Basal cell skin cancer
Basal cell carcinoma; Rodent ulcer; Skin cancer - basal cell; Cancer - skin - basal cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer; Basal cell NMSC; Basal cell epithelioma
Basal cell cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Most skin cancers are basal cell cancer.
Other common types of skin cancer are:
If you're like many Americans, you've spent hours in the sun trying to get the perfect, golden tan. But tanning has its downsides, including an increased risk of skin cancers like basal cell carcinoma. Most people who get skin cancer have the basal cell carcinoma form. The good news is that this type of skin cancer grows very slowly compared to the more dangerous melanoma type. The bad news is, it's still cancer. You're more likely to get basal cell carcinoma on the parts of your skin that are exposed to the sun, like your scalp, if you don't wear a hat when you go outside. People who are fair-skinned, with blonde hair and blue eyes are also at greater risk for skin cancer than those with darker skin. To find out if you may have basal cell carcinoma, first, do a skin check. Look in a mirror and check your body for any bumps that look white, pink, or brown, or that have crusted over and bleed but don't heal. If you spot anything unusual on your skin, see your dermatologist. The doctor can perform a biopsy removing some or all of the growth and sending it to a lab where it can be checked for cancer. Basal cell carcinoma doesn't grow very quickly, and it's not likely to spread. Your doctor should be able to remove the bumps by cutting, scraping, or freezing it off. Once the cancer is removed, there's a good chance you'll be cured. But because skin cancer can come back, you always want to keep a close eye on your skin, and call your doctor if you notice any new growths. A lot of diseases are beyond your control, but skin cancer is one condition you do have some control over. The best way to avoid getting it is to stop sun worshipping. Seek shade during the hours when the sun is strongest, usually from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. and especially during the summer months. If you do have to be outside then, slather on a thick layer of sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, one that protects against both UVA and UVB rays. Reapply it often, if you're in the water where the sunscreen can wash off. Also wear a wide-brimmed hat, sunglasses, and long sleeves. If you want a healthy glow, get one from a bottle. Rubbing on a tanning cream is safer than exposing your skin to the sun.
The top layer of the skin is called the epidermis. The bottom layer of the epidermis is the basal cell layer. With basal cancer, cells in this layer are the ones that become cancerous. Most basal cell cancers occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation.
This type of skin cancer is most common in people over age 50. But it can also occur in younger people who have had extensive sun exposure. Basal cell cancer is almost always slow-growing. It rarely spreads to other parts of the body.
You are more likely to develop basal cell cancer if you have:
- Light-colored or freckled skin
- Blue, green, or grey eyes
- Blond or red hair
- Overexposure to x-rays or other forms of radiation
- Many moles
- Close relatives who have or had skin cancer
- Many severe sunburns early in life
- Long-term daily sun exposure (such as the sun exposure received by people who work outside)
Other risk factors include:
- Weakened immune system, such as being on medicines that suppress the immune system after an organ transplant
- Inherited skin diseases, such as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome
- Having had photodynamic therapy
Basal cell cancer usually grows slowly and is often painless. It may not look that different from your normal skin. You may have a skin bump or growth that is:
- Pearly or waxy
- White or light pink
- Flesh-colored or brown
- A red, scaly patch of skin
In some cases, the skin is just slightly raised, or even flat.
You may have:
- A skin sore that bleeds easily
- A sore that does not heal
- Oozing or crusting spots in a sore
- A scar-like sore without having injured the area
- Irregular blood vessels in or around the spot
- A sore with a depressed (sunken) area in the middle
Exams and Tests
Your doctor will check your skin and look at the size, shape, color, and texture of any suspicious areas.
If your doctor thinks you might have skin cancer, a piece of skin will be removed. This is called a skin biopsy. The sample is sent to a lab for examination under a microscope.
A skin biopsy must be done to confirm basal cell cancer or other skin cancers.
Treatment depends on the size, depth, and location of the skin cancer and your overall health. Each treatment has its risks and benefits. You and your doctor can discuss the treatment that's right for you.
Treatment may involve any of the following:
- Excision: Cutting out the skin cancer and stitching the skin together
- Curettage and electrodessication: Scraping away cancer cells and using electricity to kill any that remain; used to treat cancers that are not large or deep; often curettage is used alone without electrodessication
- Cryosurgery: Freezing the cancer cells, which kills them; used to treat cancers that are not large or deep
- Medicine: Skin creams that have medicine; used to treat cancers that are not large or deep
- Mohs surgery: Removing a layer of skin and looking at it immediately under a microscope, then removing layers of skin until there are no signs of the cancer; usually used for skin cancers on the nose, ears, and other areas of the face
- Photodynamic therapy: Using a light-activated chemical to treat cancers that are not large or deep
- Radiation therapy: May be used if a basal cell cancer cannot be treated with surgery
- Chemotherapy: May be used in the rare instances of basal cell cancer that has spread to other parts of the body or that cannot be treated with surgery
- Biologic therapies (immunotherapies): Medicines that target and kill basal cell skin cancer and are used when standard treatments do not work
You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.
Most of these cancers are cured when treated early. Some basal cell cancers return in the same location. Smaller ones are less likely to come back.
Basal cell skin cancer almost never spreads beyond the original location. Left untreated, however, it may spread into surrounding areas and nearby tissues and bone.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Contact your health care provider for an appointment if you have a sore or spot on your skin that changes in:
Also contact your provider if a spot becomes painful or swollen, or if it starts to bleed or itch.
The American Cancer Society recommends that a provider examine your skin every year if you are older than 40 and every 3 years if you are 20 to 40 years old. You should also examine your own skin once a month. Use a hand mirror for hard-to-see places. Contact your doctor if you notice anything unusual.
The best way to prevent skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight. Always use sunscreen:
- Apply sunscreen with sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30, even when you are going outdoors for a short time.
- Apply a large amount of sunscreen on all exposed areas, including ears and feet.
- Look for sunscreen that blocks both UVA and UVB light.
- Use a water-resistant sunscreen.
- Apply sunscreen at least 30 minutes before going out. Follow package instructions about how often to reapply. Be sure to reapply after swimming or sweating.
- Use sunscreen in winter and on cloudy days too.
Other measures to help you avoid too much sun exposure:
- Ultraviolet light is most intense between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Try to avoid the sun during these hours.
- Protect the skin by wearing wide-brim hats, long-sleeve shirts, long skirts, or pants. You can also buy sun-protective clothing.
- Avoid surfaces that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white.
- The higher the altitude, the faster your skin burns.
- Do not use sun lamps and tanning beds (salons). Spending 15 to 20 minutes at a tanning salon is as dangerous as a day spent in the sun.
Dinulos JGH. Premalignant and malignant nonmelanoma skin tumors. In: Dinulos JGH, ed. Habif's Clinical Dermatology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 21.
National Cancer Institute website. Skin cancer treatment (PDQ) - health professional version.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network website. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines): Basal cell skin cancer. Version 2.2022.
US Preventive Services Task Force, Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, et al. Screening for skin cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2016;316(4):429-435. PMID 27458948
Last reviewed on: 8/14/2021
Reviewed by: Elika Hoss, MD, Senior Associate Consultant, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Editorial update 04/14/2022.