Internal Medicine

Internal medicine (also called general practice medicine) addresses well and sick vists for children and adults. As with a family doctor, if you have a complex medical condition, a general practice doctor may refer you to a specialist for diagnosis and treatment.

Learn more about primary care at Mount Sinai Health System

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Tests
ALP - blood test
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with higher amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. bile A blood test can be done to measure the level of ALP....

Tests
ALP isoenzyme test
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in many body tissues such as liver, bile ducts, bone, and intestine. There are several different forms of ALP called isoenzymes. The structure of the enzyme...

Symptoms
Abdomen - swollen
A swollen abdomen is when your belly area is bigger than usual.

Symptoms
Abdominal bloating
Abdominal bloating is a condition in which the belly (abdomen) feels full and tight. Your belly may look swollen (distended).

Special Topics
Abdominal girth
Abdominal girth is the measurement of the distance around the abdomen at a specific point. Measurement is most often made at the level of the belly button (navel). Abdominal girth is used to diagnose and...

Symptoms
Abdominal mass
An abdominal mass is swelling in one part of the belly area (abdomen).

Symptoms
Abdominal pain
Abdominal pain is pain that you feel anywhere between your chest and groin. This is often referred to as the stomach region or belly.

Symptoms
Abdominal rigidity
Abdominal rigidity is stiffness of the muscles in the belly area, which can be felt when touched or pressed.

Symptoms
Abdominal sounds
Abdominal sounds are the noises made by the intestines.

Tests
Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy
An abdominal wall fat pad biopsy is the removal of a small part of the abdominal wall fat pad.

Tests
Abdominal x-ray
An abdominal x-ray is an imaging test to look at organs and structures in the abdomen. Organs include the spleen, stomach, and intestines. When the test is done to look at the bladder and kidney structures...

Diseases & Conditions
Achilles tendinitis
Achilles tendinitis occurs when the tendon that connects the back of your leg to your heel becomes swollen and painful near the bottom of the foot. This tendon is called the Achilles tendon. It allows you...

Special Topics
Acute
Acute means sudden or severe. Acute symptoms appear, change, or worsen rapidly. It is the opposite of chronic. chronic

Special Topics
Advance care directives
Living will; Power of attorney; DNR - advance directive; Do not resuscitate - advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance...

Special Topics
Aerobic
Aerobic means oxygen is needed to: SurviveGrowWork properly Survive Grow Work properly For example, bacteria that need oxygen to grow are called aerobic bacteria. Aerobic is the opposite of anaerobic. anaerobic

Special Topics
After a fall in the hospital
Hospital safety - falls; Patient safety - falls

Diseases & Conditions
Alcohol use disorder
Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. You may also need more and more alcohol to feel drunk. Stopping suddenly may cause withdrawal symptoms...

In-depth Report
Alcohol use disorders
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of alcoholism.

Diseases & Conditions
Alcohol withdrawal
Alcohol withdrawal refers to symptoms that may occur when a person who has been drinking too much alcohol on a regular basis suddenly stops drinking alcohol.

Diseases & Conditions
Alcoholic ketoacidosis
Alcoholic ketoacidosis is the buildup of ketones in the blood. Ketones are a type of acid that form when the body breaks down fat for energy. The condition is an acute form of metabolic acidosis. acute...

Diseases & Conditions
Allergic conjunctivitis
Allergic conjunctivitis occurs when the conjunctiva becomes swollen or inflamed due to a reaction to pollen, dander, mold, or other allergy-causing substances. The conjunctiva is a clear layer of tissue...

Injury
Allergic reactions
Allergic reactions are sensitivities to substances called allergens that come into contact with the skin, nose, eyes, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. They can be breathed into the lungs,...

In-depth Report
Allergic rhinitis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of common nasal allergies.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - child
What to ask your doctor about allergic rhinitis - child; Hay fever - what to ask your doctor - child; Allergies - what to ask your doctor - child

Self-Care Instructions
Allergies, asthma, and dust
Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust

Self-Care Instructions
Allergies, asthma, and pollen
Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen

Discharge Instructions
Allergy shots
Allergy injections; Allergen immunotherapy

Diseases & Conditions
Alopecia areata
Alopecia areata is a condition that causes round patches of hair loss. It can lead to total hair loss.

Diseases & Conditions
Alzheimer disease
Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Alzheimer disease is one form of dementia. It affects memory, thinking, and behavior.

In-depth Report
Alzheimer disease
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of Alzheimer disease.

Tests
Amylase - urine
This is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is produced mainly in the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. enzyme Amylase may...

Diseases & Conditions
Anal fissure
An anal fissure is a small split or tear in the thin moist tissue (mucosa) lining the lower rectum (anus). mucosa

In-depth Report
Anemia
An in-depth report on the types, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of anemia.

Symptoms
Ankle pain
Ankle pain involves any discomfort in one or both ankles.

Self-Care Instructions
Ankle sprain - aftercare
Lateral ankle sprain - aftercare; Medial ankle sprain - aftercare; Medial ankle injury - aftercare; Ankle syndesmosis sprain -aftercare; Syndesmosis injury - aftercare; ATFL injury - aftercare; CFL injury...

Special Topics
Anterior
Anterior means "in front of" or "the front surface of." It usually refers to the front side of the body. For example, your knee caps are on the anterior part of your body.

Injury
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. A tear may be partial or complete.

Self-Care Instructions
Antihistamines for allergies
Antihistamines are drugs that treat allergy symptoms. When taken by mouth, they come as pills, chewable tablets, capsules, and liquids.

In-depth Report
Anxiety disorders
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of anxiety.

Diseases & Conditions
Apoplexy
Apoplexy is bleeding into an organ or loss of blood flow to an organ. For example, Adrenal apoplexy: Bleeding into the adrenal glandsPituitary apoplexy: Bleeding into the pituitary gland Adrenal apoplexy...

Symptoms
Appetite - decreased
A decreased appetite is when your desire to eat is reduced. The medical term for a loss of appetite is anorexia.

Symptoms
Appetite - increased
Increased appetite means you have an excess desire for food.

Diseases & Conditions
Apraxia
Apraxia is a disorder of the brain and nervous system in which a person is unable to perform tasks or movements when asked, even though: The request or command is understoodThey are willing to perform the...

Symptoms
Armpit lump
An armpit lump is a swelling or bump under the arm. A lump in the armpit can have many causes. These include swollen lymph nodes, infections, or cysts.

Diseases & Conditions
Arterial insufficiency
Arterial insufficiency is any condition that slows or stops the flow of blood through your arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to other places in your body.

Tests
Arterial stick
An arterial stick is the collection of blood from an artery for laboratory testing.

Diseases & Conditions
Arthritis
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. A joint is the area where 2 bones meet. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis.

Diseases & Conditions
Ascites
Ascites is the build-up of fluid in the space between the lining of the abdomen and abdominal organs.

Special Topics
Aspiration
Aspiration means to draw in or out using a sucking motion. It has two meanings: Breathing in a foreign object (sucking food into the airway).A medical procedure that removes something from an area of the...

Self-Care Instructions
Asthma - control drugs
Asthma - inhaled corticosteroids; Asthma - long-acting beta-agonists; Asthma - leukotriene modifiers; Asthma - cromolyn; Bronchial asthma-control drugs; Wheezing - control drugs; Reactive airway disease...

Self-Care Instructions
Asthma - quick-relief drugs
Asthma - quick-relief drugs - short-acting beta-agonists; Asthma - quick-relief drugs - bronchodilators; Asthma - quick-relief drugs - oral steroids; Asthma - rescue drugs; Bronchial asthma - quick relief...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Asthma - what to ask your doctor - child
What to ask your doctor about asthma - child

In-depth Report
Asthma in adults
An in-depth report on how asthma is diagnosed, treated, and managed in adults.

Special Topics
Asymptomatic
Asymptomatic means there are no symptoms. You are considered asymptomatic if you: Have recovered from an illness or condition and no longer have symptomsHave an illness or condition (such as early stage...

Diseases & Conditions
Athlete's foot
Athlete's foot is an infection of the feet caused by fungus or yeast. The medical term is tinea pedis, or ringworm of the foot.

Self-Care Instructions
Atopic dermatitis - self-care
Eczema - self-care; Skin rash - atopic dermatitis

B

Self-Care Instructions
Back pain - returning to work
To help prevent reinjuring your back at work, or hurting it in the first place, follow these tips, learn how to lift the right way, and make changes at work, if needed.

Special Topics
Back pain - when you see the doctor
When you first see your health care provider for back pain, you will be asked about your back pain, including how often and when it occurs and how severe it is. Your provider will try to determine the cause...

In-depth Report
Back pain and sciatica
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of back pain, including sciatica.

Self-Care Instructions
Back pain and sports

Diseases & Conditions
Bacterial gastroenteritis
Bacterial gastroenteritis is present when bacteria cause an infection of the stomach and intestines

Self-Care Instructions
Bathing a patient in bed
Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For these people, daily bed baths can help keep their skin healthy, control odor, and increase comfort. If moving the patient causes pain, plan to...

Diseases & Conditions
Bell palsy
Bell palsy is a disorder of the nerve that controls movement of the muscles in the face. This nerve is called the facial or seventh cranial nerve. Damage to this nerve causes weakness or paralysis of these...

Special Topics
Benefits of quitting tobacco
If you smoke, you should quit. But quitting can be hard. Most people who have quit smoking have tried at least once, without success, in the past. View any past attempts to quit as a learning experience...

In-depth Report
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
An in-depth report about the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Diseases & Conditions
Beriberi
Beriberi is a disease in which the body does not have enough thiamine (vitamin B1). thiamine

Self-Care Instructions
Bicycle safety
Many cities and states have bike lanes and laws that protect bicycle riders. But riders are still at risk of being hit by cars. Therefore, you need to ride carefully, obey the laws, and watch for other...

Tests
Bilirubin - urine
Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid produced by the liver. bile This article is about a lab test to measure the amount of bilirubin in the urine. Large amounts of bilirubin in the body...

In-depth Report
Birth control options for women
An in-depth report on the birth control options available to women.

Injury
Bleeding
Bleeding is the loss of blood. Bleeding may be: Inside the body (internally) Outside the body (externally) Inside the body (internally)  Outside the body (externally) Bleeding may occur: Inside the body...

Symptoms
Bleeding into the skin
Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood vessels that form tiny red dots (called petechiae). Blood also can collect under the tissue in larger flat areas (called purpura), or in a very large bruised...

Tests
Blood pressure measurement
Blood pressure is a measurement of the force on the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood through your body. You can measure your blood pressure at home. You can also have it checked at your...

Special Topics
Blood pressure monitors for home
Your health care provider may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need to get a home blood pressure monitor. The monitor you choose should be of good quality and fit...

Special Topics
Body mass index
A good way to decide if your weight is healthy for your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider can use your BMI to estimate how much body fat you have. Being...

Special Topics
Body temperature norms

Symptoms
Breast lump
A breast lump is swelling, a growth, or a lump in the breast. Breast lumps in both men and women raise concern for breast cancer, even though most lumps are not cancer. breast cancer

Diseases & Conditions
Breast milk jaundice
Jaundice is a condition that causes the skin and whites of the eyes to turn yellow. If jaundice lasts past the first week of life in a breastfed baby who is otherwise healthy, the condition may be called...

Symptoms
Breast pain
Breast pain is any discomfort or pain in the breast.

Symptoms
Breath sounds
Breath sounds are the noises produced by the structures of the lungs during breathing.

Symptoms
Breathing difficulty - lying down
Breathing difficulty while lying down is an abnormal condition in which a person must keep the head raised by sitting or standing to be able to breathe deeply or comfortably. A type of breathing difficulty...

Injury
Broken bone
If more pressure is put on a bone than it can stand, it will split or break. A break of any size is called a fracture. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open fracture (compound fracture...

Self-Care Instructions
Broken collarbone - aftercare
Collarbone fracture - aftercare; Clavicle fracture - aftercare; Clavicular fracture

Self-Care Instructions
Broken toe - self-care
Fractured toe - self-care; Broken bone - toe - self-care; Fracture - toe - self-care; Fracture phalanx - toe

Diseases & Conditions
Bronchitis - acute
Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main passages that carry air to the lungs. This swelling narrows the airways, which makes it harder to breathe. Other symptoms of bronchitis are a...

Injury
Bruise
A bruise is an area of skin discoloration. A bruise occurs when small blood vessels break and leak their contents into the soft tissue beneath the skin.

Diseases & Conditions
Bunions
A bunion forms when your big toe points toward the second toe. This causes a bump to appear on the inside edge of your toe.

Injury
Burns
Burns commonly occur by direct or indirect contact with heat, electric current, radiation, or chemical agents. Burns can lead to cell death.

Diseases & Conditions
Bursitis
Bursitis is the swelling and irritation of a bursa. A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that acts as a cushion between a muscles, tendons, and bones.

C

Tests
CO2 blood test
CO2 is carbon dioxide. This article discusses the laboratory test to measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the liquid part of your blood, called the serum. In the body, most of the CO2 is in the form...

Self-Care Instructions
COPD - how to use a nebulizer

Self-Care Instructions
COPD flare-ups
COPD exacerbation; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation; Emphysema exacerbation; Chronic bronchitis exacerbation

Tests
CPK isoenzymes test
The CPK isoenzymes test measures the different forms of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in the blood. CPK is an enzyme found mainly in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle.

Special Topics
Calcification
Calcification is a process in which calcium builds up in body tissue, causing the tissue to harden. This can be a normal or abnormal process.

Special Topics
Calcium supplements
WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth and bones. Getting enough calcium over your lifetime can help prevent osteoporosis...

Diseases & Conditions
Canker sore
A canker sore is a painful, open sore in the mouth. Canker sores are white or yellow and surrounded by a bright red area. They are not cancerous. A canker sore is not the same as a fever blister (cold sore...

Special Topics
Cardiovascular
The term cardiovascular refers to the heart (cardio) and the blood vessels (vascular). The cardiovascular system includes: ArteriesArteriolesCapillariesHeartVenules Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Heart...

In-depth Report
Carpal tunnel syndrome
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of carpal tunnel syndrome.

Tests
Catecholamine blood test
This test measures the levels of catecholamines in the blood. Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. Catecholamines are more often measured with a urine test than with a blood test. urine...

Tests
Catecholamines - urine
Catecholamines are chemicals made by nerve tissue (including the brain) and the adrenal gland. The main types of catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. These chemicals break down...

Special Topics
Central line infections - hospitals
Central line-associated bloodstream infection; CLABSI; Peripherally inserted central catheter - infection; PICC - infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device ...

Discharge Instructions
Central venous catheters - ports
Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port

Self-Care Instructions
Cervical cancer - screening and prevention
Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening

Diseases & Conditions
Cervical spondylosis
Cervical spondylosis is a disorder in which there is wear on the cartilage (disks) and bones of the neck (cervical vertebrae). It is a common cause of chronic neck pain.

Symptoms
Chest pain
Chest pain is discomfort or pain that you feel anywhere along the front of your body between your neck and upper abdomen.

Special Topics
Chicken soup and sickness

Symptoms
Chills
Chills refers to feeling cold after being in a cold environment. The word can also refer to an episode of shivering along with paleness and feeling cold.

Diseases & Conditions
Chinese restaurant syndrome
Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive called monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been blamed for the condition. However, this has not...

Diseases & Conditions
Chlamydia infections in women
Chlamydia is an infection spread through sexual contact (STI). This means this infection is passed from one person to another during sexual contact.

In-depth Report
Cholesterol
An in-depth report on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of unhealthy cholesterol levels.

Self-Care Instructions
Cholesterol testing and results
Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results

Special Topics
Choosing a primary care provider
A primary care provider (PCP) is a health care practitioner who sees people that have common medical problems. This person is most often a doctor. However, a PCP may be a physician assistant or a nurse...

Special Topics
Chronic
Chronic refers to something that continues over an extended period of time. A chronic condition is usually long-lasting and does not easily or quickly go away. Chronic is the opposite of acute. acute

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) refers to severe, continued tiredness (fatigue). It does not get better with rest and is not directly caused by other medical problems. fatigue

In-depth Report
Chronic fatigue syndrome
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome.

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main job of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body.

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease. Having COPD makes it hard to breathe. There are two main forms of COPD: Chronic bronchitis, which involves a long-term cough with mucusEmphysema...

Diseases & Conditions
Chylomicronemia syndrome
Chylomicronemia syndrome is a disorder in which the body does not break down fats (lipids) correctly. This causes fat particles called chylomicrons to build up in the blood. The disorder is passed down...

Surgery
Circumcision
Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis. penis

Diseases & Conditions
Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver and poor liver function. It is the last stage of chronic liver disease.

In-depth Report
Cirrhosis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cirrhosis.

Tests
Clean catch urine sample
A clean catch is a method of collecting a urine sample to be tested. The clean-catch urine method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample.

Discharge Instructions
Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain
Nonspecific back pain - cognitive behavioral; Backache - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Lumbar pain - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Pain - back - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Chronic back pain - low...

In-depth Report
Colds and the flu
An in-depth report on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of colds and flu.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - adult
What to ask your doctor about colds and the flu - adult; Influenza - what to ask your doctor - adult; Upper respiratory infection - what to ask your doctor - adult; URI - what to ask your doctor - adult...

Self-Care Instructions
Common cold - how to treat at home
Colds are very common. A visit to your health care provider's office is often not needed, and colds usually get better in 3 to 4 days. A type of germ called a virus causes most colds. There are many types...

Diseases & Conditions
Compression fractures of the back
Compression fractures of the back are broken vertebrae. Vertebrae are the bones of the spine.

Self-Care Instructions
Compression stockings
Compression hose; Pressure stockings; Support stockings; Gradient stockings

Special Topics
Concomitant
Concomitant means occurring during the same time period. It usually refers to secondary symptoms that occur with a main symptom.

Special Topics
Condoms - male
A condom is a thin cover worn on the penis during intercourse. Using a condom will help prevent: Female partners from becoming pregnantGetting an infection spread through sexual contact, or from giving...

Self-Care Instructions
Constipation - self-care
Constipation is when you do not pass stool as often as you normally do. Your stool becomes hard and dry, and it is difficult to pass. You might feel bloated and have pain, or you might have to strain when...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Constipation - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about constipation

Special Topics
Contraindication
A contraindication is a specific situation in which a drug, procedure, or surgery should not be used because it may be harmful to the person. There are two types of contraindications: Relative contraindication...

Diseases & Conditions
Corneal injury
Corneal injury is a wound to the part of the eye known as the cornea. The cornea is the crystal clear (transparent) tissue that covers the front of the eye. It works with the lens of the eye to focus images...

Diseases & Conditions
Corns and calluses
Corns and calluses are thick layers of skin. They are caused by repeated pressure or friction at the spot where the corn or callus develops.

In-depth Report
Coronary artery disease
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Diseases & Conditions
Costochondritis
All but your lowest two ribs are connected to your breastbone by cartilage. This cartilage can become inflamed and cause pain. This condition is called costochondritis. It is a common cause of chest pain...

Symptoms
Cough
Coughing is an important way to keep your throat and airways clear. But too much coughing may mean you have a disease or disorder. Some coughs are dry. Others are productive. A productive cough is one...

Self-Care Instructions
Counting carbohydrates
Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juiceCereal, bread, pasta, and riceMilk and milk products, soy milkBeans, legumes, and lentilsStarchy vegetables like potatoes and cornSweets...

Nutrition
Cow's milk - infants
If your child is under 1 year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Cow's milk does not provide enough: Vitamin EIronEssential fatty acids...

Tests
Creatine phosphokinase test
Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is an enzyme in the body. It is found mainly in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of CPK in the blood. enzyme

D

Self-Care Instructions
Daily bowel care program
Nerves that help your bowels work smoothly can be damaged after a brain or spinal cord injury. People with multiple sclerosis also have problems with their bowels. Those with poorly controlled diabetes...

Self-Care Instructions
Day to day with COPD
COPD - day to day; Chronic obstructive airways disease - day to day; Chronic obstructive lung disease - day to day; Chronic bronchitis - day to day; Emphysema - day to day; Bronchitis - chronic - day to...

Self-Care Instructions
De Quervain tendinitis
Tendinopathy - De Quervain tendinitis; de Quervain tenosynovitis

Special Topics
Deciding about treatments that prolong life
Palliative care - treatments that prolong life; Palliative care - life support; End-of-life-treatments that prolong life; Ventilator - treatments that prolong life; Respirator - treatments that prolong...

Self-Care Instructions
Deciding to quit drinking alcohol
Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit

Diseases & Conditions
Deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in a vein deep inside a part of the body. It mainly affects the large veins in the lower leg and thigh, but can occur in other...

Diseases & Conditions
Delirium tremens
Delirium tremens is a severe form of alcohol withdrawal. It involves sudden and severe mental or nervous system changes.

Diseases & Conditions
Dementia
Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior.

Self-Care Instructions
Dementia - behavior and sleep problems
Sundowning - care

Self-Care Instructions
Dementia - daily care

Self-Care Instructions
Dementia - keeping safe in the home

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Dementia - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about dementia; Alzheimer disease- what to ask your doctor; Cognitive impairment - what to ask your doctor

In-depth Report
Depression
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of depression.

Diseases & Conditions
Depression - older adults
Depression is a mental health condition. It is a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with daily life for weeks or longer. Depression in older adults is a widespread...

Self-Care Instructions
Depression - stopping your medicines
Antidepressants are prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are reasons you may take antidepressants for a while and then consider no longer...

Self-Care Instructions
Devices for hearing loss

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in the blood.

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - foot ulcers
If you have diabetes, you have an increased chance of developing foot sores, or ulcers, also called diabetic ulcers. Foot ulcers are a common reason for hospital stays for people with diabetes. It may take...

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - taking care of your feet
Diabetes - foot care - self-care; Diabetic foot ulcer - foot care; Diabetic neuropathy - foot care

In-depth Report
Diabetes - type 2
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of type 2 diabetes.

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes and nerve damage
Nerve damage that occurs in people with diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy. This condition is a complication of diabetes. diabetes

In-depth Report
Diabetes diet
An in-depth report on how people with diabetes can eat healthy diets and manage their blood glucose.

Diseases & Conditions
Diaper rash
A diaper rash is a skin problem that develops in the area under an infant's diaper.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child
What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult
What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health care provider - adult

Self-Care Instructions
Diet - clear liquid
Clear liquid diet; Surgery - clear liquid diet; Medical test - clear liquid diet

Self-Care Instructions
Diet - full liquid
Full liquid diet; Surgery - full liquid diet; Medical test - full liquid diet

Self-Care Instructions
Diet after gastric banding
Gastric banding surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after banding; Weight loss - diet after banding

Tests
Digital rectal exam
A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower rectum. The health care provider uses a gloved, lubricated finger to check for any abnormal findings.

Injury
Dislocation
A dislocation is a separation of 2 bones where they meet at a joint. Joints are areas where 2 bones come together. A dislocated joint is a joint where the bones are no longer in their normal positions.

Special Topics
Distal
Distal refers to sites located away from a specific area, usually the center of the body. In medicine, it refers to parts of the body further away from the center. For example, the hand is distal to the...

Diseases & Conditions
Diverticulitis
Diverticula are small, bulging sacs or pouches that form on the inner wall of the intestine. Diverticulitis occurs when these pouches become inflamed or infected. Most often, these pouches are in the large...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Diverticulitis - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about diverticulitis

Symptoms
Dizziness
Dizziness is a term that is often used to describe 2 different symptoms: lightheadedness and vertigo. Lightheadedness is a feeling that you might faint. Vertigo is a feeling that you are spinning or moving...

Special Topics
Do-not-resuscitate order
No code; End-of-life; Do not resuscitate; Do not resuscitate order; DNR; DNR order; Advance care directive - DNR; Health care agent - DNR; Health care proxy - DNR; End-of-life - DNR; Living will - DNR

Self-Care Instructions
Drawing medicine out of a vial
Administering injections; Giving a needle; Giving insulin

Self-Care Instructions
Dry mouth during cancer treatment
Chemotherapy - dry mouth; Radiation therapy - dry mouth; Transplant - dry mouth; Transplantation - dry mouth

Diseases & Conditions
Dysarthria
Dysarthria is a condition in which you have difficulty saying words because of problems with the muscles that help you talk.

Self-Care Instructions
Dysarthria - care
Speech and language disorder - dysarthria care; Slurred speech - dysarthria; Articulation disorder - dysarthria

E

Diseases & Conditions
E. coli enteritis
E. coli enteritis is swelling (inflammation) of the small intestine from Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. It is the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea. E. coli Escherichia coli E. coli

Special Topics
Ear - blocked at high altitudes
The air pressure outside of your body changes as altitude changes. This creates a difference in pressure on the two sides of the eardrum. You may feel pressure and blockage in the ears as a result. pressure...

Symptoms
Ear discharge
Ear discharge is drainage of blood, ear wax, pus, or fluid from the ear. ear wax

Diseases & Conditions
Ear infection - acute
Ear infections are one of the most common reasons parents take their children to the doctor. The most common type of ear infection is called otitis media. It is caused by swelling and infection of the middle...

Diseases & Conditions
Ear infection - chronic
Chronic ear infection is fluid, swelling, or an infection behind the eardrum that does not go away or keeps coming back. It causes long-term or permanent damage to the ear. It most often involves a hole...

Symptoms
Earlobe creases
Earlobe creases are lines in the surface of earlobe of a child or young adult. The surface is otherwise smooth

Self-Care Instructions
Eating out

Tests
Electrocardiogram
An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart.

Special Topics
Elimination patterns
Elimination patterns describe the regulation, control, and removal of by-products and wastes in the body. The term usually refers to the movement of feces or urine from the body.

Special Topics
Endoscope
An endoscope is a medical device with a light attached. It is used to look inside a body cavity or organ. The scope is inserted through a natural opening, such as the mouth during a bronchoscopy, or the...

Self-Care Instructions
Enlarged prostate - after care
The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that carries sperm during ejaculation. It surrounds the tube through which urine passes out of the body (the urethra). An enlarged prostate means the gland...

Special Topics
Enzyme
Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For example, they can help break down the foods we eat so the body can use them. Blood clotting is another example...

Special Topics
Enzyme markers
Enzyme markers are tests for specific enzyme activity in the body. Diseases or defects passed down through families (inherited) can affect how enzymes work. Some enzymes are affected by several genes. enzyme...

In-depth Report
Erectile dysfunction
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of erectile dysfunction.

Diseases & Conditions
Essential tremor
Essential tremor (ET) is a type of involuntary shaking movement. It has no identified cause. Involuntary means you shake without trying to do so and are not able to stop the shaking at will.

Special Topics
Etiology
Etiology describes the cause or causes of a disease.

In-depth Report
Exercise
An in-depth report about the benefits and types of exercise.

Self-Care Instructions
Exercise and activity for weight loss

Special Topics
Exercise and immunity
Battling another cough or cold? Feeling tired all the time? You may feel better if you take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps decrease your chances of developing...

Self-Care Instructions
Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones
Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise

Self-Care Instructions
Exercise-induced asthma
Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise

Special Topics
Exudate
Exudate is fluid that leaks out of blood vessels into nearby tissues. The fluid is made of cells, proteins, and solid materials. Exudate may ooze from cuts or from areas of infection or inflammation. It...

Symptoms
Eye burning - itching and discharge
Eye burning with discharge is burning, itching, or drainage from the eye of any substance other than tears.

Diseases & Conditions
Eyelid twitch
An eyelid twitch is a general term for spasms of the eyelid muscles that happen without your control. The eyelid may repeatedly close (or nearly close) and reopen. This article discusses eyelid twitches...

Symptoms
Eyes - bulging
Bulging eyes is the abnormal protrusion (bulging out) of one or both eyeballs.

F

Symptoms
Face pain
Face pain may be dull and throbbing or an intense, stabbing discomfort in the face or forehead. It can occur in one or both sides.

Symptoms
Facial swelling
Facial swelling is the buildup of fluid in the tissues of the face. Swelling may also affect the neck and upper arms.

Symptoms
Fainting
Fainting is a brief loss of consciousness due to a drop in blood flow to the brain. The episode most often lasts less than a couple of minutes and you usually recover from it quickly. The medical name for...

Diseases & Conditions
Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency
Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a group of rare genetic disorders in which a person lacks a protein needed to break down fat molecules. The disorder causes a large amount of fat to build up in...

Symptoms
Fatigue
Fatigue is a feeling of weariness, tiredness, or lack of energy.

Diseases & Conditions
Fecal impaction
A fecal impaction is a large lump of dry, hard stool that stays stuck in the rectum. It is most often seen in people who are constipated for a long time. A fecal impaction is a large lump of dry, hard stool...

Diseases & Conditions
Female pattern baldness
Female pattern baldness is the most common type of hair loss in women. hair loss

Diseases & Conditions
Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is a common syndrome in which a person has long-term pain that is spread throughout the body. The pain is most often linked to fatigue, sleep problems, headaches, depression, and anxiety. People...

Self-Care Instructions
Fire safety at home
Smoke alarms or detectors work even when you cannot smell smoke. Tips for proper use include: Install them in hallways, in or near all sleeping areas, the kitchen, and garage.Test them once a month. Change...

Injury
Fishhook removal
This article discusses how to remove a fishhook that is stuck in the skin.

Symptoms
Flank pain
Flank pain is pain in one side of the body between the upper belly area (abdomen) and the back.

Diseases & Conditions
Folate deficiency
Folate deficiency means you have a lower-than-normal amount of folic acid, a type of vitamin B, in your blood. folic acid

Diseases & Conditions
Food poisoning
Food poisoning occurs when you swallow food or water that contains bacteria, parasites, viruses, or the toxins made by these germs. Most cases are caused by common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or E....

Symptoms
Foot pain
Pain or discomfort can be felt anywhere in the foot. You may have pain in the heel, toes, arch, instep, or bottom of foot (sole).

In-depth Report
Foot pain
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of foot pain.

Special Topics
Foot pain causes

Symptoms
Foot, leg, and ankle swelling
Painless swelling of the feet and ankles is a common problem, especially among older people. Abnormal buildup of fluid in the ankles, feet, and legs can cause swelling. This fluid buildup and swelling is...

Injury
Frostbite
Frostbite is damage to the skin and underlying tissues caused by extreme cold. Frostbite is the most common freezing injury.

Diseases & Conditions
Frozen shoulder
Frozen shoulder is a condition in which the shoulder is painful and loses motion because of inflammation.

Diseases & Conditions
Fungal nail infection
Fungal nail infection is a fungus growing in and around your fingernail or toenail.

G

In-depth Report
Gallstones and gallbladder disease
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gallstones.

Symptoms
Gas - flatulence
Gas is air in the intestine that is passed through the rectum. Air that moves from the digestive tract through the mouth is called belching. belching Gas is also called flatus or flatulence.

Diseases & Conditions
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach). This can irritate the esophagus...

In-depth Report
Gastroesophageal reflux disease and heartburn
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of GERD.

Diseases & Conditions
Genital herpes
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the herpes simplex virus. This article focuses on HSV type 2 infection.

Symptoms
Genital sores - female
Sores or lesions on the female genitalia or in the vagina may occur for many reasons.

Self-Care Instructions
Getting your home ready - after the hospital
Getting your home ready after you have been in the hospital often requires much preparation. Set up your home to make your life is easier and safer when you return. Ask your doctor, nurses, or physical...

Symptoms
Groin lump
A groin lump is swelling in the groin area (where the upper leg meets the lower abdomen). It may be firm or soft, tender, or not painful at all.

Symptoms
Groin pain
Groin pain refers to discomfort in the area where the abdomen ends and the legs begin. This article focuses on groin pain in men. The terms "groin" and "testicle" are sometimes used interchangeably. But...

H

Diseases & Conditions
H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)
The H1N1 virus (swine flu) is an infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. It is caused by the H1N1 influenza virus.

Discharge Instructions
H2 blockers
Peptic ulcer disease - H2 blockers; PUD - H2 blockers; Gastroesophageal reflux - H2 blockers

Symptoms
Hair loss
Partial or complete loss of hair is called alopecia.

Diseases & Conditions
Hammer toe
Hammer toe is a deformity of the toe. The end of the toe is bent downward.

Diseases & Conditions
Hand-foot-mouth disease
Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat.

Special Topics
Hangover treatment
A hangover is the unpleasant symptoms a person has after drinking too much alcohol. Symptoms can include: Headache and dizzinessNauseaFatigueSensitivity to light and soundRapid heartbeatDepression, anxiety...

Diseases & Conditions
Head lice
Head lice are tiny insects that live on the skin covering the top of your head (scalp). Head lice may also be found in eyebrows and eyelashes. Lice can be spread by close contact with other people.

Symptoms
Headache
A headache is pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. Serious causes of headaches are rare. Most people with headaches can feel much better by making lifestyle changes, learning ways to relax, and...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Headache - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about headaches; Migraine - what to ask your doctor; Tension-type headache - what to ask your doctor; Cluster headache - what to ask your doctor

In-depth Report
Headaches - cluster
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cluster headaches.

Self-Care Instructions
Headaches - danger signs
Migraine headache - danger signs; Tension headache - danger signs; Cluster headache - danger signs; Vascular headache - danger signs

In-depth Report
Headaches - tension
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of common headaches.

Special Topics
Health care agents
Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - health care agent; Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent...

Self-Care Instructions
Health risks of alcohol use
Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking

Self-Care Instructions
Health risks of obesity

Special Topics
Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39
You should visit your health care provider regularly, even if you feel healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a healthy...

Special Topics
Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64
You should visit your health care provider regularly, even if you feel healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a healthy...

Special Topics
Health screening - men age 65 and older
You should visit your health care provider regularly, even if you feel healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a healthy...

Special Topics
Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39
You should visit your health care provider from time to time, even if you are healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a...

Special Topics
Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64
You should visit your health care provider from time to time, even if you are healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a...

Special Topics
Health screening - women - over age 65
You should visit your health care provider from time to time, even if you are healthy. The purpose of these visits is to: Screen for medical issuesAssess your risk for future medical problemsEncourage a...

Self-Care Instructions
Healthy grocery shopping

Special Topics
Healthy living

In-depth Report
Heart failure
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of heart failure.

In-depth Report
Heart-healthy diet
An in-depth report on how to build the best diet for your heart's health.

Symptoms
Heartburn
Heartburn is a painful burning feeling just below or behind the breastbone. Most of the time it comes from the esophagus. The pain often rises in your chest from your stomach. It may also spread to your...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Heartburn - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about heartburn and reflux; Reflux - what to ask your doctor; GERD - what to ask your doctor; Gastroesophageal reflux disease - what to ask your doctor

Special Topics
Help prevent hospital errors
A hospital error is when there is a mistake in your medical care. Errors can be made in your: MedicinesSurgeryDiagnosisEquipmentLab and other test reports Hospital errors are a leading cause of death. Doctors...

Surgery
Hemodialysis access procedures
An access is needed for you to get hemodialysis. The access is where you receive hemodialysis. Using the access, blood is removed from your body, cleaned by the dialyzer, and then returned to your body...

Tests
Hemoglobinuria test
Hemoglobinuria test is a urine test that checks for hemoglobin in the urine.

Special Topics
Hemorrhagic
Hemorrhage is the medical term for bleeding. It usually refers to excessive bleeding. Hemorrhagic diseases are caused by bleeding, or they result in bleeding (hemorrhaging).

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis
Hepatitis is swelling and inflammation of the liver.

In-depth Report
Hepatitis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of hepatitis.

Self-Care Instructions
Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss
You may see ads for supplements that claim to help you lose weight. But many of these claims are not true. Some of these supplements can even have serious side effects. Note for women: Pregnant or nursing...

Diseases & Conditions
Herniated disk
A herniated (slipped) disk occurs when all or part of a disk is forced through a weakened part of the disk. This may place pressure on nearby nerves or the spinal cord.

In-depth Report
Herpes simplex
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of herpes simplex.

Diseases & Conditions
Hiatal hernia
Hiatal hernia is a condition in which part of the stomach extends through an opening of the diaphragm into the chest. The diaphragm is the sheet of muscle that divides the chest from the abdomen.

Symptoms
Hiccups
A hiccup is an unintentional movement (spasm) of the diaphragm, the muscle at the base of the lungs. The spasm is followed by quick closing of the vocal cords, which produces a distinctive sound.

Diseases & Conditions
High arch
High arch is an arch that is raised more than normal. The arch runs from the toes to the heel on the bottom of the foot. It is also called pes cavus. High arch is the opposite of flat feet. flat feet

Diseases & Conditions
High blood cholesterol levels
Cholesterol is a fat (also called a lipid) that your body needs to work properly. Too much bad cholesterol can increase your chance of getting heart disease, stroke, and other problems. The medical term...

Diseases & Conditions
High blood pressure
Blood pressure is a measurement of the force exerted against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood to your body. Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure...

In-depth Report
High blood pressure
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of high blood pressure.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor

Special Topics
High blood pressure and diet
Making changes to your diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure. These changes can also help you lose weight and lower your chance of heart disease and stroke. high blood pressure Your health...

Special Topics
High blood pressure medicines
Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, stroke, loss of eyesight, chronic kidney disease, and other blood vessel diseases. high blood pressure You may need to take...

Self-Care Instructions
High blood sugar
Hyperglycemia - self-care; High blood glucose - self-care; Diabetes - high blood sugar

Self-Care Instructions
High-fiber foods
Dietary fiber - self-care; Constipation - fiber

Symptoms
Hip pain
Hip pain involves any pain in or around the hip joint. You may not feel pain from your hip directly over the hip area. You may feel it in your groin or pain in your thigh or knee.

Self-Care Instructions
Home blood sugar testing
Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing

Self-Care Instructions
Home health care
Home health; Skilled nursing - home health; Skilled nursing - home care; Physical therapy - at home; Occupational therapy - at home; Discharge - home health care

Special Topics
Hospice care
Hospice care helps people with illnesses that cannot be cured and who are nearing death. The goal is to give comfort and peace instead of a cure. Hospice care provides: Support for the patient and the familyRelief...

Diseases & Conditions
Hot tub folliculitis
Hot tub folliculitis is an infection of the skin around the lower part of the hair shaft (hair follicles). It occurs when you come into contact with certain bacteria that live in warm and wet areas. folliculitis

Self-Care Instructions
How to care for pressure sores
Pressure ulcer - care; Bedsore - care; Decubitus ulcer - care

Self-Care Instructions
How to give a heparin shot
Before you can give a heparin shot, you need to fill the syringe with the right amount of medicine, decide where to give the shot, and know how to give the shot.

Self-Care Instructions
How to use a nebulizer
Nebulizer - how to use; Asthma - how to use a nebulizer; COPD - how to use a nebulizer; Wheezing - nebulizer; Reactive airway - nebulizer; COPD - nebulizer; Chronic bronchitis - nebulizer; Emphysema - nebulizer

Self-Care Instructions
How to use an inhaler - with spacer
Metered-dose inhaler (MDI) administration - with spacer; Asthma - inhaler with spacer; Reactive airway disease - inhaler with spacer; Bronchial asthma - inhaler with spacer

Diseases & Conditions
Hyperhidrosis
Hyperhidrosis is a medical condition in which a person sweats excessively and unpredictably. People with hyperhidrosis may sweat even when the temperature is cool or when they are at rest.

Symptoms
Hyperventilation
Hyperventilation is rapid or deep breathing that can occur with anxiety or panic. It is also called overbreathing, and it may leave you feeling breathless.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. This condition is often called underactive thyroid.

In-depth Report
Hypothyroidism
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of hypothyroidism.

I

Special Topics
IV treatment at home
Home intravenous antibiotic therapy; Central venous catheter - home; Peripheral venous catheter - home; Port - home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment

Self-Care Instructions
Ileostomy - caring for your stoma
Standard ileostomy - stoma care; Brooke ileostomy - stoma care; Continent ileostomy - stoma care; Abdominal pouch - stoma care; End ileostomy - stoma care; Ostomy - stoma care; Crohn disease - stoma care...

Self-Care Instructions
Ileostomy - changing your pouch
You had an injury or disease in your digestive system and needed an operation called an ileostomy. The operation changed the way your body gets rid of waste (stool, feces, or poop). Now you have an opening...

Self-Care Instructions
Ileostomy and your child
Your child had an injury or disease in their digestive system and needed an operation called an ileostomy. The operation changed the way your child's body gets rid of waste (stool, feces, or poop). Now...

Self-Care Instructions
Ileostomy and your diet
You had an injury or disease in your digestive system and needed an operation called an ileostomy. The operation changed the way your body gets rid of waste (stool, feces, or poop). Now you have an opening...

Self-Care Instructions
Immunizations - diabetes

Diseases & Conditions
Impetigo
Impetigo is a common skin infection.

Special Topics
Incidence
Incidence is the number of new cases of a condition, symptom, death, or injury that develop during a specific time period, such as a year. Incidence shows the likelihood that a person in a certain population...

Symptoms
Indigestion
Indigestion (dyspepsia) is a mild discomfort in the upper belly or abdomen. It occurs during or right after eating. It may feel like: Heat, burning, or pain in the area between the navel and the lower part...

Special Topics
Informed consent - adults
You have the right to help decide what medical care is best for you. By law, your health care providers must explain your health condition and treatment choices to you. Informed consent means: You are informed...

Diseases & Conditions
Ingrown toenail
An ingrown toenail occurs when the edge of the nail grows down and into the skin of the toe.

Injury
Insect bites and stings
Insect bites and stings can cause an immediate skin reaction. The bite from fire ants and the sting from bees, wasps, and hornets are most often painful. Bites caused by mosquitoes, fleas, and mites are...

Special Topics
Insidious
An insidious disease is any disease that comes on slowly and does not have obvious symptoms at first. The person is not aware of it developing.

In-depth Report
Insomnia
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of insomnia.

Special Topics
Inspection
In medical terms, "inspection" means to look at the person or body part. It is the first step in a physical exam.

Diseases & Conditions
Interstitial cystitis
Interstitial cystitis is a long-term (chronic) problem in which pain, pressure, or burning is present in the bladder. It is also called painful bladder syndrome.

Special Topics
Intravenous
Intravenous means "within a vein. " Most often it refers to giving medicines or fluids through a needle or tube inserted into a vein. This allows the medicine or fluid to enter your bloodstream right away...

Special Topics
Intrinsic factor
Intrinsic factor is a protein that helps your intestines absorb vitamin B12. It is made by cells in the stomach lining.

Special Topics
Invasive
An invasive disease is one that spreads to surrounding tissues. An invasive procedure is one in which the body is "invaded", or entered by a needle, tube, device, or scope.

Diseases & Conditions
Irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder that leads to abdominal pain and bowel changes. IBS is not the same as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Discharge Instructions
Irritable bowel syndrome - aftercare
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be a lifelong condition. You may be suffering from cramping and loose stools, diarrhea, constipation, or some combination of these symptoms. For some people, IBS symptoms...

J

Special Topics
Jaundice causes
Jaundice is a yellow color in the skin, mucus membranes, or eyes. The yellow color comes from bilirubin, a byproduct of old red blood cells. Jaundice is a sign of other diseases. This article discusses...

Special Topics
Jet lag prevention
Jet lag is a temporary sleep disorder. It occurs when your body's biological clock is not in sync with the local time zone you are in. The more time zones you pass through, the worse your jet lag can be...

Diseases & Conditions
Jock itch
Jock itch is an infection of the groin area caused by fungus or yeast. The medical term is tinea cruris, or ringworm of the groin.

Symptoms
Joint swelling
Joint swelling is the buildup of fluid in the soft tissue surrounding the joint.

K

Special Topics
Keeping your medicines organized
If you take a lot of different medicines, you may find it hard to keep them straight. You may forget to take your medicine, take the wrong dose, or take them at the wrong time. Learn some tips to make taking...

Tests
Ketones blood test
A serum ketone test measures how many ketones are there in the blood.

Special Topics
Kinins
Kinins are proteins in the blood that cause inflammation and affect blood pressure (especially low blood pressure). They also: Increase blood flow throughout the bodyMake it easier for fluids to pass through...

Diseases & Conditions
Knock knees
Knock knees is a condition in which the knees touch, but the ankles do not touch. The legs turn inward.

Diseases & Conditions
Kyphosis
Kyphosis is a curving of the spine that causes a bowing or rounding of the back, which leads to a hunchback or slouching posture.

L

Tests
LDH isoenzyme blood test
The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme test checks how much of the different types of LDH are in the blood. lactate dehydrogenase

Self-Care Instructions
Lacerations - liquid bandage
Skin adhesives; Tissue adhesive; Skin cut - liquid bandage; Wound - liquid bandage

Tests
Lactic acid test
Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red blood cells. It forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for energy when oxygen levels are low. Times when your body's oxygen level might...

Diseases & Conditions
Lactic acidosis
Lactic acidosis is when lactic acid builds up in the bloodstream faster than it can be removed. Lactic acid is produced when oxygen levels in the body drop. lactic acid

Diseases & Conditions
Laryngitis
Laryngitis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the voice box (larynx). The problem is most often associated with hoarseness or loss of voice. hoarseness

Special Topics
Lateral
Lateral means to the side of, or away from, the middle of the body. Examples: The ears are lateral to the nose. The arms are lateral to the chest. The ears are lateral to the nose. The arms are lateral...

Self-Care Instructions
Latex allergies - for hospital patients
Latex products - hospital; Latex allergy - hospital; Latex sensitivity - hospital; Contact dermatitis - latex allergy; Allergy - latex; Allergic reaction - latex

Self-Care Instructions
Learning about depression

Symptoms
Leg pain
Leg pain is a common problem. It can be due to a cramp, injury, or other cause.

Special Topics
Lipofuscin
Lipofuscin is a brownish pigment left over from the breakdown and absorption of damaged blood cells. Lipofuscin is found in heart muscle and smooth muscles and is also called the aging pigment.

Diseases & Conditions
Liver spots
Liver spots are flat, brown or black spots that can appear on areas of the skin that are exposed to the sun. They have nothing to do with the liver or liver function.

Self-Care Instructions
Living with a chronic illness - dealing with feelings
Learning that you have a chronic illness can bring up many different feelings. Learn about common emotions you might have when you are diagnosed and live with a chronic illness. Learn how to support yourself...

Self-Care Instructions
Living with a chronic illness - reaching out to others
A chronic illness is a long-term health condition that may not have a cure. Some examples of chronic illnesses are: Alzheimer disease and dementiaArthritisAsthmaCancerCOPDCrohn diseaseCystic fibrosisDiabetesEpilepsyHeart...

Self-Care Instructions
Living with hearing loss

Self-Care Instructions
Living with your ileostomy
Standard ileostomy - living with; Brooke ileostomy - living with; Continent ileostomy - living with; Abdominal pouch - living with; End ileostomy - living with; Ostomy - living with; Crohn's disease - living...

Self-Care Instructions
Long-term complications of diabetes
Diabetic complications - long term

Diseases & Conditions
Low back pain - acute
Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your lower back. You may also have back stiffness, decreased movement of the lower back, and difficulty standing straight. Acute back pain can last for a few...

Diseases & Conditions
Low back pain - chronic
Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your lower back. You may also have back stiffness, decreased movement of the lower back, and difficulty standing straight. Low back pain that is long-term is...

Diseases & Conditions
Low blood pressure
Low blood pressure occurs when blood pressure is much lower than normal. This means the heart, brain, and other parts of the body do not get enough blood. Normal blood pressure is usually between 90/60 mmHg...

Special Topics
Lung problems and volcanic smog
Volcanic smog is also called vog. It forms when a volcano erupts and releases gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic smog can irritate the lungs and make existing lung problems worse.

In-depth Report
Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease.

M

Special Topics
MRI and low back pain
Back pain and sciatica are common health complaints. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Most of the time, the exact cause of the pain cannot be found. Back pain sciatica An MRI scan...

Tests
Magnesium blood test
A serum magnesium test measures the level of magnesium in the blood.

Self-Care Instructions
Making everyday tasks easier - arthritis
As the pain from arthritis becomes worse, keeping up with everyday activities may become more difficult. Making changes around your home will take some stress off your joints, such as your knee or hip,...

Symptoms
Malaise
Malaise is a general feeling of discomfort, illness, or lack of well-being.

Diseases & Conditions
Male pattern baldness
Male pattern baldness is the most common type of hair loss in men.

Self-Care Instructions
Mallet finger - aftercare
Baseball finger - aftercare; Drop finger - aftercare; Avulsion fracture - mallet finger - aftercare

Diseases & Conditions
Malnutrition
Malnutrition is the condition that occurs when your body does not get enough nutrients.

Self-Care Instructions
Managing latex allergies at home
Latex products; Latex allergy; Latex sensitivity; Contact dermatitis - latex allergy

Self-Care Instructions
Managing migraines at home
Headache - migraine - self-care; Vascular headache - self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Managing tension headaches at home
Tension-type headache - self-care; Muscle contraction headache - self-care; Headache - benign - self-care; Headache - tension- self-care; Chronic headaches - tension - self-care; Rebound headaches - tension...

Self-Care Instructions
Managing your chronic back pain
Chronic back pain - managing; Chronic back pain - self-care; Failed back syndrome - managing; Lumbar stenosis -managing; Spinal stenosis - managing; Sciatica - managing; Chronic lumbar pain - managing

Injury
Marine animal stings or bites
Marine animal stings or bites refer to venomous or poisonous bites or stings from any form of sea life, including jellyfish. There are about 2,000 species of animals found in the ocean that are either venomous...

Special Topics
Medial
Medial means toward the middle or center. It is the opposite of lateral. The term is used to describe general positions of body parts. For example, the chest is medial to the arm. lateral Your health care...

Special Topics
Medication safety during your hospital stay
Five-rights - medication; Medication administration - hospital; Medical errors - medication; Patient safety - medication safety

Special Topics
Medications for back pain
Back pain often goes away on its own over several weeks. In some people, back pain persists. It may not go away completely or it may get more painful at times. Medicines can also help with your back pain...

Self-Care Instructions
Medicines for osteoporosis
Alendronate (Fosamax); Ibandronate (Boniva); Risedronate (Actonel); Zoledronic acid (Reclast); Raloxifene (Evista); Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis...

In-depth Report
Melanoma and other skin cancers
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers.

In-depth Report
Menopause
An in-depth report on the treatment of menopause-related symptoms.

In-depth Report
Menstrual disorders
An in-depth report on the causes, treatment, and prevention of menstrual cramps.

Diseases & Conditions
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic acidosis is a condition in which there is too much acid in the body fluids.

Diseases & Conditions
Metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is a name for a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the chance of having coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. coronary artery disease stroke type 2...

Special Topics
Metabolite
A metabolite is any substance produced during metabolism (digestion or other bodily chemical processes). metabolism The term metabolite may also refer to the product that remains after a drug is broken...

Discharge Instructions
Metatarsal fracture (acute) - aftercare
The metatarsal bones are the long bones in your foot that connect your ankle to your toes. They also help you balance when you stand and walk. A sudden blow or severe twist of your foot, or overuse, can...

Diseases & Conditions
Methemoglobinemia
Methemoglobinemia (MetHb) is a blood disorder in which an abnormal amount of methemoglobin is produced. Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells (RBCs) that carries and distributes oxygen to the body...

Diseases & Conditions
Migraine
A migraine is a type of headache. It may occur with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. In many people, a throbbing pain is felt only on one side of the head.

In-depth Report
Migraine headaches
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of migraine.

Diseases & Conditions
Mononucleosis
Mononucleosis, or mono, is a viral infection that causes fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, most often in the neck.

Diseases & Conditions
Morton neuroma
Morton neuroma is an injury to the nerve between the toes, which causes thickening and pain. It commonly affects the nerve that travels between the third and fourth toes.

Self-Care Instructions
Moving a patient from bed to a wheelchair
Pivot turn; Transfer from bed to wheelchair

Special Topics
Mucosa
Mucosa is moist tissue that lines certain parts of the inside of your body. It is in your: NoseMouthLungsUrinary and digestive tracts Nose Mouth Lungs Urinary and digestive tracts Glands in this tissue...

Diseases & Conditions
Mucous cyst
A mucous cyst is a painless, thin sac on the inner surface of the lips. It contains clear fluid. cyst

N

Discharge Instructions
Nasal corticosteroid sprays
Steroid nasal sprays; Allergies - nasal corticosteroid sprays

Symptoms
Nausea and vomiting - adults
Nausea is feeling an urge to vomit. It is often called "being sick to your stomach." Vomiting or throwing-up is forcing the contents of the stomach up through the esophagus and out of the mouth.

Symptoms
Neck lump
A neck lump is any lump, bump, or swelling in the neck.

Self-Care Instructions
Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care
Diabetic neuropathy - self-care

Special Topics
Newborn head molding
Newborn head molding is an abnormal head shape that results from pressure on the baby's head during childbirth.

Diseases & Conditions
Nicotine and tobacco
The nicotine in tobacco can be addictive like alcohol, cocaine, and morphine.

Special Topics
Nicotine replacement therapy
Nicotine replacement therapy is a treatment to help people stop smoking. It uses products that supply low doses of nicotine. These products do not contain many of the toxins found in smoke. The goal of...

Diseases & Conditions
Nipple discharge
Nipple discharge is any fluid that comes out of the nipple area in your breast.

Special Topics
Noninvasive
The term noninvasive can refer to diseases, procedures, or devices. Noninvasive diseases usually do not spread to or damage other organs and tissues. Noninvasive procedures do not involve tools that...

Symptoms
Nosebleed
A nosebleed is loss of blood from the tissue lining the nose. Bleeding most often occurs in 1 nostril only.

Symptoms
Numbness and tingling
Numbness and tingling are abnormal sensations that can occur anywhere in your body, but they are often felt in your fingers, hands, feet, arms, or legs.

Special Topics
Nurse practitioner (NP)
A nurse practitioner (NP) is a nurse with a graduate degree in advanced practice nursing.

Diseases & Conditions
Nursemaid’s elbow
Nursemaid's elbow is a dislocation of a bone in the elbow called the radius. Dislocation means the bone slips out of its normal position. dislocation The injury is also called radial head dislocation.

O

Diseases & Conditions
Obesity
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as being overweight, which means weighing too much. A person may be overweight from extra muscle or water, as well as from having too much fat...

Self-Care Instructions
Oral mucositis - self-care
Cancer treatment - mucositis; Cancer treatment - mouth pain; Cancer treatment - mouth sores; Chemotherapy - mucositis; Chemotherapy - mouth pain; Chemotherapy - mouth sores; Radiation therapy - mucositis...

Diseases & Conditions
Osgood-Schlatter disease
Osgood-Schlatter disease is a painful swelling of the bump on the upper part of the shinbone, just below the knee. This bump is called the anterior tibial tubercle.

Diseases & Conditions
Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder. It is due to aging and wear and tear on a joint.

In-depth Report
Osteoarthritis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the most common form of arthritis.

In-depth Report
Osteoporosis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of osteoporosis.

Symptoms
Overweight
Nearly 2 out of every 3 adults in the United States are overweight.

P

Self-Care Instructions
Pain and your emotions

Special Topics
Pain medications - narcotics
Narcotics are also called opioid pain relievers. They are used only for pain that is severe and is not helped by other types of painkillers. When used carefully and under a health care provider's direct...

Symptoms
Painful menstrual periods
Painful menstrual periods are periods in which a woman has crampy lower abdominal pain, which can be sharp or aching and come and go. Back pain may also be present. Some pain during your period is normal...

Special Topics
Palliative care - fear and anxiety
End of life care - fear and anxiety; Hospice care - fear and anxiety

Special Topics
Palliative care - shortness of breath
Dyspnea - end-of-life; Hospice care - shortness of breath

Special Topics
Palpation
Palpation is a method of feeling with the fingers or hands during a physical examination. The health care provider touches and feels your body to examine the size, consistency, texture, location, and tenderness...

Diseases & Conditions
Panic disorder
Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder in which you have repeated attacks of intense fear that something bad will happen.

Special Topics
Pedicle
A pedicle is a stem or stalk of tissue that connects parts of the body to each other. The brain has many pedicles (such as the cerebral pedicle) that connect areas of the brain to each other. Skin tags...

Diseases & Conditions
Pellagra
Pellagra is a disease that occurs when a person does not get enough niacin (one of the B complex vitamins) or tryptophan (an amino acid). niacin tryptophan

Diseases & Conditions
Peptic ulcer
A peptic ulcer is an open sore or raw area in the lining of the stomach or intestine. A gastric ulcer occurs in the stomach. A duodenal ulcer occurs in the first part of the small intestine. A gastric ulcer...

Discharge Instructions
Peptic ulcer disease - discharge
You have peptic ulcer disease (PUD). A peptic ulcer is an open sore or raw area in the lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or upper part of the small intestine (duodenal ulcer). You may have had tests...

In-depth Report
Peptic ulcers
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of stomach and gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers.

Special Topics
Percussion
Percussion is a method of tapping body parts with fingers, hands, or small instruments as part of a physical examination. It is done to determine: The size, consistency, and borders of body organsThe presence...

Diseases & Conditions
Perioral dermatitis
Perioral dermatitis is a skin disorder in which tiny red bumps form around the mouth and lower half of the face. It can look like acne or rosacea.

Special Topics
Peripheral
Peripheral means "away from the center." It refers to areas away from the center of the body or a body part. For example, the hands are peripheral to the shoulder. The toes are peripheral to the knees.

Self-Care Instructions
Peripheral artery disease of the legs - self-care
Peripheral vascular disease - self-care; Intermittent claudication - self-care

Special Topics
Physical examination
During a physical examination, a health care provider studies your body to determine if you do or do not have a physical problem. A physical examination usually includes: Inspection (looking at the body...

Diseases & Conditions
Pinworms
Pinworms are small worms that infect the intestines.

Diseases & Conditions
Pityriasis rosea
Pityriasis rosea is a common type of skin rash seen in young adults.

In-depth Report
Pneumonia
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pneumonia.

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)
Pneumonia is a breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This type of pneumonia is found in people who have not...

Symptoms
Point tenderness - abdomen
Abdominal point tenderness is the pain you feel when pressure is placed over a certain part of the belly area (abdomen).

Injury
Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash
Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly cause an allergic skin reaction. The result is most often an itchy, red rash with bumps or blisters.

Self-Care Instructions
Portion size

Discharge Instructions
Post surgical pain treatment - adults
Pain that occurs after surgery is an important concern. Before your surgery, you and your surgeon may have discussed how much pain you should expect and how it will be managed. Several factors determine...

In-depth Report
Premenstrual syndrome
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Self-Care Instructions
Preventing head injuries in children

Self-Care Instructions
Preventing hepatitis A

Self-Care Instructions
Preventing hepatitis B or C
Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. You should take steps to prevent catching or spreading these viruses since these infections can cause chronic liver disease...

Special Topics
Preventive health care

Special Topics
Proliferation
Proliferation is the growth of tissue cells. In many diseases, it is abnormal. Cancer cells are very prolific, they have high rates of cell division and growth. Cancer

Discharge Instructions
Prostate cancer staging

Discharge Instructions
Prostate radiation - discharge
Your body undergoes many changes when you have radiation treatment for cancer. You may have the following side effects about 2 to 3 weeks after your first radiation treatment: Skin problems. The skin over...

Diseases & Conditions
Prostatitis - bacterial
Prostatitis is swelling of the prostate gland. Prostate tissue becomes inflamed. This problem can be caused by an infection with bacteria. Acute prostatitis starts quickly and chronic prostatitis lasts...

Self-Care Instructions
Prostatitis- bacterial - self-care
You have been diagnosed with bacterial prostatitis. This is an infection of the prostate gland.

Special Topics
Prosthesis
A prosthesis is a device designed to replace a missing part of the body or to make a part of the body work better. Diseased or missing eyes, arms, hands, legs, or joints are commonly replaced by prosthetic...

Discharge Instructions
Proton pump inhibitors
PPIs

Special Topics
Protuberance
A protuberance is a body part that bulges (protrudes) outward from a surface. For example, the ankle is a protuberance of the leg. The ears protrude from the head.

Special Topics
Proximal
Proximal means nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body. If another reference point is given, such as the heart, the proximal point of another organ or extremity...

In-depth Report
Psoriasis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of psoriasis.

Self-Care Instructions
Pulling a patient up in bed
Moving a patient in bed

Tests
Pulse
The pulse is the number of heartbeats per minute.

R

Symptoms
Rashes
Rashes involve changes in the color or texture of your skin.

Special Topics
Resources

Self-Care Instructions
Responsible drinking
Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking

Diseases & Conditions
Retroperitoneal inflammation
Retroperitoneal inflammation is swelling that occurs in the retroperitoneal space. The retroperitoneal space is in front of the lower back and behind the abdominal lining (peritoneum). Organs in this space...

Self-Care Instructions
Returning to sports after a back injury
Back injury - returning to sports; Sciatica - returning to sports; Herniated disc - returning to sports; Herniated disk - returning to sports; Spinal stenosis - returning to sports; Back pain - returning...

Self-Care Instructions
Rib fracture - aftercare
Broken rib - aftercare

Symptoms
Ribcage pain
Ribcage pain includes any pain or discomfort in the area of the ribs.

Special Topics
Risks of tobacco

Diseases & Conditions
Rosacea
Rosacea is a chronic skin problem that makes your face turn red. It may also cause swelling and skin sores that look like acne. acne

Self-Care Instructions
Rotator cuff - self-care
The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that attach to the bones of the shoulder joint, allowing the shoulder to move and remain stable. Common rotator cuff problems include: Tendinitis, which...

Self-Care Instructions
Rotator cuff exercises
The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that attach to the bones of the shoulder joint, allowing the shoulder to move and keeping it stable. The tendons of the rotator cuff pass underneath a...

Diseases & Conditions
Rotator cuff problems
The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that attach to the bones of the shoulder joint, allowing the shoulder to move and keeping it stable. Rotator cuff tendinitis refers to irritation of these...

S

Self-Care Instructions
Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare
SIJ pain - aftercare; SIJ dysfunction - aftercare; SIJ strain - aftercare; SIJ subluxation -aftercare; SIJ syndrome - aftercare

Diseases & Conditions
Salmonella enterocolitis
Salmonella enterocolitis is an infection in the lining of the small intestine that is caused by salmonella bacteria. It is a type of food poisoning.

Diseases & Conditions
Scabies
Scabies is an easily-spread skin disease caused by a very small mite.

Diseases & Conditions
Sciatica
Sciatica refers to pain, weakness, numbness, or tingling in the leg. It is caused by injury to or pressure on the sciatic nerve. Sciatica is a symptom of another medical problem. It is not a medical condition...

Injury
Scrape
A scrape is an area where the skin is rubbed off. It usually occurs after you fall or hit something. A scrape is often not serious. But it can be painful and may bleed slightly.

Diseases & Conditions
Scurvy
Scurvy is a disease that occurs when you have a severe lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in your diet. Scurvy causes general weakness, anemia, gum disease, and skin hemorrhages. anemia skin hemorrhages...

Tests
Sensitivity analysis
Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) such as bacteria that have been isolated from cultures. Sensitivity analysis may be done along with: Blood...

Diseases & Conditions
Septic shock
Septic shock is a serious condition that occurs when a body-wide infection leads to dangerously low blood pressure.

Tests
Serotonin blood test
The serotonin test measures the level of serotonin in the blood.

Symptoms
Shoulder pain
Shoulder pain is any pain in or around the shoulder joint.

Self-Care Instructions
Signs of an asthma attack
Asthma attack - signs of; Reactive airway disease - asthma attack; Bronchial asthma - attack

In-depth Report
Sinusitis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis.

Self-Care Instructions
Sinusitis in adults - aftercare
Sinus infection - self-care; Rhinosinusitis - self-care

Special Topics
Sitz bath
A sitz bath is a warm water bath used for healing or cleansing purposes. You sit in the bath. The water covers only your hips and buttocks. The water may contain medicine. Sitz baths are often used to relieve...

Discharge Instructions
Skiers thumb - aftercare
With this injury, the main ligament in your thumb is stretched or torn. The ligament is a strong fiber that attaches one bone to another bone. This injury can be caused by any kind of fall with your thumb...

Self-Care Instructions
Skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities - choosing
SNF; SAR; Sub-acute rehab

Self-Care Instructions
Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities
When you no longer need the amount of care provided in the hospital, the hospital will begin the process to discharge you. Most people hope to go directly home from the hospital. Even if you and your doctor...

Symptoms
Skin turgor
Skin turgor is the skin's elasticity. It is the ability of skin to change shape and return to normal.

In-depth Report
Skin wrinkles and blemishes
An in-depth report on the treatment and prevention of skin wrinkles and blemishes.

In-depth Report
Smoking
An in-depth report on the health risks of smoking and how to quit.

Special Topics
Smoking and COPD

Self-Care Instructions
Smoking and asthma

Special Topics
Smoking cessation medications
Your health care provider can prescribe medicines to help you quit tobacco use. These medicines do not contain nicotine. They work in a different way than nicotine patches, gums, sprays or lozenges. They...

Self-Care Instructions
Snacking when you have diabetes
Healthy snacking - diabetes; Low blood sugar - snacking; Hypoglycemia - snacking

Self-Care Instructions
Snacks for adults

Diseases & Conditions
Speech disorders - children
A speech disorder is a condition in which a person has problems creating or forming the speech sounds needed to communicate with others. Three common speech disorders are: Articulation disorders ...

Diseases & Conditions
Spinal stenosis
Spinal stenosis is narrowing of the spinal column that causes pressure on the spinal cord, or narrowing of the openings (called neural foramina) where spinal nerves leave the spinal column.

Symptoms
Splinter hemorrhages
Splinter hemorrhages are small areas of bleeding (hemorrhage) under the fingernails or toenails.

Injury
Sprains
A sprain is an injury to the ligaments around a joint. Ligaments are strong, flexible fibers that hold bones together. When a ligament is stretched too far or tears, the joint will become painful and swell...

Diseases & Conditions
Stasis dermatitis and ulcers
Stasis dermatitis is a change in the skin that occurs when blood collects (pools) in the veins of the lower leg.

Self-Care Instructions
Stay away from asthma triggers
Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers

Special Topics
Stimulants
Stimulants are drugs that increase your heart rate, breathing rate, and brain function. Some stimulants affect only a specific organ, such as the heart, lungs, brain, or nervous system. Epinephrine is a...

Special Topics
Stimulus
A stimulus is anything that can trigger a physical or behavioral change. The plural of stimulus is stimuli. Stimuli can be external or internal. An example of external stimuli: Your body responding to a...

Special Topics
Stop smoking support programs
It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a much better chance of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs are offered by hospitals, health departments, community...

Self-Care Instructions
Storing your medicines
Medications - storing

Injury
Strains
A strain is when a muscle is stretched too much and tears. It is also called a pulled muscle. A strain is a painful injury. It can be caused by an accident, overusing a muscle, or using a muscle in the...

In-depth Report
Stress
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of stress.

Self-Care Instructions
Stroke - risk factors
A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or health problem. Some risk factors for stroke you cannot change. Some you can. Changing the risk factors that you have control...

Symptoms
Stuffy or runny nose - adult
A stuffy or congested nose occurs when the tissues lining it become swollen. The swelling is due to inflamed blood vessels. The problem may also include nasal discharge or "runny nose. " If excess mucus...

Symptoms
Stuffy or runny nose - children
A stuffy or congested nose occurs when the tissues lining the nose become swollen. The swelling is due to inflamed blood vessels. The problem may also include nasal discharge or "runny nose. " If excess...

Self-Care Instructions
Subcutaneous (SQ) injections
SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection

Diseases & Conditions
Substance use disorder
Substance use disorder occurs when a person's use of alcohol or another substance (drug) leads to health issues or problems at work, school, or home. This disorder is also called substance abuse.

Self-Care Instructions
Sun protection
Many skin changes, such as skin cancer, wrinkles, and age spots are caused by exposure to the sun. The two types of sun rays that can injure the skin are ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB). UVA...

Diseases & Conditions
Superficial thrombophlebitis
Thrombophlebitis is a swollen or inflamed vein due to a blood clot. Superficial refers to veins just below the skin's surface. blood clot

Diseases & Conditions
Swallowing difficulty
Difficulty with swallowing is the feeling that food or liquid is stuck in the throat or at any point before the food enters the stomach. This problem is also called dysphagia.

Self-Care Instructions
Sweetened beverages

Nutrition
Sweeteners - sugar substitutes
Artificial sweeteners are substances that are used in place of sweeteners with sugar (sucrose) or sugar alcohols. They may also be called sugar substitutes, nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), and noncaloric...

Symptoms
Swelling
Swelling is the enlargement of organs, skin, or other body parts. It is caused by a buildup of fluid in the tissues. The extra fluid can lead to a rapid increase in weight over a short period of time (days...

Diseases & Conditions
Swimmer's ear
Swimmer's ear is inflammation, irritation, or infection of the outer ear and ear canal. The medical term for swimmer's ear is otitis externa. Swimmer's ear may be acute or chronic. acute

Special Topics
Symptomatic
Symptomatic can mean showing symptoms, or it may concern a specific symptom. Symptoms are signs of disease or injury. They are noticed by the person. Many conditions and diseases have symptoms. A cough...

Special Topics
Systemic
Systemic means affecting the entire body, rather than a single organ or body part. For example, systemic disorders, such as high blood pressure, or systemic diseases, such as influenza, affect the entire...

T

Diseases & Conditions
TMJ disorders
Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMJ disorders) are problems that affect the chewing muscles and joints that connect your lower jaw to your skull.

Self-Care Instructions
Tailbone trauma - aftercare
The tailbone, or coccyx, is made up of three to five small bones. It is at the base of your spine. When you have a tailbone injury, you have bruised or fractured one of these bones.

Special Topics
Taking iron supplements
Eating iron-rich foods is a key part of treating anemia caused by low iron levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your body.

Self-Care Instructions
Taking medicine at home - create a routine
It can be hard to remember to take all of your medicines. Learn some tips to create a daily routine that helps you remember to take your medicines.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Taking medicines - what to ask your doctor
Medications - taking

Discharge Instructions
Taking narcotics for back pain
Nonspecific back pain - narcotics; Backache - chronic - narcotics; Lumbar pain - chronic - narcotics; Pain - back - chronic - narcotics; Chronic back pain - low - narcotics

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Taking warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) - what to ask your doctor
Warfarin - what to ask your doctor; Coumadin - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about taking warfarin (Coumadin); Jantoven - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about taking...

Self-Care Instructions
Talking to someone with hearing loss
It may be hard for a person with hearing loss to understand a conversation with another person. Being in a group conversation can be even harder. The person with hearing loss can feel isolated or cut off...

Special Topics
Teething
Teething is the growth of teeth through the gums in the mouth of infants and young children.

Tests
Temperature measurement
The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. It can also monitor whether or not treatment is working. A high temperature is a fever. fever

Diseases & Conditions
Tendinitis
Tendinitis is inflammation, irritation, and swelling of a tendon. This is the fibrous structure that joins muscle to bone. In many cases, tendinosis (tendon degeneration) is also present.

Tests
Tests for H. pylori
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the bacteria (germ) responsible for most stomach and duodenal ulcers and many cases of stomach inflammation (chronic gastritis). Helicobacter pylori H. pylori

Symptoms
Thirst - absent
Absence of thirst is a lack of the urge to drink fluids, even when the body is low on water or has too much salt.

Symptoms
Thirst - excessive
Excessive thirst is an abnormal feeling of always needing to drink fluids.

Diseases & Conditions
Thrombophlebitis
Thrombophlebitis is swelling (inflammation) of a vein. A blood clot (thrombus) in the vein can cause this swelling. blood clot

Diseases & Conditions
Thrush - children and adults
Thrush is a yeast infection of the tongue and lining of the mouth.

Symptoms
Tinnitus
Tinnitus is the medical term for "hearing" noises in your ears. It occurs when there is no outside source of the sounds. Tinnitus is often called "ringing in the ears. " It may also sound like blowing,...

Tests
Total protein
The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues...

Nutrition
Traveler’s diarrhea diet
Traveler's diarrhea is loose, watery stools. People can get traveler's diarrhea when they visit places where the water is not clean or the food is not handled safely. This can include third-world or developing...

Self-Care Instructions
Tremor - self-care
Shaking - self-care; Essential tremor - self-care; Familial tremor - self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Trigger finger
Digital stenosing tenosynovitis; Trigger digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis

Special Topics
Tubercle
A tubercle is a small rounded point of a bone. It also refers to a nodule attached to bone, mucous membrane (moist layer lining parts of the body), or skin. nodule mucous membrane The term "tubercle" is...

Self-Care Instructions
Turning patients over in bed
Roll patients in bed

Special Topics
Types of health care providers
This article describes health care providers involved in primary care, nursing care, and specialty care. This is just one way of organizing the many types of health care providers. See the following articles...

Self-Care Instructions
Types of ileostomy
You had an injury or disease in your digestive system and needed an operation called an ileostomy. The operation changed the way your body gets rid of waste (stool, feces, or poop). Now you have an opening...