Brief psychotic disorder
Brief reactive psychosis; Psychosis - brief psychotic disorder
Brief psychotic disorder is a sudden, short-term display of psychotic behavior, such as hallucinations or delusions, which occurs with a stressful event.
Brief psychotic disorder is triggered by extreme stress, such as a traumatic accident or loss of a loved one. It is followed by a return to the previous level of function. The person may or may not be aware of the strange behavior.
This condition most often affects people in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Those who have personality disorders are at high risk of having a brief reactive psychosis.
Symptoms of brief psychotic disorder may include the following:
- Behavior that is odd or out of character
- False ideas about what is taking place (delusions)
- Hearing or seeing things that aren't real (hallucinations)
- Strange speech or language
The symptoms are not due to alcohol or other drug use, and they last longer than a day, but less than a month.
Exams and Tests
A psychiatric evaluation can confirm the diagnosis. A physical exam and laboratory testing can rule out medical illness as the cause of the symptoms.
By definition, psychotic symptoms go away on their own in less than 1 month. In some cases, brief psychotic disorder can be the beginning of a more chronic psychotic condition, such as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Antipsychotic drugs can help decrease or stop the psychotic symptoms.
Talk therapy may also help you cope with the emotional stress that triggered the problem.
Most people with this disorder have a good outcome. Repeat episodes may occur in response to stress.
As with all psychotic illnesses, this condition can severely disrupt your life and possibly lead to violence and suicide.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call for an appointment with a mental health professional if you have symptoms of this disorder.
If you or someone you know is thinking about suicide, call or text 988 or chat
You can also call 911 or the local emergency number or go to the hospital emergency room. DO NOT delay.
If someone you know has attempted suicide, call 911 or the local emergency number right away. DO NOT leave the person alone, even after you have called for help.
American Psychiatric Association website. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. In: American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:87-122.
Freudenreich O, Brown HE, Holt DJ. Psychosis and schizophrenia. In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 28.
Last reviewed on: 4/30/2022
Reviewed by: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David C. Dugdale, MD, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.