Joint inflammation; Joint degeneration

Arthritis is inflammation or degeneration of one or more joints. A joint is the area where 2 bones meet. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis.


Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease of the joint cartilage and bone, often thought to result from wear and tear on a joint, although there are other causes such as congenital defects, trauma and metabolic disorders. Joints appear larger, are stiff and painful and usually feel worse the more they are used throughout the day.


Osteoarthritis is associated with the aging process and can affect any joint. The cartilage of the affected joint is gradually worn down, eventually causing bone to rub against bone. Bony spurs develop on the unprotected bones causing pain and inflammation.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks itself. The pattern of joints affected is usually symmetrical, involves the hands and other joints and is worse in the morning. Rheumatoid arthritis is also a systemic disease, involving other body organs, whereas osteoarthritis is limited to the joints. Over time, both forms of arthritis can be crippling.

Rheumatoid arthritis

The affect of rheumatoid arthritis can progress to the degree that it is crippling. Deformities distinctive to late-stage rheumatoid arthritis such as ulnar deviation of the bones of the hands, or swan-neck deviation of the fingers occur because muscles and tendons on one side of the joint may overpower those on the other side, pulling the bones out of alignment.

Osteoarthritis vs. rheumatoid arthritis

Osteoarthritis is a deterioration of cartilage and overgrowth of bone often due to wear and tear. Rheumatoid arthritis is the inflammation of a joint's connective tissues, such as the synovial membranes, which leads to the destruction of the articular cartilage.

Arthritis in hip

Cartilage normally protects the joint, allowing for smooth movement. Cartilage also absorbs shock when pressure is placed on the joint, like when walking. Arthritis involves the breakdown of cartilage. Without the usual amount of cartilage, the bones of the joint rub together, causing pain, swelling and stiffness.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is another form of arthritis. The body's own immune system attacks a joint's synovial membrane, which secretes fluid and lines the joint. The synovium becomes inflamed, produces excess fluid, and the cartilage becomes rough and pitted.

Knee joint replacement - Series

The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal end of the femur (the femoral condyles) and the proximal end of the tibia (the tibial plateau). The femoral condyles usually glide smoothly on the tibial plateau. This allows the lower leg to move smoothly and painlessly.

Hip joint replacement - Series

The hip joint is made up of two major parts: the hip socket (a part of the pelvic bone called the acetabulum) and the beginning part of the thighbone (called the femur).



Exams and Tests


Outlook (Prognosis)

Possible Complications

When to Contact a Medical Professional