Risk of Cognitive Decline Reduced for People 85 and Older With High Cholesterol, Mount Sinai Researchers Find
High Total Cholesterol in Late Old Age May be Marker Of Protective Factor
People aged 85 and older whose total cholesterol had increased from their levels at midlife had a reduced risk for marked cognitive decline, compared with those a decade younger whose choles-terol was similarly elevated, Mount Sinai researchers report in a new study.
The results of the study will be available online by Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association as an article in press corrected proof on Monday, March 5, at 10 a.m.
The researchers found that people aged 85-94 with good cognitive function whose total choles-terol increased from midlife had a 32 percent reduced risk for marked cognitive decline over the next ten years, compared with people aged 75-84, who had a 50 percent increased risk.
The researchers said that the results did not suggest that those 85 and older should increase their cholesterol for better cognitive health, but rather that those in that age cohort with good cognition and high cholesterol probably also had some protective factor that someday could be identified and studied.
The research team evaluated the association of five total cholesterol values with a substantial de-cline in cognitive function from normal function, called marked cognitive decline. The five val-ues were midlife (average age 40) total cholesterol, late-life (average age 77) total cholesterol, mean total cholesterol since midlife, linear change since midlife (in other words, whether it was increasing or decreasing), and quadratic change since midlife (whether the linear change was ac-celerating or decelerating). Data were obtained from the original Framingham Heart Study, a long-term, ongoing cardiovascular cohort study on residents of Framingham, Massachusetts. That study began in 1948 with 5,209 adult subjects and is now on its third generation of partici-pants.
The team assessed whether marked cognitive decline was associated with the five cholesterol values, and whether the associations with those values changed depending on the age of cognitive assessment. They found several cholesterol values including high last cholesterol, increasing lev-els, and decreasing acceleration were predictors associated with increased risk of a marked cogni-tive decline, that were associated with increased risk of a marked cognitive decline. However, as the outcome age increased, some associations were reduced, or even reversed. Furthermore, in the subgroup of cognitively healthy 85-94 year olds, a high midlife cholesterol level was associ-ated with a reduced risk for marked cognitive decline. This contrasts with samples in other stud-ies that have focused on elderly subjects primarily below age 75, where midlife cholesterol was associated with increased risk of cognitive decline.
“Our results have important implications for researching genetic and other factors associated with successful cognitive aging,” said the study’s first author, Jeremy Silverman, PhD, Professor of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. “The data are consistent with our pro-tected survivor model – among individuals who survive to very old age with intact cognition, those with high risk factor levels are more likely to possess protective factors than those with lower risk factor levels. Long-lived individuals who are cognitively intact despite high risk should be targeted in research studies seeking protective factors, which could help identify future drugs and therapies to treat dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.”
Dr. Silverman notes that these results do not imply that those 85 and older should increase their cholesterol. His research team will next study other risk factors for cognitive decline, including body mass index and blood pressure.
“We don’t think high cholesterol is good for cognition at 85, but its presence might help us iden-tify those who are less affected by it. We hope to identify genes or other protective factors for cogitive decline by focusing on cognitively healthy very old people who are more likely to carry protective factors.”
About the Mount Sinai Health System
The Mount Sinai Health System is New York City's largest integrated delivery system encompassing seven hospital campuses, a leading medical school, and a vast network of ambulatory practices throughout the greater New York region. Mount Sinai's vision is to produce the safest care, the highest quality, the highest satisfaction, the best access and the best value of any health system in the nation. The System includes approximately 6,600 primary and specialty care physicians; 10 joint-venture ambulatory surgery centers; more than 140 ambulatory practices throughout the five boroughs of New York City, Westchester, Long Island, and Florida; and 31 affiliated community health centers. The Icahn School of Medicine is one of three medical schools that have earned distinction by multiple indicators: ranked in the top 20 by U.S. News & World Report's "Best Medical Schools", aligned with a U.S. News & World Report's "Honor Roll" Hospital, No. 13 in the nation for National Institutes of Health funding, and among the top 10 most innovative research institutions as ranked by the journal Nature in its Nature Innovation Index. This reflects a special level of excellence in education, clinical practice, and research. The Mount Sinai Hospital is ranked No. 18 on U.S. News & World Report's "Honor Roll" of top U.S. hospitals; it is one of the nation's top 20 hospitals in Cardiology/Heart Surgery, Gastroenterology/GI Surgery, Geriatrics, Nephrology, and Neurology/Neurosurgery, and in the top 50 in six other specialties in the 2018-2019 "Best Hospitals" issue. Mount Sinai's Kravis Children's Hospital also is ranked nationally in five out of ten pediatric specialties by U.S. News & World Report. The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai is ranked 11th nationally for Ophthalmology and 44th for Ear, Nose, and Throat, while Mount Sinai Beth Israel, Mount Sinai St. Luke's and Mount Sinai West are ranked regionally.