Sporothrix schenckii. chronic Sporothrix schenckii

Tests
Sputum Gram stain
A sputum Gram stain is a laboratory test used to detect bacteria in a sputum sample. Sputum is the material that comes up from your air passages when you cough very deeply. The Gram stain method is one...

Tests
Sputum fungal smear
A sputum fungal smear is a laboratory test that looks for fungus in a sputum sample. Sputum is the material that comes up from air passages when you cough deeply.

Tests
Sputum stain for mycobacteria
Sputum stain for mycobacteria is a test to check for a type of bacteria that cause tuberculosis and other infections.

Self-Care Instructions
Staph infections - self-care at home
Staphylococcus infections - self-care at home; Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus infections - self-care at home; MRSA infections - self-care at home

Diseases & Conditions
Staphylococcal meningitis
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Meningitis Bacteria are one type of germ that may cause meningitis. The staphylococcal...

Tests
Stool Gram stain
A stool Gram stain is a laboratory test that uses different chemical stains to detect and identify bacteria in a stool sample. The Gram stain method is sometimes used to quickly diagnose bacterial infections...

Tests
Stool ova and parasites exam
Stool ova and parasites exam is a lab test to look for parasites or eggs (ova) in a stool sample. The parasites are associated with intestinal infections.

Tests
Streptococcal screen
A streptococcal screen is a test to detect group A streptococcus. This type of bacteria is the most common cause of strep throat. strep throat

Diseases & Conditions
Strongyloidiasis
Strongyloidiasis is an infection with the roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis (S stercoralis). Strongyloides stercoralis (S stercoralis).

Diseases & Conditions
Swimmer's ear
Swimmer's ear is inflammation, irritation, or infection of the outer ear and ear canal. The medical term for swimmer's ear is otitis externa. Swimmer's ear may be sudden and short-term (acute) or long-term...

Symptoms
Swollen lymph nodes
Lymph nodes are present throughout your body. They are an important part of your immune system. Lymph nodes help your body recognize and fight germs, infections, and other foreign substances. The term ...

Diseases & Conditions
Syphilis
Syphilis is a bacterial infection that is most often spread through sexual contact.

Diseases & Conditions
Syphilitic aseptic meningitis
Syphilitic aseptic meningitis, or syphilitic meningitis, is a complication of untreated syphilis. It involves inflammation of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord caused by this bacterial infection...

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Tests
T-cell count
A T-cell count measures the number of T cells in the blood. Your doctor may order this test if you have signs of a weak immune system, such as due to having HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS

Diseases & Conditions
Tabes dorsalis
Tabes dorsalis is a complication of untreated syphilis that involves muscle weakness and abnormal sensations. syphilis

Self-Care Instructions
Taking medicines to treat tuberculosis
Tuberculosis - medicines; DOT; Directly observed therapy; TB - medicines

Diseases & Conditions
Tapeworm infection - beef or pork
Beef or pork tapeworm infection is an infection with the tapeworm parasite found in beef or pork.

Diseases & Conditions
Tapeworm infection - hymenolepsis
Hymenolepsis infection is an infestation by one of two species of tapeworm: Hymenolepis nana or Hymenolepis diminuta. The disease is also called hymenolepiasis. Hymenolepis nana Hymenolepis diminuta

Special Topics
Td (tetanus, diphtheria) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Td vaccine information statement (VIS) -- www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/td.html. www.cdc.gov...

Special Topics
Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Tdap Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/tdap.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis...

Diseases & Conditions
Tetanus
Tetanus is an infection of the nervous system with a type of bacteria that is potentially deadly, called Clostridium tetani (C tetani). Clostridium tetani (C tetani)

Tests
Throat swab culture
A throat swab culture is a laboratory test that is done to identify germs that may cause infection in the throat. It is most often used to diagnose strep throat. strep throat

Diseases & Conditions
Thrush - children and adults
Thrush is a yeast infection of the tongue and lining of the mouth.

Diseases & Conditions
Tick paralysis
Tick paralysis is a loss of muscle function that results from a tick bite. tick bite

Injury
Tick removal
Ticks are small, insect-like creatures that live in woods and fields. They attach to you as you brush past bushes, plants, and grass. Once on you, ticks often move to a warm, moist location. They are often...

Diseases & Conditions
Toxic shock syndrome
Toxic shock syndrome is a serious disease that involves fever, shock, and problems with several body organs. shock

Special Topics
Toxins
Toxins are substances created by plants and animals that are poisonous to humans. Toxins also include some medicines that are helpful in small doses, but poisonous in large amounts. Most toxins that cause...

Tests
Toxoplasma blood test
The toxoplasma blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to a parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. antibodies Toxoplasma gondii

Diseases & Conditions
Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis is an infection due to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasma gondii

In-depth Report
Travel to developing countries
An in-depth report on travel-related health risks and how to prepare ahead of time to reduce these risks.

Nutrition
Traveler's diarrhea diet
Traveler's diarrhea causes loose, watery stools. People can get traveler's diarrhea when they visit places where the water is not clean or the food is not handled safely. This can include developing countries...

Diseases & Conditions
Trichinosis
Trichinosis is an infection with the roundworm Trichinella spiralis. Trichinella spiralis

Diseases & Conditions
Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomonas vaginalis.

Diseases & Conditions
Tularemia
Tularemia is a bacterial infection in wild rodents. The bacteria are passed to humans through contact with tissue from the infected animal. The bacteria can also be passed by ticks, biting flies, and mosquitoes...

Tests
Tularemia blood test
Tularemia blood test checks for infection caused by bacteria called Francisella tularensis (F tularensis). The bacteria causes the disease tularemia. Francisella tularensis (F tularensis). tularemia

Diseases & Conditions
Typhoid fever
Typhoid fever is an infection that causes diarrhea and a rash. It is most commonly caused by a bacteria called Salmonella typhi (S typhi). diarrhea rash Salmonella typhi S typhi

Diseases & Conditions
Typhus
Typhus is a bacterial disease spread by lice or fleas.

U

Tests
Urethral discharge culture
Urethral discharge culture is a laboratory test done on men and boys. This test is used to identify germs in the urethra that may be causing urethritis. The urethra is the tube that drains urine from the...

In-depth Report
Urinary tract infection
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of urinary tract infections.

Tests
Urine culture
A urine culture is a lab test to check for bacteria or other germs in a urine sample. It can be used to check for a urinary tract infection in adults and children. adults children

Tests
Urine culture - catheterized specimen
Catheterized specimen urine culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs in a urine sample.

Special Topics
Using antibiotics wisely
Antibiotic resistance - prevention; Drug-resistant bacteria - prevention

V

Tests
VDRL test
The VDRL test is a screening test for syphilis. It measures substances (proteins), called antibodies, which your body may produce if you have come in contact with the bacteria that cause syphilis. syphilis...

Special Topics
Vaccines (immunizations)
Vaccines are used to boost your immune system and prevent serious, life-threatening diseases.

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginismus
Vaginismus is a spasm of the muscles surrounding the vagina that occurs against your will. The spasms makes the vagina very narrow and can prevent sexual activity and medical exams. vagina

Diseases & Conditions
Valley fever
Valley fever is an infection that occurs when the spores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis enter your body through the lungs. spores Coccidioides immitis

Special Topics
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci - hospital
Super-bugs; VRE; Gastroenteritis - VRE; Colitis - VRE; Hospital acquired infection - VRE

Special Topics
Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine - What You Need to Know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Chickenpox Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/varicella.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/varicella...

Tests
Venipuncture
Venipuncture is the collection of blood from a vein. It is most often done for laboratory testing.

Diseases & Conditions
Viral arthritis
Viral arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint caused by a viral infection.

In-depth Report
Viral encephalitis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of viral encephalitis.

Diseases & Conditions
Viral pneumonia
Pneumonia is inflamed or swollen lung tissue due to infection with a germ. Viral pneumonia is caused by a virus.

Diseases & Conditions
Visceral larva migrans
Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a human infection with certain parasites found in the intestines of dogs and cats.

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Diseases & Conditions
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is a group of symptoms resulting from the failure of the adrenal glands to function normally as a result of bleeding into the gland.

Special Topics
Wearing gloves in the hospital
Infection control - wearing gloves; Patient safety - wearing gloves; Personal protective equipment - wearing gloves; PPE - wearing gloves; Nosocomial infection - wearing gloves; Hospital acquired infection...

Diseases & Conditions
West Nile virus infection
West Nile virus is a viral disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe.

Self-Care Instructions
What to do after exposure to COVID-19
Quarantine - COVID-19

Diseases & Conditions
Whipple disease
Whipple disease is a rare condition that mainly affects the small intestine. This prevents the small intestine from allowing nutrients to pass into the rest of the body. This is called malabsorption. malabsorption

Diseases & Conditions
Whipworm infection
Whipworm infection is an infection of the large intestine with a type of roundworm.

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Diseases & Conditions
Yaws
Yaws is a long-term (chronic) bacterial infection that mainly affects the skin, bones, and joints.

Diseases & Conditions
Yellow fever
Yellow fever is a viral infection spread by mosquitoes.

Special Topics
Your child and the flu
The flu is a serious illness. The virus is easily spread, and children are very susceptible to the illness. Knowing the facts about the flu, its symptoms, and when to get vaccinated are all important in...

Special Topics
Your child's first vaccines
All content below is taken in its entirety from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Your Child's First Vaccines vaccine information statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Z

Diseases & Conditions
Zika virus disease
Zika is a virus passed to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever, joint pain, rash, and red eyes (conjunctivitis).