Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism

Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that looks at the endocrine system, which controls hormones. Often, problems stem from when your body secretes too much or too little of a hormone. These conditions include diabetes, thyroid disorders, and problems with sex hormones such as fertility issues.

Learn more about diabetes at the Mount Sinai Heath System

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Tests
17-Ketosteroids urine test
17-ketosteroids are substances that form when the body breaks down male steroid sex hormones called androgens and other hormones released by the adrenal glands in males and females, and by the testes in...

Tests
17-OH progesterone
17-OH progesterone is a blood test that measures the amount of 17-OH progesterone. This is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands and sex glands. adrenal glands

Tests
17-hydroxycorticosteroids urine test
The 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS) test measures the level of 17-OHCS in the urine.

Tests
24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test
The 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test measures the amount of aldosterone removed in the urine in a day. Aldosterone can also be measured with a blood test. blood test

Tests
25-hydroxy vitamin D test
The 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body. Vitamin D helps control calcium and phosphate levels in the body.

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Tests
A1C test
A1C is a lab test that shows the average level of blood sugar (glucose) over the previous 3 months. It shows how well you are controlling your blood sugar to help prevent complications from diabetes.

Tests
ACTH blood test
The ACTH test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood. ACTH is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain.

Tests
ACTH stimulation test
The ACTH stimulation test measures how well the adrenal glands respond to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release...

Diseases & Conditions
Acromegaly
Acromegaly is a condition in which there is too much growth hormone (GH) in the body.

Diseases & Conditions
Acute adrenal crisis
Acute adrenal crisis is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is not enough cortisol. This is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. adrenal glands

Diseases & Conditions
Addison disease
Addison disease is a disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones. adrenal glands

Special Topics
Adrenal glands
The adrenal glands are two small triangle-shaped glands. One gland is located on top of each kidney.

Diseases & Conditions
Adrenocortical carcinoma
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a cancer of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is located on top of each kidney. adrenal glands

Special Topics
Aging changes in the female reproductive system
Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly from changing hormone levels. One clear sign of aging occurs when your menstrual periods stop permanently. This is known as menopause. hormone...

Diseases & Conditions
Alcoholic ketoacidosis
Alcoholic ketoacidosis is the buildup of ketones in the blood due to alcohol use. Ketones are a type of acid that form when the body breaks down fat for energy. The condition is an acute form of metabolic...

Tests
Aldosterone blood test
The aldosterone blood test measures the level of the hormone aldosterone in blood. Aldosterone can also be measured using a urine test. urine test

Symptoms
Ambiguous genitalia
Ambiguous genitalia is a birth defect where the outer genitals do not have the typical appearance of either a boy or a girl.

Diseases & Conditions
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is when a person who is genetically male (who has one X and one Y chromosome) is resistant to male hormones (called androgens). As a result, the person has some of...

Diseases & Conditions
Anorchia
Anorchia is the absence of both testes at birth. testes

Tests
Anti-insulin antibody test
The anti-insulin antibody test checks to see if your body has produced antibodies against insulin. antibodies Antibodies are proteins the body produces to protect itself when it detects anything "foreign...

Tests
Antidiuretic hormone blood test
Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in blood.

Tests
Antithyroglobulin antibody test
Antithyroglobulin antibody is a test to measure antibodies to a protein called thyroglobulin. This protein is found in thyroid cells. antibodies

Diseases & Conditions
Apoplexy
Apoplexy is bleeding into an organ or loss of blood flow to an organ. For example, Adrenal apoplexy --  bleeding into the adrenal glandsPituitary apoplexy --  bleeding into the pituitary gland Adrenal apoplexy...

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Diseases & Conditions
Beriberi
Beriberi is a disease in which the body does not have enough thiamine (vitamin B1). thiamine

Tests
Blood sugar test
A blood sugar test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including brain cells. Glucose is a building block...

Symptoms
Breast enlargement in males
When abnormal breast tissue develops in males, it is called gynecomastia. It is important to find out if the excess growth is breast tissue and not excess fat tissue (lipomastia).

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Tests
Calcitonin blood test
The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in the blood.

Tests
Calcium - ionized
Ionized calcium is calcium in your blood that is not attached to proteins. It is also called free calcium. All cells need calcium in order to work. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is important...

Tests
Calcium - urine
This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order to work. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is important for heart function, and helps with muscle contraction...

Tests
Calcium blood test
The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. This article discusses the test to measure the total amount of calcium in your blood. About one half of the calcium in the blood is attached...

Special Topics
Calcium supplements
WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth and bones. Getting enough calcium over your lifetime can help prevent osteoporosis...

Diseases & Conditions
Carcinoid syndrome
Carcinoid syndrome is a group of symptoms associated with carcinoid tumors. These are tumors of the small intestine, colon, appendix, and bronchial tubes in the lungs.

Tests
Catecholamines - urine
Catecholamines are chemicals made by nerve tissue (including the brain) and the adrenal gland. The main types of catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. These chemicals break down...

Diseases & Conditions
Central diabetes insipidus
Central diabetes insipidus is a rare condition that involves extreme thirst and excessive urination.

Tests
Chloride test - blood
Chloride is a type of electrolyte. It works with other electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These substances help keep the proper balance of body fluids and maintain the body...

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)
Chronic thyroiditis is caused by a reaction of the immune system against the thyroid gland. It often results in reduced thyroid function (hypothyroidism). hypothyroidism The disorder is also called Hashimoto...

Diseases & Conditions
Chylomicronemia syndrome
Chylomicronemia syndrome is a disorder in which the body does not break down fats (lipids) correctly. This causes fat particles called chylomicrons to build up in the blood. The disorder is passed down...

Symptoms
Cold intolerance
Cold intolerance is an abnormal sensitivity to a cold environment or cold temperatures.

Tests
Cortisol blood test
The cortisol blood test measures the level of cortisol in the blood. Cortisol is a steroid (glucocorticoid or corticosteroid) hormone produced by the adrenal gland. adrenal gland Cortisol can also be measured...

Tests
Cortisol urine test
The cortisol urine test measures the level of cortisol in the urine. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid (steroid) hormone produced by the adrenal gland. adrenal gland Cortisol can also be measured using a blood...

Special Topics
Could you have low testosterone?
Male menopause; Andropause; Testosterone deficiency; Low-T; Androgen deficiency of the aging male; Late-onset hypogonadism

Self-Care Instructions
Counting carbohydrates
Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrate

Diseases & Conditions
Cushing disease
Cushing disease is a condition in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The pituitary gland is an organ of the endocrine system. endocrine system Cushing disease...

Diseases & Conditions
Cushing syndrome
Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a high level of the hormone cortisol.

Diseases & Conditions
Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor
Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor is a form of Cushing syndrome. It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. Cushing syndrome

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Tests
DHEA-sulfate test
DHEA stands for dehydroepiandrosterone. It is a weak male hormone (androgen) produced by the adrenal glands in both men and women. The DHEA-sulfate test measures the amount of DHEA-sulfate in the blood...

Special Topics
Deciding about hormone therapy
HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

Diseases & Conditions
Delayed puberty in boys
Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin by 14 years of age. When puberty is delayed, these changes either don't occur or don't progress normally. Delayed puberty is more common in boys than...

Diseases & Conditions
Delayed puberty in girls
Delayed puberty in girls occurs when breasts don't develop by age 13 or menstrual periods do not begin by age 16. Puberty changes occur when the body starts making sex hormones. These changes normally begin...

Tests
Dexamethasone suppression test
Dexamethasone suppression test measures whether adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion by the pituitary can be suppressed. ACTH

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes
Diabetes is a long-term (chronic) disease in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in the blood.

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - foot ulcers
Diabetic foot ulcer; Ulcer - foot

Special Topics
Diabetes - insulin therapy
Diabetes - insulin

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - keeping active
Physical activity - diabetes; Exercise - diabetes

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke
Diabetes complications - heart; Coronary artery disease - diabetes; CAD - diabetes; Cerebrovascular disease - diabetes

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - taking care of your feet
Diabetes - foot care - self-care; Diabetic foot ulcer - foot care; Diabetic neuropathy - foot care

In-depth Report
Diabetes - type 2
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of type 2 diabetes.

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - when you are sick
Sick-day management - diabetes; Diabetes - sick day management; Insulin resistance - sick day management; Ketoacidosis - sick day management; Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome - sick day management

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes and alcohol
Alcohol - diabetes; Diabetes - alcohol use

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes and exercise
Exercise - diabetes; Exercise - type 1 diabetes; Exercise - type 2 diabetes

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes and nerve damage
Nerve damage that occurs in people with diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy. This condition is a complication of diabetes. diabetes

In-depth Report
Diabetes diet
An in-depth report on how people with diabetes can use healthy nutrition to help manage their blood glucose.

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes eye care
Diabetic retinopathy - care

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes eye exams
Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes insipidus
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon condition in which the kidneys are unable to prevent the excretion of water. DI is not the same as diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. However, untreated, both DI and...

Special Topics
Diabetes myths and facts
Diabetes - common myths and facts; High blood sugar myths and facts

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes tests and checkups
Routine diabetes tests; Diabetes - prevention

Nutrition
Diabetes type 2 - meal planning
When you have type 2 diabetes, taking time to plan your meals goes a long way toward controlling your blood sugar and weight. type 2 diabetes

Special Topics
Diabetes – resources

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome
Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) is a complication of type 2 diabetes. It involves extremely high blood sugar (glucose) level without the presence of ketones. type 2 diabetes

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening problem that affects people with diabetes. It occurs when the body starts breaking down fat at a rate that is much too fast. The liver processes the fat...

Special Topics
Diet for rapid weight loss
Very low-calorie diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid weight loss; Obesity - rapid weight loss; Diet - rapid weight loss; Intermittent...

Diseases & Conditions
Drug-induced low blood sugar
Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. low blood sugar

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Diseases & Conditions
Ectopic Cushing syndrome
Ectopic Cushing syndrome is a form of Cushing syndrome in which a tumor outside the pituitary gland produces a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cushing syndrome

Diseases & Conditions
Empty sella syndrome
Empty sella syndrome is a condition in which the pituitary gland shrinks or becomes flattened.

Special Topics
Endocrine glands
Endocrine glands release (secrete) hormones into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands include: AdrenalHypothalamusIslets of Langerhans in the pancreasOvariesParathyroidPinealPituitaryTestesThyroid Adrenal...

Special Topics
Estimated average glucose (eAG)
eAG

Tests
Estradiol blood test
An estradiol test measures the amount of a hormone called estradiol in the blood. Estradiol is one of the main types of estrogens.

Diseases & Conditions
Excessive or unwanted hair in women
Most of the time, women have fine hair above their lips and on their chin, chest, abdomen, or back. The growth of coarse dark hair in these areas (more typical of male-pattern hair growth) is called hirsutism...

Self-Care Instructions
Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones
Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise

Diseases & Conditions
Exogenous Cushing syndrome
Exogenous Cushing syndrome is a form of Cushing syndrome that occurs in people taking glucocorticoid (also called corticosteroid, or steroid) hormones. Cushing syndrome

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Diseases & Conditions
Factitious hyperthyroidism
Factitious hyperthyroidism is higher-than-normal thyroid hormone levels in the blood and symptoms that suggest hyperthyroidism. It occurs from taking too much thyroid hormone medicine. Hyperthyroidism is...

Diseases & Conditions
Familial combined hyperlipidemia
Familial combined hyperlipidemia is a disorder that is passed down through families. It causes high cholesterol and high blood triglycerides. high blood triglycerides

Diseases & Conditions
Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia
Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia is a disorder passed down through families. It causes high amounts of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Familial hypercholesterolemia
Familial hypercholesterolemia is a disorder that is passed down through families. It causes LDL (bad) cholesterol level to be very high. The condition begins at birth and can cause heart attacks at an early...

Diseases & Conditions
Familial hypertriglyceridemia
Familial hypertriglyceridemia is a common disorder passed down through families. It causes a higher-than-normal level of triglycerides (a type of fat) in a person's blood.

Tests
Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid
Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid gland is a procedure to remove thyroid cells for examination. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located inside the front of the lower neck.

Tests
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test
The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, located on the underside of the brain.

Tests
Free T4 test
T4 (thyroxine) is the main hormone produced by the thyroid gland. A laboratory test can be done to measure the amount of free T4 in your blood. Free T4 is the thyroxine that is not attached to a protein...

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Tests
Gastrin blood test
The gastrin blood test measures the amount of the hormone gastrin in blood.

Nutrition
Gestational diabetes diet
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that starts during pregnancy. Eating a balanced, healthy diet can help you manage gestational diabetes. The diet recommendations that follow are for women...

Diseases & Conditions
Gigantism
Gigantism is abnormal growth due to an excess of growth hormone (GH) during childhood. growth hormone

Self-Care Instructions
Giving an insulin injection
Diabetes - insulin injection; Diabetic - insulin shot

Tests
Glucagon blood test
A glucagon blood test measures the amount of a hormone called glucagon in your blood. Glucagon is produced by cells in the pancreas. It helps control your blood sugar level by increasing blood sugar when...

Diseases & Conditions
Glucagonoma
Glucagonoma is a very rare tumor of the islet cells of the pancreas, which leads to an excess of the hormone glucagon in the blood. tumor

Tests
Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant
The glucose tolerance test is a lab test to check how your body moves sugar from the blood into tissues like muscle and fat. The test is often used to diagnose diabetes. Tests to screen for diabetes during...

Diseases & Conditions
Graves disease
Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). An autoimmune disorder is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy...

Diseases & Conditions
Growth hormone deficiency - children
Growth hormone deficiency means the pituitary gland does not make enough growth hormone.

Tests
Growth hormone stimulation test
The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH.

Tests
Growth hormone suppression test
The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone (GH) production is being suppressed by high blood sugar.

Tests
Growth hormone test
The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in the blood. The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which causes a child to grow. This gland is located at the base of the brain.

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Symptoms
Heat intolerance
Heat intolerance is a feeling of being overheated when the temperature around you rises. It can often cause heavy sweating. Heat intolerance usually comes on slowly and lasts for a long time, but it may...

Self-Care Instructions
High blood sugar - self-care
Hyperglycemia - self care; High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar

Self-Care Instructions
Home blood sugar testing
Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing

Special Topics
Hormonal effects in newborns
Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies are exposed to many chemicals (hormones) that are in the mother's bloodstream. After birth, the infants are no longer exposed to these hormones...

Symptoms
Hump on upper back (dorsocervical fat pad)
A hump on the upper back between the shoulder blades is an area of fat accumulation on the back of the neck. The medical name of this condition is dorsocervical fat pad.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypercalcemia
Hypercalcemia means you have too much calcium in your blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Hyperparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism is a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in your neck produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH).

Diseases & Conditions
Hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone. The condition is often called overactive thyroid.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypervitaminosis A
Hypervitaminosis A is a disorder in which there is too much vitamin A in the body. vitamin A

Diseases & Conditions
Hypervitaminosis D
Hypervitaminosis D is a condition that occurs after taking very high doses of vitamin D. vitamin D

Diseases & Conditions
Hypogonadism
Hypogonadism occurs when the body's sex glands produce little or no hormones. In men, these glands (gonads) are the testes. In women, these glands are the ovaries.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
Hypogonadism is a condition in which the male testes or the female ovaries produce little or no sex hormones. Hypogonadism testes Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a form of hypogonadism that is due...

Diseases & Conditions
Hypoparathyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in the neck do not produce enough parathyroid hormone (PTH).

Diseases & Conditions
Hypopituitarism
Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypothalamic dysfunction
Hypothalamic dysfunction is a problem with part of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus helps control the pituitary gland and regulates many body functions. hypothalamus

Special Topics
Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that produces hormones that control: Body temperatureHungerMoodRelease of hormones from many glands, especially the pituitary glandSex driveSleepThirstHeart rate...

Diseases & Conditions
Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. This condition is often called underactive thyroid.

In-depth Report
Hypothyroidism
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of hypothyroidism.

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Tests
Insulin C-peptide test
C-peptide is a substance that is created when the hormone insulin is produced and released into the body. The insulin C-peptide test measures the amount of this product in the blood.

Special Topics
Insulin and syringes - storage and safety
Diabetes - insulin storage

Special Topics
Insulin pumps
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; CSII; Diabetes - insulin pumps

Diseases & Conditions
Insulinoma
An insulinoma is a tumor in the pancreas that produces too much insulin. tumor

Diseases & Conditions
Intersex
Intersex is a group of conditions where there is a discrepancy between the external genitals and the internal genitals (the testes and ovaries). The older term for this condition is hermaphroditism. Although...

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Tests
Ketones blood test
A ketone blood test measures the amount of ketones in the blood. Ketones can also be measured with a urine test. urine test

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Tests
LH response to GnRH blood test
LH response to GnRH is a blood test to help determine if your pituitary gland can correctly respond to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). LH stands for luteinizing hormone.

Diseases & Conditions
Lactic acidosis
Lactic acidosis refers to lactic acid build up in the bloodstream. Lactic acid is produced when oxygen levels become low in cells within the areas of the body where metabolism takes place. lactic acid

Self-Care Instructions
Long-term complications of diabetes
Diabetic complications - long term

Diseases & Conditions
Low blood potassium
Low blood potassium level is a condition in which the amount of potassium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical name of this condition is hypokalemia.

Diseases & Conditions
Low blood sugar
Low blood sugar is a condition that occurs when the body's blood sugar (glucose) decreases and is too low. Blood sugar below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) is considered low. Blood sugar at or below this level can...

Self-Care Instructions
Low blood sugar - self-care
Hypoglycemia - self care; Low blood glucose - self care

Tests
Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test
The LH blood test measures the amount of luteinizing hormone (LH) in blood. LH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, located on the underside of the brain.

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Self-Care Instructions
Managing menopause at home
Perimenopause - self-care; Hormone replacement therapy - self-care; HRT- self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Managing your blood sugar
Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing

Self-Care Instructions
Medicines for osteoporosis
Alendronate (Fosamax); Ibandronate (Boniva); Risedronate (Actonel); Zoledronic acid (Reclast); Raloxifene (Evista); Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Romosozumab (Evenity); Low bone density - medicines...

Diseases & Conditions
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic acidosis is a condition in which there is too much acid in the body fluids.

Diseases & Conditions
Metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is a name for a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the chance of having coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. coronary artery disease stroke type 2...

Special Topics
Metabolism
Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, such as: BreathingCirculating bloodControlling body temperatureContracting musclesDigesting food and...

Diseases & Conditions
Methylmalonic acidemia
Methylmalonic acidemia is a disorder in which the body cannot break down certain proteins and fats. The result is a buildup of a substance called methylmalonic acid in the blood. This condition is passed...

Tests
Microalbuminuria test
This test looks for a protein called albumin in a urine sample. Albumin can also be measured using a blood test or another urine test, called the protein urine test. blood test protein urine test

Diseases & Conditions
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type I is a disease in which one or more of the endocrine glands are overactive or forms a tumor. It is passed down through families. Endocrine glands most commonly involved...

Diseases & Conditions
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II
Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed down through families in which one or more of the endocrine glands are overactive or form a tumor. Endocrine glands most commonly involved...

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Diseases & Conditions
Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum
Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is an uncommon skin condition related to diabetes. It results in reddish brown areas of the skin, most commonly on the lower legs. diabetes

Diseases & Conditions
Neonatal hypothyroidism
Neonatal hypothyroidism is decreased thyroid hormone production in a newborn. In very rare cases, no thyroid hormone is produced.  The condition is also called congenital hypothyroidism. Congenital means...

Diseases & Conditions
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a disorder in which a defect in the small tubes (tubules) in the kidneys causes a person to pass a large amount of urine and lose too much water.

Self-Care Instructions
Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care
Diabetic neuropathy - self-care

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Diseases & Conditions
Obesity
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as being overweight, which means weighing too much. A person may be overweight from extra muscle or water, as well as from having too much fat...

Diseases & Conditions
Osteitis fibrosa
Osteitis fibrosa is a complication of hyperparathyroidism, a condition in which certain bones become abnormally weak and deformed. hyperparathyroidism

Diseases & Conditions
Osteomalacia
Osteomalacia is softening of the bones. It most often occurs because of a problem with vitamin D, which helps your body absorb calcium. Your body needs calcium to maintain the strength and hardness of your...

Diseases & Conditions
Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break (fracture).

Diseases & Conditions
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a problem that is sometimes seen in women who take fertility medicines that stimulate egg production.

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Diseases & Conditions
Paget disease of the bone
Paget disease is a disorder that involves abnormal bone destruction and regrowth. This results in deformity of the affected bones.

Diseases & Conditions
Pancreatic islet cell tumor
A pancreatic islet cell tumor is a rare tumor of the pancreas that starts from a type of cell called the islet cell. tumor

Diseases & Conditions
Parathyroid adenoma
A parathyroid adenoma is a noncancerous (benign) tumor of the parathyroid glands.  The parathyroid glands are located in the neck, near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland.

Diseases & Conditions
Parathyroid cancer
Parathyroid cancer is a cancerous (malignant) growth in a parathyroid gland. malignant

Tests
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test
The PTH test measures the level of parathyroid hormone in the blood. PTH stands for parathyroid hormone. It is a protein hormone released by the parathyroid gland. A laboratory test can be done to measure...

Tests
Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test
The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein.

Diseases & Conditions
Parathyroid hyperplasia
Parathyroid hyperplasia is the enlargement of all 4 parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are located in the neck, near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland.

Diseases & Conditions
Pellagra
Pellagra is a disease that occurs when a person does not get enough niacin (one of the B complex vitamins) or tryptophan (an amino acid). niacin tryptophan

Diseases & Conditions
Pheochromocytoma
Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue. It results in the release of too much epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones that control heart rate, metabolism, and blood pressure. tumor

Tests
Phosphorus blood test
The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Pituitary apoplexy
Pituitary apoplexy is a rare, but serious condition of the pituitary gland.

Diseases & Conditions
Pituitary tumor
A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. The pituitary is a small gland at the base of the brain. It regulates the body's balance of many hormones.

Self-Care Instructions
Pre-existing diabetes and pregnancy
Pregnancy - diabetes; Diabetes and pregnancy care; Pregnancy with diabetes

Diseases & Conditions
Precocious puberty
Puberty is the time during which a person's sexual and physical characteristics mature. Precocious puberty is when these body changes happen earlier than normal.

Self-Care Instructions
Prediabetes
Impaired fasting glucose - prediabetes; Impaired glucose tolerance - prediabetes

Diseases & Conditions
Primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism
Hyperaldosteronism is a disorder in which the adrenal gland releases too much of the hormone aldosterone into the blood. adrenal gland aldosterone Hyperaldosteronism can be primary or secondary.

Tests
Prolactin blood test
Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Prolactinoma
A prolactinoma is a noncancerous (benign) pituitary tumor that produces a hormone called prolactin. This results in too much prolactin in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Pseudohypoparathyroidism
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a genetic disorder in which the body fails to respond to parathyroid hormone. parathyroid hormone A related condition is hypoparathyroidism, in which the body does not...

Special Topics
Puberty in boys
Well child - puberty in boys; Development - puberty in boys

Special Topics
Puberty in girls
Well child - puberty in girls; Development - puberty in girls; Menstruation - puberty in girls; Breast development - puberty in girls

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Tests
Radioactive iodine uptake
Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) tests thyroid function. It measures how much radioactive iodine is taken up by your thyroid gland in a certain time period. A similar test is the thyroid scan. The 2 tests...

Surgery
Radioiodine therapy
Radioiodine therapy uses radioactive iodine to shrink or kill thyroid cells. It is used to treat certain diseases of the thyroid gland.

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Diseases & Conditions
Scleredema diabeticorum
Scleredema diabeticorum is a skin condition that occurs in some people with diabetes. It causes skin to become thick and hard on the back of the neck, shoulders, arms, and upper back.

Tests
Serum progesterone
Serum progesterone is a test to measure the amount of progesterone in the blood. Progesterone is a hormone produced mainly in the ovaries. Progesterone plays a key role in pregnancy. It is produced after...

Symptoms
Short stature
A child who has short stature is much shorter than children who are the same age and sex. Your health care provider will go over your child's growth chart with you. A child with short stature's height is...

Diseases & Conditions
Silent thyroiditis
Silent thyroiditis is an immune reaction of the thyroid gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism, followed by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, just above where your collarbones...

Diseases & Conditions
Simple goiter
A simple goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is usually not a tumor or cancer.

Self-Care Instructions
Snacking when you have diabetes
Healthy snacking - diabetes; Low blood sugar - snacking; Hypoglycemia - snacking

Tests
Sodium blood test
The sodium blood test measures the concentration of sodium in the blood. Sodium can also be measured using a urine test. urine test

Diseases & Conditions
Subacute thyroiditis
Subacute thyroiditis is an immune reaction of the thyroid gland that often follows an upper respiratory infection. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, just above where your collarbones meet in the...

Symptoms
Sweating
Sweating is the release of liquid from the body's sweat glands. This liquid contains salt. This process is also called perspiration. Sweating helps your body stay cool. Sweat is commonly found under the...

Diseases & Conditions
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a condition in which the body makes too much antidiuretic hormone (ADH). This hormone helps the kidneys control the amount of water your...

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Tests
T3 test
Triiodothyronine (T3) is a thyroid hormone. It plays an important role in the body's control of metabolism (the many processes that control the rate of activity in cells and tissues). A laboratory test...

Tests
T3RU test
The T3RU test measures the level of proteins that carry thyroid hormone in the blood. This can help your health care provider interpret the results of T3 and T4 blood tests. T3 T4 Because tests called the...

Tests
TBG blood test
The TBG blood test measures the level of a protein that moves thyroid hormone throughout your body. This protein is called thyroxine binding globulin (TBG).

Tests
TSH test
A TSH test measures the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland. It prompts the thyroid gland to make and release thyroid hormones into the blood...

Tests
TSI test
TSI stands for thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin. TSIs are antibodies that tell the thyroid gland to become more active and release excess amounts of thyroid hormone into the blood. A TSI test measures...

Diseases & Conditions
Testicular failure
Testicular failure occurs when the testicles cannot produce sperm or male hormones, such as testosterone. testicles

Tests
Testosterone
A testosterone test measures the amount of the male hormone, testosterone, in the blood. Both men and women produce this hormone. The test described in this article measures the total amount of testosterone...

Tests
Thyroid function tests
Thyroid function tests are used to check whether your thyroid is working normally. The most common thyroid function tests are: Free T4 (the main thyroid hormone in your blood -- a precursor for T3)TSH ...

Diseases & Conditions
Thyroid nodule
A thyroid nodule is a growth (lump) in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck, just above where your collarbones meet in the middle.

Tests
Thyroid peroxidase antibody
Microsomes are found inside thyroid cells. The body produces antibodies to microsomes when there has been damage to thyroid cells. The antithyroid microsomal antibody test measures these antibodies in the...

Tests
Thyroid scan
A thyroid scan uses a radioactive iodine tracer to examine the structure and function of the thyroid gland. This test is often done together with a radioactive iodine uptake test. radioactive iodine uptake...

Diseases & Conditions
Thyroid storm
Thyroid storm is a very rare, but life-threatening condition of the thyroid gland that develops in cases of untreated thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid). hyperthyroidism The thyroid...

Tests
Thyroid ultrasound
A thyroid ultrasound is an imaging method to see the thyroid, a gland in the neck that regulates metabolism (the many processes that control the rate of activity in cells and tissues). metabolism

Diseases & Conditions
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a condition in which there are episodes of severe muscle weakness. It occurs in people who have high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood (hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis...

Diseases & Conditions
Toxic nodular goiter
Toxic nodular goiter involves an enlarged thyroid gland. The gland contains areas that have increased in size and formed nodules. One or more of these nodules produce too much thyroid hormone.

Diseases & Conditions
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

Self-Care Instructions
Type 2 diabetes - self-care
Type 2 diabetes - managing

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Type 2 diabetes - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your provider about diabetes - type 2

Special Topics
Types of hormone therapy
HRT- types; Estrogen replacement therapy - types; ERT- types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone types

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Diseases & Conditions
VIPoma
VIPoma is a very rare cancer that usually grows from cells in the pancreas called islet cells.

Tests
Vasoactive intestinal peptide test
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount of VIP in the blood.

Special Topics
Virilization
Virilization is a condition in which a female develops characteristics associated with male hormones (androgens), or when a newborn has characteristics of male hormone exposure at birth.

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Diseases & Conditions
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is a group of symptoms resulting from the failure of the adrenal glands to function normally as a result of bleeding into the gland.

In-depth Report
Weight control and diet
An in-depth report on losing and managing weight safely for health benefits.

Symptoms
Weight gain – unintentional
Unintentional weight gain is when you gain weight without trying to do so and you are not eating or drinking more.

Special Topics
What causes bone loss?
Osteoporosis - causes; Low bone density - causes