Ear, Nose and Throat (Otolaryngology) – Head and Neck Surgery

Other Vascular Malformations

The specialists at New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai (NYEE) treat many other types of vascular malformations which involve different characteristics and require different treatments, such as the following:

Midline Venular Malformations

Midline venular malformations are sometimes referred to as "stork bites" or "angel kisses.” The birthmark appears at birth or in some cases develops in the first month of baby’s life. Stork bites can be:

  • Identified by a pink and flat appearance that may darken over time
  • Found along the hairline at the base of the neck, or as a "V" extending along the center of the forehead, but can also appear on the upper eyelids, nose, and lips

Treatment Options for Midline Venular Malformations

Midline venular malformations rarely require treatment because most disappear the first year of baby’s life. However, these birthmarks may become a persistent stain if they don’t vanish by 18 to 24 months of age, often turning darker with time. Laser treatments for vascular birthmarks are usually recommended to help the stain fade and go away.

Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS)

Present at birth, Klippel­-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare disorder that combines port wine stains and/or venous malformations. KTS typically affects the legs followed by the arms and the trunk (rarely the head and neck), leading to asymmetric limb lengthening and/or widening. 

The symptoms of KTS vary in severity depending on the extent of the venous or lymphatic malformation:

  • A mild case may involve port wine stain, a few vesicles, and varicose superficial veins, with some increased length of the affected limb
  • A severe case may involve port wine stain and gigantic enlargement of the limb caused by extensive lymphatic malformation and general overgrowth of the appendage 

Treatment Options for Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS)

Treatment for Klippel­-Trenaunay syndrome is directed toward compression therapy of the involved limbs, and occasionally debulking surgery to restore normal contour and function of the involved tissues.


Angiokeratoma is a type of lymphatic malformation appearing primarily on the surface of the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the chest, abdomen, or extremities. Frequently misdiagnosed as cancerous or a sign of a sexually transmitted disease, angiokeratomas:

  • Start appearing in childhood or develop later in life
  • Are non-cancerous
  • Are characterized by superficial blisters (blebs) that have a round-to-oval shape, increasing in size with age
  • Appear dark purple or black
  • Can be found as a single mark or a group confined to a specific area of the body
  • Are prone to bleeding

Treatment Options for Angiokeratoma 

The prescribed treatment for Angiokeratoma is based on the number and location of the lesions. Often, the treatment requires a combination of aggressive laser therapy and occasional surgical removal of resistant or thickened tissues.