Turpentine oil poisoning
Turpentine oil comes from a substance in pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil or breathes in the fumes. Breathing these fumes on purpose is sometimes called "huffing" or "bagging." It is a member of a class of compounds known as hydrocarbons. Exposure to hydrocarbons, both intentional and unintentional, is a common problem resulting in thousands of calls to poison control centers each year.
This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you are with has an exposure, call the local emergency number (such as 911), or the local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.
Turpentine can be harmful if it is used incorrectly.
Turpentine is found in these products:
- Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes
- Some paint brush cleaners
- Pure turpentine
Other products may also contain turpentine.
Below are symptoms of turpentine poisoning in different parts of the body.
BLADDER AND KIDNEYS
- Blood in urine
- Kidney failure (no urine produced)
EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT
- Loss of vision
- Severe pain in the throat
- Severe pain or burning in the nose, eyes, ears, lips, or tongue
HEART AND BLOOD
- Low blood pressure that develops rapidly
LUNGS AND AIRWAYS
- Breathing difficulty (from breathing in turpentine)
- Severe cough or choking
- Throat swelling (which may also cause breathing difficulty)
- Convulsions (seizures)
- Euphoria (feeling of being drunk)
- Bluish skin color
- Blood in the stool
- Burns of the food pipe (esophagus)
- Severe abdominal pain
- Vomiting blood
Seek medical help right away. Do not make the person throw up unless poison control or a health care provider tells you to. If the turpentine is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes.
If the person swallowed turpentine, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not to. Do not give anything to drink if the person has symptoms that make it hard to swallow. These include vomiting, convulsions, or a decreased level of alertness. If the person breathed in the turpentine, move them to fresh air right away.
Before Calling Emergency
Have this information ready:
- Person's age, weight, and condition
- Name of the product (ingredients, if known)
- Time it was swallowed
- Amount swallowed
Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.
This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
What to Expect at the Emergency Room
Take the container with you to the hospital, if possible.
The provider will measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated.
The person may receive:
- Blood and urine tests.
- Breathing support, including a tube through the mouth and into the lungs, and a breathing machine (ventilator).
- Bronchoscopy -- camera placed down the throat to see burns in the airways and lungs.
- Chest x-ray.
- ECG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing).
- Endoscopy -- camera placed down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach.
- Fluids through the veins (by IV).
- Medicines to treat symptoms.
- Surgery to remove burned skin.
- Washing of the skin (irrigation), may need to be done every few hours for several days.
How well someone does depends on how much turpentine they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better the chance for recovery. Turpentine can cause extensive damage in the:
The outcome depends on the extent of this damage.
Delayed injury may occur, including a hole forming in the throat, esophagus, or stomach. This can lead to severe bleeding and infection. Surgical procedures may be needed to treat these complications.
If turpentine gets in the eye, ulcers may develop in the cornea, the clear part of the eye. This can cause blindness.
Theobald JL, Kostic MA. Poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 77.
Wang GS, Buchanan JA. Hydrocarbons. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 152.
Last reviewed on: 11/13/2021
Reviewed by: Jesse Borke, MD, CPE, FAAEM, FACEP, Attending Physician at Kaiser Permanente, Orange County, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.