Geriatrics is the specialty that focuses on the health care needs of elderly people. Geriatricians can assess how treatment for one issue might affect another; for instance, combining multiple medications can lead to unwanted interactions or side effects.

Learn more about Geriatrics at Mount Sinai Health System

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Diseases & Conditions
Adjustment disorder
Adjustment disorder is a group of symptoms, such as stress, feeling sad or hopeless, and physical symptoms that can occur after you go through a stressful life event. The symptoms occur because you are...

Diseases & Conditions
Adult cataract
A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye.

Diseases & Conditions
Age-related hearing loss
Age-related hearing loss, or presbycusis, is the slow loss of hearing that occurs as people get older.

Special Topics
Aging changes in immunity

Special Topics
Aging changes in organs, tissues, and cells
All vital organs begin to lose some function as you age during adulthood. Aging changes occur in all of the body's cells, tissues, and organs, and these changes affect the functioning of all body systems...

Special Topics
Aging changes in skin
Aging changes in the skin are a group of common conditions and developments that occur as people grow older.

Special Topics
Aging changes in sleep

Special Topics
Aging changes in the face

Special Topics
Aging changes in the senses
As you age, the way your senses (hearing, vision, taste, smell, touch) give you information about the world changes. Your senses become less sharp, and this can make it harder for you to notice details...

Special Topics
Alzheimer - resources

An audiometry exam tests your ability to hear sounds. Sounds vary, based on their loudness (intensity) and the speed of sound wave vibrations (tone). Hearing occurs when sound waves stimulate the nerves...


Special Topics
Blood pressure monitors for home
Your health care provider may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need to get a home blood pressure monitor. The monitor you choose should be of good quality and fit...


Cataract removal
Cataract removal is surgery to remove a clouded lens (cataract) from the eye. Cataracts are removed to help you see better. The procedure almost always includes placing an artificial lens (IOL) in the eye...

Self-Care Instructions
Controlling your high blood pressure
Controlling hypertension

Corneal transplant
The cornea is the clear outer lens on the front of the eye. A corneal transplant is surgery to replace the cornea with tissue from a donor. It is one of the most common transplants done.

Diseases & Conditions
Corns and calluses
Corns and calluses are thick layers of skin. They are caused by repeated pressure or friction at the spot where the corn or callus develops.


Diseases & Conditions
Delirium is sudden severe confusion due to rapid changes in brain function that occur with physical or mental illness. confusion

Diseases & Conditions
Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior.

Diseases & Conditions
Depression in older adults
Depression is a mental health condition. It is a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with daily life for weeks or longer. Depression in older adults is a widespread...

Diet - chronic kidney disease
You may need to make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease (CKD). These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a low-protein diet, limiting salt, potassium, phosphorous, and other...

Diseases & Conditions
Diverticula are small, bulging sacs or pouches that form on the inner wall of the intestine. Diverticulitis occurs when these pouches become inflamed or infected. Most often, these pouches are in the large...

Diseases & Conditions
Dry eye syndrome
You need tears to moisten the eyes and to wash away particles that have gotten into your eyes. A healthy tear film on the eye is necessary for good vision. Dry eyes develop when the eye is unable to maintain...


Diseases & Conditions
Ectropion is the turning out of the eyelid so that the inner surface is exposed. It most often affects the lower eyelid.

Special Topics
Elder care - resources

Diseases & Conditions
End-stage kidney disease
End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of long-term (chronic) kidney disease. This is when your kidneys can no longer support your body's needs. kidney disease End-stage kidney disease is also...

Diseases & Conditions
Essential tremor
Essential tremor (ET) is a type of involuntary shaking movement. It has no identified cause. Involuntary means you shake without trying to do so and are not able to stop the shaking at will.

Special Topics
Exercise and age
It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Staying active will allow you to continue being independent and the lifestyle you enjoy. The right kind of regular exercise can...

Special Topics
External incontinence devices
External incontinence devices are products (or appliances). These are worn on the outside of the body. They protect the skin from constant leakage of stool or urine. Certain medical conditions can cause...

Eye burning - itching and discharge
Eye burning with discharge is burning, itching, or drainage from the eye of any substance other than tears.

Diseases & Conditions
Eyelid drooping
Eyelid drooping is excess sagging of the upper eyelid. The edge of the upper eyelid may be lower than it should be (ptosis) or there may be excess baggy skin in the upper eyelid (dermatochalasis). Eyelid...


Diseases & Conditions
Fecal impaction
A fecal impaction is a large lump of dry, hard stool that stays stuck in the rectum. It is most often seen in people who are constipated for a long time. A fecal impaction is a large lump of dry, hard stool...


Gas – flatulence
Gas is air in the intestine that is passed through the rectum. Air that moves from the digestive tract through the mouth is called belching. belching Gas is also called flatus or flatulence.

Diseases & Conditions
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which the stomach contents leak backward from the stomach into the esophagus (food pipe). Food travels from your mouth to the stomach through your...

Diseases & Conditions
Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that can damage the optic nerve. This nerve sends the images you see to your brain. Most often, optic nerve damage is caused by increased pressure in the eye. This...


Heartburn is a painful burning feeling just below or behind the breastbone. Most of the time, it comes from the esophagus. The pain often rises in your chest from your stomach. It may also spread to your...

Diseases & Conditions
Hiatal hernia
Hiatal hernia is a condition in which part of the stomach extends through an opening of the diaphragm into the chest. The diaphragm is the sheet of muscle that divides the chest from the abdomen.

Special Topics
High blood pressure and diet
Making changes to your diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure. These changes can also help you lose weight and lower your chance of heart disease and stroke. high blood pressure Your health...

Special Topics
High blood pressure medicines
Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, stroke, loss of eyesight, chronic kidney disease, and other blood vessel diseases. high blood pressure You may need to take...

Hip joint replacement
Hip joint replacement is surgery to replace all or part of the hip joint with a man-made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis. prosthesis


Indigestion (dyspepsia) is a mild discomfort in the upper belly or abdomen. It often occurs during or right after eating. It may feel like: Heat, burning, or pain in the area between the navel and the lower...


Diseases & Conditions
Leukoplakia are patches on the tongue, in the mouth, or on the inside of the cheek.

Self-Care Instructions
Living with vision loss
Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss


Diseases & Conditions
Major depression
Depression is feeling sad, blue, unhappy, or down in the dumps. Most people feel this way once in a while. Major depression is a mood disorder. It occurs when feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration...

Memory loss
Memory loss (amnesia) is unusual forgetfulness. You may not be able to remember new events, recall one or more memories of the past, or both. The memory loss may be for a short time and then resolve (transient...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges.

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis - tuberculous
Tuberculous meningitis is an infection of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges).

Diseases & Conditions
Meningococcal meningitis
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Meningitis Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. The meningococcal...

Diseases & Conditions
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when her periods (menstruation) stop. Most often, it is a natural, normal body change that most often occurs between ages 45 to 55. After menopause, a woman can no...


Diseases & Conditions
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus is a buildup of spinal fluid inside the fluid chambers of the brain. Hydrocephalus means "water on the brain." Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a rise in the amount of cerebrospinal...


Self-Care Instructions
Palliative care - fluid, food, and digestion
Constipation - palliative care; End of life - digestion; Hospice - digestion

Diseases & Conditions
Parkinson disease
Parkinson disease results from certain brain cells dying. These cells help control movement and coordination. The disease leads to shaking (tremors) and trouble walking and moving. tremors trouble walking...

Diseases & Conditions
Persistent depressive disorder
Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is a chronic (ongoing) type of depression in which a person's moods are regularly low. chronic Persistent depressive disorder used to be called dysthymia.

Diseases & Conditions
Phobia - simple/specific
A phobia is an ongoing intense fear or anxiety of a certain object, animal, activity, or setting that poses little to no actual danger.

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumococcal meningitis
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Meningitis Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. The pneumococcal...

Diseases & Conditions
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a type of anxiety disorder. It can occur after you have gone through an extreme emotional trauma that involved the threat of injury or death. anxiety disorder

Special Topics
Preventing stroke
Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; Cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention; Transient ischemic attack - prevention


Special Topics
Remembering tips
People who have early memory loss can use a number of techniques to help with remembering things. Below are some tips.

Diseases & Conditions
Retroversion of the uterus
Retroversion of the uterus occurs when a woman's uterus (womb) tilts backward rather than forward. It is commonly called a "tipped uterus."


Sensorineural deafness
Sensorineural deafness is a type of hearing loss. It occurs from damage to the inner ear, the nerve that runs from the ear to the brain (auditory nerve), or the brain.

Special Topics
Skin care and incontinence
A person with incontinence is not able to prevent urine and stool from leaking. This can lead to skin problems near the buttocks, hips, genitals, and between the pelvis and rectum (perineum).

Diseases & Conditions
Sleep disorders in older adults
Sleep disorders in older adults involve any disrupted sleep pattern. This can include problems falling or staying asleep, too much sleep, or abnormal behaviors with sleep.

Diseases & Conditions
Spasmodic dysphonia
Spasmodic dysphonia is difficulty speaking due to spasms (dystonia) of the muscles that control the vocal cords.

Diseases & Conditions
Squamous cell skin cancer
Squamous cell cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the United States. Other common types of skin cancer are: Basal cell cancerMelanoma Basal cell cancer Basal cell cancer Melanoma Melanoma

Diseases & Conditions
A stroke occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops. A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack." If blood flow is cut off for longer than a few seconds, the brain cannot get nutrients and oxygen...

Diseases & Conditions
Subdural hematoma
A subdural hematoma is a collection of blood between the covering of the brain (dura) and the surface of the brain.


Diseases & Conditions
Transient ischemic attack
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops for a brief time. A person will have stroke-like symptoms for up to 24 hours. In most cases, the symptoms last for 1...


Diseases & Conditions
Uterine prolapse
Uterine prolapse occurs when the womb (uterus) drops down and presses into the vaginal area.


Ventriculoperitoneal shunting
Ventriculoperitoneal shunting is surgery to treat excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cavities (ventricles) of the brain (hydrocephalus). hydrocephalus


Special Topics
What is palliative care?
Comfort care; End of life - palliative care; Hospice - palliative care