Geriatrics

Geriatrics is the specialty that focuses on the health care needs of elderly people. Geriatricians can assess how treatment for one issue might affect another; for instance, combining multiple medications can lead to unwanted interactions or side effects.

Learn more about Geriatrics at Mount Sinai Health System

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Diseases & Conditions
Adjustment disorder
Adjustment disorder is a group of symptoms, such as stress, feeling sad or hopeless, and physical symptoms that can occur after you go through a stressful life event. The symptoms occur because you are...

Diseases & Conditions
Adult cataract
A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye.

Diseases & Conditions
Age-related hearing loss
Age-related hearing loss, or presbycusis, is the slow loss of hearing that occurs as people get older.

Special Topics
Aging changes in immunity

Special Topics
Aging changes in organs, tissues, and cells
All vital organs begin to lose some function as you age during adulthood. Aging changes occur in all of the body's cells, tissues, and organs, and these changes affect the functioning of all body systems...

Special Topics
Aging changes in skin
Aging changes in the skin are a group of common conditions and developments that occur as people grow older.

Special Topics
Aging changes in sleep

Self-Care Instructions
Aging changes in teeth and gums
Dental hygiene - aging; Teeth - aging; Oral hygiene - aging

Special Topics
Aging changes in the face

Special Topics
Aging changes in the female reproductive system
Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly from changing hormone levels. One clear sign of aging occurs when your menstrual periods stop permanently. This is known as menopause. hormone...

Special Topics
Aging changes in the male reproductive system
Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, and erectile function. These changes usually occur gradually.

Special Topics
Aging changes in the senses
As you age, the way your senses (hearing, vision, taste, smell, touch) give you information about the world changes. Your senses become less sharp, and this can make it harder for you to notice details...

Special Topics
Alzheimer - resources

Tests
Audiometry
An audiometry exam tests your ability to hear sounds. Sounds vary, based on their loudness (intensity) and the speed of sound wave vibrations (tone). Hearing occurs when sound waves stimulate the nerves...

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Tests
Basic metabolic panel
The basic metabolic panel is a group of blood tests that provides information about your body's metabolism. metabolism

Self-Care Instructions
Bathroom safety for adults
Older adult bathroom safety; Falls - bathroom safety

Special Topics
Blood pressure monitors for home
Your health care provider may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need to get a home blood pressure monitor. The monitor you choose should be of good quality and fit...

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Tests
Calcium - ionized
Ionized calcium is calcium in your blood that is not attached to proteins. It is also called free calcium. All cells need calcium in order to work. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is important...

Tests
Calcium blood test
The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. This article discusses the test to measure the total amount of calcium in your blood. About one half of the calcium in the blood is attached...

Self-Care Instructions
Can't sleep? Try these tips

Self-Care Instructions
Caregiving - medication management
Caregiving - managing medicines

Self-Care Instructions
Caregiving - resources - older adults

Self-Care Instructions
Caring for muscle spasticity or spasms
High muscle tone - care; Increased muscle tension - care; Upper motor neuron syndrome - care; Muscle stiffness - care

Surgery
Cataract removal
Cataract removal is surgery to remove a clouded lens (cataract) from the eye. Cataracts are removed to help you see better. The procedure almost always includes placing an artificial lens (IOL) in the eye...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Cataracts - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about cataracts; Lens implants - what to ask your doctor

Self-Care Instructions
Changing your sleep habits
Insomnia - sleep habits; Sleep disorder - sleep habits; Problems falling asleep; Sleep hygiene

Tests
Chloride test - blood
Chloride is a type of electrolyte. It works with other electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These substances help keep the proper balance of body fluids and maintain the body...

Self-Care Instructions
Choosing a skilled nursing and rehabilitation facility
SNF; SAR; Sub-acute rehab

Self-Care Instructions
Communicating with someone with aphasia
Stroke - aphasia; Speech and language disorder - aphasia

Tests
Comprehensive metabolic panel
A comprehensive metabolic panel is a group of blood tests. They provide an overall picture of your body's chemical balance and metabolism. Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in...

Self-Care Instructions
Constipation - self-care

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Constipation - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about constipation

Self-Care Instructions
Controlling your high blood pressure
Controlling hypertension

Surgery
Corneal transplant
The cornea is the clear outer lens on the front of the eye. A corneal transplant is surgery to replace the cornea with tissue from a donor. It is one of the most common transplants done.

Discharge Instructions
Corneal transplant - discharge
Keratoplasty - discharge; Penetrating keratoplasty - discharge; Lamellar keratoplasty - discharge; DSEK - discharge; DMEK - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Corns and calluses
Corns and calluses are thick layers of skin. They are caused by repeated pressure or friction at the spot where the corn or callus develops.

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Special Topics
Deciding about hormone therapy
HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - deciding

Diseases & Conditions
Delirium
Delirium is sudden severe confusion due to rapid changes in brain function that occur with physical or mental illness. confusion

Diseases & Conditions
Dementia
Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior.

Special Topics
Dementia - home care
Dementia is a loss of cognitive function that occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, and behavior.

Diseases & Conditions
Depression in older adults
Depression is a mental health condition. It is a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with daily life for weeks or longer. Depression in older adults is a widespread...

Self-Care Instructions
Devices for hearing loss

Surgery
Dialysis - peritoneal
Dialysis treats end-stage kidney failure. It removes harmful substances from the blood when the kidneys cannot. This article focuses on peritoneal dialysis.

Nutrition
Diet - chronic kidney disease
You may need to make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease (CKD). These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a low-protein diet, limiting salt, potassium, phosphorous, and other...

Diseases & Conditions
Diverticulitis
Diverticula are small, bulging sacs or pouches that form on the inner wall of the intestine. Diverticulitis occurs when these pouches become inflamed or infected. Most often, these pouches are in the large...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Diverticulitis - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about diverticulitis

Discharge Instructions
Diverticulitis and diverticulosis - discharge
Diverticular disease - discharge

Self-Care Instructions
Dizziness and vertigo - aftercare
Meniere disease - aftercare; Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

Self-Care Instructions
Driving and older adults
Driving - seniors; Driving - older adults; Driving and seniors; Older drivers; Senior drivers

Diseases & Conditions
Dry eye syndrome
You need tears to moisten the eyes and to wash away particles that have gotten into your eyes. A healthy tear film on the eye is necessary for good vision. Dry eyes develop when the eye is unable to maintain...

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Diseases & Conditions
Ectropion
Ectropion is the turning out of the eyelid so that the inner surface is exposed. It most often affects the lower eyelid.

Special Topics
Elder care - resources

Diseases & Conditions
End-stage kidney disease
End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of long-term (chronic) kidney disease. This is when your kidneys can no longer support your body's needs. kidney disease End-stage kidney disease is also...

Diseases & Conditions
Essential tremor
Essential tremor (ET) is a type of involuntary shaking movement. It has no identified cause. Involuntary means you shake without trying to do so and are not able to stop the shaking at will.

Special Topics
Exercise and age
It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Staying active will allow you to continue being independent and the lifestyle you enjoy. The right kind of regular exercise can...

Special Topics
External incontinence devices
External incontinence devices are products (or appliances). These are worn on the outside of the body. They protect the skin from constant leakage of stool or urine. Certain medical conditions can cause...

Symptoms
Eye burning - itching and discharge
Eye burning with discharge is burning, itching, or drainage from the eye of any substance other than tears.

Diseases & Conditions
Eyelid drooping
Eyelid drooping is excess sagging of the upper eyelid. The edge of the upper eyelid may be lower than it should be (ptosis) or there may be excess baggy skin in the upper eyelid (dermatochalasis). Eyelid...

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Diseases & Conditions
Fecal impaction
A fecal impaction is a large lump of dry, hard stool that stays stuck in the rectum. It is most often seen in people who are constipated for a long time. A fecal impaction is a large lump of dry, hard stool...

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Symptoms
Gas – flatulence
Gas is air in the intestine that is passed through the rectum. Air that moves from the digestive tract through the mouth is called belching. belching Gas is also called flatus or flatulence.

Discharge Instructions
Gastroesophageal reflux - discharge
Peptic esophagitis - discharge; Reflux esophagitis - discharge; GERD - discharge; Heartburn - chronic - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which the stomach contents leak backward from the stomach into the esophagus (food pipe). Food travels from your mouth to the stomach through your...

Self-Care Instructions
Getting your home ready - knee or hip surgery
Hip or knee surgery - getting your home ready; Osteoarthritis - knee

Diseases & Conditions
Glaucoma
Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that can damage the optic nerve. This nerve sends the images you see to your brain. Most often, optic nerve damage is caused by increased pressure in the eye. This...

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Surgery
Hammer toe repair
A hammer toe is a toe that stays in a curled or flexed position. This can occur in more than one toe. This condition is caused by: Muscle imbalanceRheumatoid arthritisShoes that do not fit well Muscle imbalance...

Special Topics
Health screenings for men age 65 and older
You should visit your health care provider regularly, even if you feel healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a healthy...

Special Topics
Health screenings for men ages 40 to 64
You should visit your health care provider regularly, even if you feel healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a healthy...

Symptoms
Heartburn
Heartburn is a painful burning feeling just below or behind the breastbone. Most of the time, it comes from the esophagus. The pain often rises in your chest from your stomach. It may also spread to your...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Heartburn - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about heartburn and reflux; Reflux - what to ask your doctor; GERD - what to ask your doctor; Gastroesophageal reflux disease - what to ask your doctor

Self-Care Instructions
Hemodialysis access - self care
Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal...

Diseases & Conditions
Hiatal hernia
Hiatal hernia is a condition in which part of the stomach extends through an opening of the diaphragm into the chest. The diaphragm is the sheet of muscle that divides the chest from the abdomen.

Special Topics
High blood pressure and diet
Making changes to your diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure. These changes can also help you lose weight and lower your chance of heart disease and stroke. high blood pressure Your health...

Special Topics
High blood pressure medicines
Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, stroke, loss of eyesight, chronic kidney disease, and other blood vessel diseases. high blood pressure You may need to take...

Surgery
Hip arthroscopy
Hip arthroscopy is surgery that is done by making small cuts around your hip and looking inside using a tiny camera. Other medical instruments may also be inserted to examine or treat your hip joint.

Discharge Instructions
Hip fracture - discharge
Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge

Surgery
Hip joint injection
A hip injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine can help relieve pain and inflammation. It can also help diagnose the source of hip pain.

Surgery
Hip joint replacement
Hip joint replacement is surgery to replace all or part of the hip joint with a man-made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis. prosthesis

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Hip or knee replacement - after - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor after hip or knee replacement; Hip replacement - after - what to ask your doctor; Knee replacement - after - what to ask your doctor; Hip arthroplasty - after - what to ask your...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Hip or knee replacement - before - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor before hip or knee replacement; Hip replacement - before - what to ask your doctor; Knee replacement - before - what to ask your doctor; Hip arthroplasty - before - what to ask your...

Self-Care Instructions
Hip or knee replacement - in the hospital after
Hip replacement surgery - after - self-care; Knee replacement surgery - after - self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Home health care
Home health; Skilled nursing - home health; Skilled nursing - home care; Physical therapy - at home; Occupational therapy - at home; Discharge - home health care

Self-Care Instructions
How to choose a nursing home
Skilled nursing facility - nursing home; Long-term care - nursing home; Short-term care - nursing home

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Symptoms
Indigestion
Indigestion (dyspepsia) is a mild discomfort in the upper belly or abdomen. It often occurs during or right after eating. It may feel like: Heat, burning, or pain in the area between the navel and the lower...

Special Topics
Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What You Need to Know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Special Topics
Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What You Need to Know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flulive. html. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp...

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Self-Care Instructions
Knee braces - unloading
Unloading brace

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Self-Care Instructions
Learning about depression

Diseases & Conditions
Leukoplakia
Leukoplakia are patches on the tongue, in the mouth, or on the inside of the cheek.

Special Topics
Live zoster (shingles) vaccine, ZVL - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Shingles Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/shingles.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/shingles...

Self-Care Instructions
Living with hearing loss

Self-Care Instructions
Living with vision loss
Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss

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Diseases & Conditions
Major depression
Depression is feeling sad, blue, unhappy, or down in the dumps. Most people feel this way once in a while. Major depression is a mood disorder. It occurs when feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration...

Self-Care Instructions
Managing menopause at home
Perimenopause - self-care; Hormone replacement therapy - self-care; HRT- self-care

Special Topics
Medicines for sleep
Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines

Symptoms
Memory loss
Memory loss (amnesia) is unusual forgetfulness. You may not be able to remember new events, recall one or more memories of the past, or both. The memory loss may be for a short time and then resolve (transient...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges.

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis - tuberculous
Tuberculous meningitis is an infection of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges).

Diseases & Conditions
Meningococcal meningitis
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Meningitis Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. The meningococcal...

Diseases & Conditions
Menopause
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when her periods (menstruation) stop. Most often, it is a natural, normal body change that most often occurs between ages 45 to 55. After menopause, a woman can no...

Surgery
Minimally invasive hip replacement
Minimally invasive hip replacement is a technique used to perform hip replacement surgeries. It uses a smaller surgical cut. Also, fewer muscles around the hip are cut or detached.

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Diseases & Conditions
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus is a buildup of spinal fluid inside the fluid chambers of the brain. Hydrocephalus means "water on the brain." Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a rise in the amount of cerebrospinal...

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Self-Care Instructions
Palliative care - fluid, food, and digestion
Constipation - palliative care; End of life - digestion; Hospice - digestion

Diseases & Conditions
Parkinson disease
Parkinson disease results from certain brain cells dying. These cells help control movement and coordination. The disease leads to shaking (tremors) and trouble walking and moving. tremors trouble walking...

Discharge Instructions
Parkinson disease - discharge
Paralysis agitans - discharge; Shaking palsy - discharge; PD - discharge

Surgery
Partial knee replacement
A partial knee replacement is surgery to replace only one part of a damaged knee. It can replace either the inside (medial) part, the outside (lateral) part, or the kneecap part of the knee. Surgery to...

Diseases & Conditions
Persistent depressive disorder
Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is a chronic (ongoing) type of depression in which a person's moods are regularly low. chronic Persistent depressive disorder used to be called dysthymia.

Diseases & Conditions
Phobia - simple/specific
A phobia is an ongoing intense fear or anxiety of a certain object, animal, activity, or setting that poses little to no actual danger.

Tests
Phosphorus blood test
The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood.

Special Topics
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) - What you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/pcv13.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/pcv13.html CDC review information...

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumococcal meningitis
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Meningitis Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. The pneumococcal...

Special Topics
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/ppv.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Diseases & Conditions
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a type of anxiety disorder. It can occur after you have gone through an extreme emotional trauma that involved the threat of injury or death. anxiety disorder

Tests
Potassium test
This test measures the amount of potassium in the fluid portion (serum) of the blood. Potassium (K+) helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also helps move nutrients into cells and waste products out...

Self-Care Instructions
Preventing falls
Home safety; Safety in the home; Fall prevention

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor
Fall prevention - what to ask your doctor

Special Topics
Preventing stroke
Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; Cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention; Transient ischemic attack - prevention

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Special Topics
Recombinant zoster (shingles) vaccine, RZV - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Recombinant Shingles Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/shingles-recombinant. html. www.cdc.gov/vaccines...

Special Topics
Remembering tips
People who have early memory loss can use a number of techniques to help with remembering things. Below are some tips.

Diseases & Conditions
Retroversion of the uterus
Retroversion of the uterus occurs when a woman's uterus (womb) tilts backward rather than forward. It is commonly called a "tipped uterus."

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Symptoms
Sensorineural deafness
Sensorineural deafness is a type of hearing loss. It occurs from damage to the inner ear, the nerve that runs from the ear to the brain (auditory nerve), or the brain.

Special Topics
Skin care and incontinence
A person with incontinence is not able to prevent urine and stool from leaking. This can lead to skin problems near the buttocks, hips, genitals, and between the pelvis and rectum (perineum).

Special Topics
Sleep and your health

Diseases & Conditions
Sleep disorders in older adults
Sleep disorders in older adults involve any disrupted sleep pattern. This can include problems falling or staying asleep, too much sleep, or abnormal behaviors with sleep.

Tests
Sodium blood test
The sodium blood test measures the concentration of sodium in the blood. Sodium can also be measured using a urine test. urine test

Diseases & Conditions
Spasmodic dysphonia
Spasmodic dysphonia is difficulty speaking due to spasms (dystonia) of the muscles that control the vocal cords.

Diseases & Conditions
Squamous cell skin cancer
Squamous cell cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the United States. Other common types of skin cancer are: Basal cell cancerMelanoma Basal cell cancer Basal cell cancer Melanoma Melanoma

Tests
Standard eye exam
A standard eye exam is a series of tests done to check your vision and the health of your eyes.

Self-Care Instructions
Staying safe at home
Carbon monoxide safety; Electrical safety; Furnace safety; Gas appliance safety; Water heater safety

Diseases & Conditions
Stroke
A stroke occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops. A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack." If blood flow is cut off for longer than a few seconds, the brain cannot get nutrients and oxygen...

Discharge Instructions
Stroke - discharge
Cerebrovascular disease - discharge; CVA - discharge; Cerebral infarction - discharge; Cerebral hemorrhage - discharge; Ischemic stroke - discharge; Stroke - ischemic - discharge; Stroke secondary to atrial...

Self-Care Instructions
Stroke risk factors
Preventing stroke; Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; TIA - prevention

Diseases & Conditions
Subdural hematoma
A subdural hematoma is a collection of blood between the covering of the brain (dura) and the surface of the brain.

Diseases & Conditions
Swallowing difficulty
Difficulty with swallowing is the feeling that food or liquid is stuck in the throat or at any point before the food enters the stomach. This problem is also called dysphagia.

Self-Care Instructions
Swallowing problems
Dysphagia

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Self-Care Instructions
Taking antacids
Heartburn - antacids; Reflux - antacids; GERD - antacids

Self-Care Instructions
Taking care of your new knee joint
Knee arthroplasty - precautions; Knee replacement - precautions

Self-Care Instructions
Taking care of your vascular access for hemodialysis
Arteriovenous fistula; A-V fistula; A-V graft; Tunneled catheter

Self-Care Instructions
Talking to someone with hearing loss

Special Topics
Td (tetanus, diphtheria) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Td vaccine information statement (VIS) -- www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/td.html. www.cdc.gov...

Special Topics
Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Tdap Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/tdap.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis...

Tests
Testosterone
A testosterone test measures the amount of the male hormone, testosterone, in the blood. Both men and women produce this hormone. The test described in this article measures the total amount of testosterone...

Diseases & Conditions
Transient ischemic attack
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops for a brief time. A person will have stroke-like symptoms for up to 24 hours. In most cases, the symptoms last for 1...

Self-Care Instructions
Tremor - self-care
Shaking - self-care; Essential tremor - self-care; Familial tremor - self-care

Special Topics
Types of hormone therapy
HRT- types; Estrogen replacement therapy - types; ERT- types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone types

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Self-Care Instructions
Using a cane

Self-Care Instructions
Using a walker

Discharge Instructions
Using crutches

Diseases & Conditions
Uterine prolapse
Uterine prolapse occurs when the womb (uterus) drops down and presses into the vaginal area.

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Tests
Venipuncture
Venipuncture is the collection of blood from a vein. It is most often done for laboratory testing.

Surgery
Ventriculoperitoneal shunting
Ventriculoperitoneal shunting is surgery to treat excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cavities (ventricles) of the brain (hydrocephalus). hydrocephalus

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Special Topics
What is palliative care?
Comfort care; End of life - palliative care; Hospice - palliative care

Self-Care Instructions
When you have diarrhea
Diarrhea - self-care; Diarrhea - gastroenteritis