Empyema - pleural; Pyothorax; Pleurisy - purulent
Empyema is a collection of pus in the space between the lung and the inner surface of the chest wall (pleural space).
Empyema is usually caused by an infection that spreads directly from the lung. It leads to a buildup of pus in the pleural space.
There can be 2 cups (1/2 liter) or more of infected fluid. This fluid puts pressure on the lungs.
Risk factors include:
- Bacterial pneumonia
- Chest surgery
- Lung abscess
- Trauma or injury to the chest
In rare cases, empyema can occur after thoracentesis. This is a procedure in which a needle is inserted through the chest wall to remove fluid in the pleural space for medical diagnosis or treatment.
Symptoms of empyema may include any of the following:
- Chest pain, which worsens when you breathe in deeply (pleurisy)
- Dry cough
- Excessive sweating, especially night sweats
- Fever and chills
- General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling (malaise)
- Shortness of breath
- Weight loss (unintentional)
Exams and Tests
The health care provider may note decreased breath sounds or an abnormal sound (friction rub) when listening to the chest with a stethoscope (auscultation).
Tests that may be ordered include:
The goal of treatment is to cure the infection. This involves the following:
- Placing a tube in your chest to drain the pus
- Giving you antibiotics to control the infection
If you have problems breathing, you may need surgery to help your lung expand properly.
When empyema complicates pneumonia, the risk for permanent lung damage and death goes up. Long-term treatment with antibiotics and drainage are needed.
In general, most people fully recover from empyema.
Having empyema may lead to the following:
- Pleural thickening
- Reduced lung function
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Contact your provider if you develop symptoms of empyema.
Prompt and effective treatment of lung infections may prevent some cases of empyema.
BroaddusVC, Light RW. Pleural effusion. In: Broaddus VC, Ernst JD, King TE, et al,eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook ofRespiratory Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 108.
McCool FD.Diseases of the diaphragm, chest wall, pleura, and mediastinum. In: Goldman L,Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA:Elsevier; 2020:chap 92.
Last reviewed on: 9/1/2021
Reviewed by: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Associate Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.