Psychiatry

Psychiatry deals with prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Psychiatrists use both medication and talk therapy in treatment. Common conditions include depression, anxiety, substance abuse, psychoses, developmental disabilities, and sexual dysfunction.

Learn more about psychiatry at the Mount Sinai Health System

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Diseases & Conditions
Adjustment disorder
Adjustment disorder is a group of symptoms, such as stress, feeling sad or hopeless, and physical symptoms that can occur after you go through a stressful life event. The symptoms occur because you are...

Symptoms
Agitation
Agitation is an unpleasant state of extreme arousal. An agitated person may feel stirred up, excited, tense, confused, or irritable.

Diseases & Conditions
Agoraphobia
Agoraphobia is an intense fear and anxiety of being in places where it is hard to escape, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside...

Special Topics
Alcohol use and safe drinking
Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor.

Diseases & Conditions
Alcohol use disorder
Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. You may also need more and more alcohol to feel drunk. Stopping suddenly may cause withdrawal symptoms...

In-depth Report
Alcohol use disorders
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of alcohol use disorder.

Diseases & Conditions
Alcoholic ketoacidosis
Alcoholic ketoacidosis is the buildup of ketones in the blood due to alcohol use. Ketones are a type of acid that form when the body breaks down fat for energy. The condition is an acute form of metabolic...

Diseases & Conditions
Alzheimer disease
Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. It affects memory, thinking, and behavior.

Diseases & Conditions
Anorexia
Anorexia is an eating disorder that causes people lose more weight than is considered healthy for their age and height. People with this disorder may have an intense fear of weight gain, even when they...

Diseases & Conditions
Antisocial personality disorder
Antisocial personality disorder is a mental condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others without any remorse. This behavior may cause...

In-depth Report
Anxiety disorders
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of anxiety.

Diseases & Conditions
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by the presence of one or more of these findings: not being able to focus, being overactive, or not being able to control behavior.

In-depth Report
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ADHD.

Diseases & Conditions
Autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder. It often appears in the first 3 years of life. ASD affects the brain's ability to develop normal social and communication skills.

Diseases & Conditions
Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome
Asperger syndrome is often considered a high functioning form of autism. It can lead to difficulty interacting socially, repeat behaviors, and clumsiness. Asperger syndrome is a part of the larger developmental...

Diseases & Conditions
Avoidant personality disorder
Avoidant personality disorder is a mental condition in which a person has a lifelong pattern of feeling very: ShyInadequateSensitive to rejection Shy Inadequate Sensitive to rejection

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Symptoms
Binge eating disorder
Binge eating is an eating disorder in which a person regularly eats unusually large amounts of food. During binge eating, the person also feels a loss of control and is not able to stop eating.

In-depth Report
Bipolar disorder
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of bipolar disorder.

Diseases & Conditions
Bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder is a mental condition in which a person has wide or extreme swings in their mood. Periods of feeling sad and depressed may alternate with periods of intense excitement and activity or being...

Diseases & Conditions
Borderline personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental condition in which a person has long-term patterns of unstable or turbulent emotions. These inner experiences often result in impulsive actions and chaotic...

Diseases & Conditions
Brief psychotic disorder
Brief psychotic disorder is a sudden, short-term display of psychotic behavior, such as hallucinations or delusions, which occurs with a stressful event. hallucinations

Diseases & Conditions
Bulimia
Bulimia is an eating disorder in which a person has regular episodes of eating a very large amount of food (bingeing) during which the person feels a loss of control over eating. The person then uses different...

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Self-Care Instructions
Can't sleep? Try these tips

Self-Care Instructions
Changing your sleep habits
Insomnia - sleep habits; Sleep disorder - sleep habits; Problems falling asleep; Sleep hygiene

Diseases & Conditions
Child neglect and emotional abuse
Neglect and emotional abuse can cause a child a lot of harm. It is often hard to see or prove this kind of abuse, so other people are less likely to help the child. When a child is being physically or sexually...

Diseases & Conditions
Cocaine intoxication
Cocaine is an illegal stimulant drug that affects your central nervous system. Cocaine comes from the coca plant. When used, cocaine causes the brain to release higher than normal amounts of some chemicals...

Diseases & Conditions
Cocaine withdrawal
Cocaine withdrawal occurs when someone who has used a lot of cocaine cuts down or quits taking the drug. Symptoms of withdrawal can occur even if the user is not completely off cocaine and still has some...

Diseases & Conditions
Compulsive gambling
Compulsive gambling is being unable to resist impulses to gamble. This can lead to severe money problems, job loss, crime or fraud, and damage to family relationships.

Diseases & Conditions
Conduct disorder
Conduct disorder is a set of ongoing emotional and behavioral problems that occurs in children and teens. Problems may involve defiant or impulsive behavior, drug use, or criminal activity.

Diseases & Conditions
Conversion disorder
Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person has blindness, paralysis, or other nervous system (neurologic) symptoms that cannot be explained by medical evaluation.

Diseases & Conditions
Cyclothymic disorder
Cyclothymic disorder is a mental disorder. It is a mild form of bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness), in which a person has mood swings over a period of years that go from mild depression to emotional...

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Self-Care Instructions
Deciding to quit drinking alcohol
Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit

Diseases & Conditions
Dementia
Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior.

Self-Care Instructions
Dementia - behavior and sleep problems
Sundowning - care

Self-Care Instructions
Dementia - daily care

Self-Care Instructions
Dementia - keeping safe in the home

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Dementia - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about dementia; Alzheimer disease - what to ask your doctor; Cognitive impairment - what to ask your doctor

Diseases & Conditions
Dependent personality disorder
Dependent personality disorder is a mental condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional and physical needs.

Symptoms
Depression
Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of us feel this way at one time or another for short periods. Clinical depression is a mood disorder in which...

In-depth Report
Depression
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of depression.

Special Topics
Depression - resources

Self-Care Instructions
Depression - stopping your medicines

Diseases & Conditions
Depression in older adults
Depression is a mental health condition. It is a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with daily life for weeks or longer. Depression in older adults is a widespread...

Diseases & Conditions
Developmental coordination disorder
Developmental coordination disorder is a childhood disorder. It leads to poor coordination and clumsiness.

Diseases & Conditions
Developmental reading disorder
Developmental reading disorder is a reading disability that occurs when the brain does not properly recognize and process certain symbols. It is also called dyslexia.

Special Topics
Discipline in children
All children misbehave sometimes. As a parent, you have to decide how you will respond. Your child needs rules to understand how to behave. Discipline involves both punishment and rewards. When you discipline...

Special Topics
Do you have a drinking problem?
Alcohol use disorder - drinking problem; Alcohol abuse - drinking problem; Alcoholism - drinking problem; Alcohol dependence - drinking problem; Alcohol addiction - drinking problem

Symptoms
Drowsiness
Drowsiness refers to feeling abnormally sleepy during the day. People who are drowsy may fall asleep in inappropriate situations or at inappropriate times.

Diseases & Conditions
Dysgraphia
Dysgraphia is a childhood learning disorder that involves poor writing skills. It is also called disorder of written expression.

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In-depth Report
Eating disorders
An in-depth report on the treatment and prevention of eating disorders.

Surgery
Electroconvulsive therapy
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) uses an electric current to treat depression and some other mental illnesses. depression

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Diseases & Conditions
Gender dysphoria
Gender dysphoria is the term for a deep sense of unease and distress that may occur when your biological sex does not match your gender identity. In the past, this was called gender identity disorder. For...

Diseases & Conditions
Generalized anxiety disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental disorder in which a person is often worried or anxious about many things and finds it hard to control this anxiety.

Self-Care Instructions
Generalized anxiety disorder - self-care
GAD - self-care; Anxiety - self-care; Anxiety disorder - self-care

Diseases & Conditions
Generalized anxiety disorder in children
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental disorder in which a child is often worried or anxious about many things and finds it hard to control this anxiety.

Diseases & Conditions
Grief
Grief is a reaction to a major loss of someone or something. It is most often an unhappy and painful emotion.

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Symptoms
Hallucinations
Hallucinations involve sensing things such as visions, sounds, or smells that seem real but are not. These things are created by the mind.

Special Topics
Hangover treatment
A hangover is the unpleasant symptoms a person has after drinking too much alcohol. Symptoms can include: Headache and dizzinessNauseaFatigueSensitivity to light and soundRapid heartbeatDepression, anxiety...

Self-Care Instructions
Health risks of alcohol use
Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking

Self-Care Instructions
Heart disease and depression

Special Topics
Helping a loved one with a drinking problem
Alcohol abuse - helping a loved one; Alcohol use - helping a loved one

Self-Care Instructions
Helping your teen with depression
Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine

Diseases & Conditions
Histrionic personality disorder
Histrionic personality disorder is a mental condition in which people act in a very emotional and dramatic way that draws attention to themselves.

Self-Care Instructions
How to stop drinking
Alcohol abuse - how to stop; Alcohol use - how to stop; Alcoholism - how to stop

Symptoms
Hyperactivity
Hyperactivity means having increased movement, impulsive actions, and a shorter attention span, and being easily distracted.

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Special Topics
IQ testing
Intelligence quotient (IQ) testing is a series of exams used to determine your general intelligence in relation to other people of the same age.

Diseases & Conditions
Illness anxiety disorder
Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a preoccupation that physical symptoms are signs of a serious illness, even when there is no medical evidence to support the presence of an illness.

Diseases & Conditions
Insomnia
Insomnia is trouble falling asleep, staying asleep through the night, or waking up too early in the morning. Episodes of insomnia may come and go or be long-lasting. The quality of your sleep is as important...

In-depth Report
Insomnia
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of insomnia.

Diseases & Conditions
Intellectual disability
Intellectual disability is a condition diagnosed before age 18 that includes below-average intellectual function and a lack of skills necessary for daily living. In the past, the term mental retardation...

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Special Topics
Learn to manage stress
We all feel stress at one time or another. It's a normal and healthy reaction to change or a challenge. But stress that goes on for more than a few weeks can affect your health. Keep stress from making...

Self-Care Instructions
Learn to manage your anger

Self-Care Instructions
Learning about depression

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Diseases & Conditions
Major depression
Depression is feeling sad, blue, unhappy, or down in the dumps. Most people feel this way once in a while. Major depression is a mood disorder. It occurs when feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration...

Diseases & Conditions
Major depression with psychotic features
Major depression with psychotic features is a mental disorder in which a person has depression along with loss of touch with reality (psychosis).

Self-Care Instructions
Managing your depression - teens
Recognizing depression in your teen; Helping your teen with depression

Diseases & Conditions
Mathematics disorder
Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their age, intelligence, and education.

Diseases & Conditions
Medicines for ADHD
ADHD is a problem that most often affects children. Adults may be affected as well. People with ADHD may have problems with: ADHD Being able to focusBeing over activeImpulsive behavior Being able to focus...

Special Topics
Medicines for sleep
Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines

Tests
Mental status testing
Mental status testing is done to check a person's thinking ability, and to determine if any problems are getting better or worse. It is also called neurocognitive testing.

Diseases & Conditions
Munchausen syndrome by proxy
Munchausen syndrome by proxy is a mental illness and a form of child abuse. The caretaker of a child, most often a mother, either makes up fake symptoms or causes real symptoms to make it look like the...

Self-Care Instructions
Myths about drinking alcohol

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Diseases & Conditions
Narcissistic personality disorder
Narcissistic personality disorder is a mental condition in which a person has: An excessive sense of self-importanceAn extreme preoccupation with themselvesA lack of empathy for others An excessive sense...

Diseases & Conditions
Nicotine and tobacco
The nicotine in tobacco can be addictive like alcohol, cocaine, and morphine.

Symptoms
Nightmares
A nightmare is a bad dream that brings out strong feelings of fear, terror, distress, or anxiety. anxiety

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Diseases & Conditions
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations (obsessions), and behaviors that drive them to do something over...

Diseases & Conditions
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a mental condition in which a person is preoccupied with: RulesOrderlinessControl Rules Orderliness Control

Diseases & Conditions
Opiate and opioid withdrawal
Opiates or opioids are drugs used to treat pain. The term narcotic refers to either type of drug. If you stop or cut back on these drugs after heavy use of a few weeks or more, you will have a number of...

Diseases & Conditions
Opioid intoxication
Opioid-based drugs include morphine, oxycodone, and synthetic (man-made) opioid narcotics, such as fentanyl. They are prescribed to treat pain after surgery or a dental procedure. Sometimes, they are used...

Diseases & Conditions
Oppositional defiant disorder
Oppositional defiant disorder is a pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.

Special Topics
Orgasmic dysfunction in women
Orgasmic dysfunction is when a woman either cannot reach orgasm, or has trouble reaching orgasm when she is sexually excited. When sex is not enjoyable, it can become a chore instead of a satisfying, intimate...

Special Topics
Overcoming job stress

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Diseases & Conditions
Panic disorder
Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder in which you have repeated attacks of intense fear that something bad will happen.

Diseases & Conditions
Paranoid personality disorder
Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a mental condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of distrust and suspicion of others. The person does not have a full-blown psychotic disorder, such as...

Diseases & Conditions
Persistent depressive disorder
Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is a chronic (ongoing) type of depression in which a person's moods are regularly low. chronic Persistent depressive disorder used to be called dysthymia.

Diseases & Conditions
Personality disorders
Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern of behaviors, emotions, and thoughts that is very different from his or her culture's expectations. These...

Diseases & Conditions
Phobia - simple/specific
A phobia is an ongoing intense fear or anxiety of a certain object, animal, activity, or setting that poses little to no actual danger.

Diseases & Conditions
Phonological disorder
Phonological disorder is a type of speech sound disorder. Speech sound disorders are the inability to correctly form the sounds of words. Speech sound disorders also include articulation disorder, disfluency...

Diseases & Conditions
Pica
Pica is a pattern of eating non-food materials, such as dirt or paper.

Diseases & Conditions
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a type of anxiety disorder. It can occur after you have gone through an extreme emotional trauma that involved the threat of injury or death. anxiety disorder

Diseases & Conditions
Postpartum depression
Postpartum depression is moderate to severe depression in a woman after she has given birth. It may occur soon after delivery or up to a year later. Most of the time, it occurs within the first 3 months...

Diseases & Conditions
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a condition in which a woman has severe depression symptoms, irritability, and tension before menstruation. The symptoms of PMDD are more severe than those seen...

Self-Care Instructions
Premenstrual syndrome - self-care
PMS - self-care; Premenstrual dysphoric disorder - self-care

Diseases & Conditions
Psychosis
Psychosis occurs when a person loses contact with reality. The person may: Have false beliefs about what is taking place, or who one is (delusions)See or hear things that are not there (hallucinations)...

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Self-Care Instructions
Recognizing teen depression

Self-Care Instructions
Relaxation techniques for stress
Relaxation response techniques; Relaxation exercises

Special Topics
Remembering tips
People who have early memory loss can use a number of techniques to help with remembering things. Below are some tips.

Self-Care Instructions
Responsible drinking
Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking

Diseases & Conditions
Rumination disorder
Rumination disorder is a condition in which a person keeps bringing up food from the stomach into the mouth (regurgitation) and rechewing the food.

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Diseases & Conditions
Schizoaffective disorder
Schizoaffective disorder is a mental condition that causes both a loss of contact with reality (psychosis) and mood problems (depression or mania). psychosis

Diseases & Conditions
Schizoid personality disorder
Schizoid personality disorder is a mental condition in which a person has a lifelong pattern of indifference to others and social isolation.

Diseases & Conditions
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that makes it hard to tell the difference between what is real and not real. It also makes it hard to think clearly, have normal emotional responses, and act normally...

In-depth Report
Schizophrenia
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of schizophrenia

Diseases & Conditions
Schizotypal personality disorder
Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is a mental condition in which a person has trouble with relationships and disturbances in thought patterns, appearance, and behavior.

Diseases & Conditions
Seasonal affective disorder
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs at a certain time of the year, usually in winter.

Diseases & Conditions
Selective mutism
Selective mutism is a condition in which a child can speak, but then suddenly stops speaking. It most often takes place in school or social settings.

Special Topics
Sexual abuse in children - what to know
Sexual abuse - children

Special Topics
Sexual violence
Sexual violence is any sexual activity or contact that occurs without your consent. It may involve physical force or the threat of force. It may occur due to coercion or threats. If you have been the victim...

Special Topics
Sleep and your health

Diseases & Conditions
Social anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder is a persistent and irrational fear of situations that may involve scrutiny or judgment by others, such as at parties and other social events.

Diseases & Conditions
Somatic symptom disorder
Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) occurs when a person feels extreme, exaggerated anxiety about physical symptoms. The person has such intense thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to the symptoms, that...

In-depth Report
Stress
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of stress.

Symptoms
Stress and your health
Stress is a feeling of emotional or physical tension. It can come from any event or thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, or nervous. Stress is your body's reaction to a challenge or demand. In...

Special Topics
Substance use
Substance use is the continued use of alcohol, illegal drugs, or the misuse of prescription or over-the-counter drugs with negative consequences. These consequences may involve: Substance use Problems at...

Special Topics
Substance use - LSD
Substance abuse - LSD; Drug abuse - LSD; Drug use - LSD; Lysergic acid diethylamide; Hallucinogen - LSD

Special Topics
Substance use - amphetamines
Substance abuse - amphetamines; Drug abuse - amphetamines; Drug use - amphetamines

Special Topics
Substance use - cocaine
Substance abuse - cocaine; Drug abuse - cocaine; Drug use - cocaine

Special Topics
Substance use - inhalants
Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants

Special Topics
Substance use - marijuana
Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed

Special Topics
Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)
PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine

Special Topics
Substance use - prescription drugs
Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative...

Diseases & Conditions
Substance use disorder
Substance use disorder occurs when a person's use of alcohol or another substance (drug) leads to health issues or problems at work, school, or home. This disorder is also called substance abuse.

Special Topics
Substance use recovery and diet
Substance use harms the body in two ways: The substance itself affects the body. It causes negative lifestyle changes, such as irregular eating and poor diet. The substance itself affects the body. It causes...

Diseases & Conditions
Suicide and suicidal behavior
Suicide is the act of taking one's own life on purpose. Suicidal behavior is any action that could cause a person to die, such as taking a drug overdose or crashing a car on purpose.

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Special Topics
Teenagers and sleep

Diseases & Conditions
Trichotillomania
Trichotillomania is hair loss from repeated urges to pull or twist the hair until it breaks off. People are unable to stop this behavior, even as their hair becomes thinner.

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Tests
Urine drug screen
A urine drug screen is used to detect illegal and some prescription drugs in the urine.

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Self-Care Instructions
When you are drinking too much - tips for cutting back
Alcohol - drinking too much; Alcohol use disorder - drinking too much; Alcohol abuse - drinking too much; Risky drinking - cutting back