Arteritis - temporal; Cranial arteritis; Giant cell arteritis
Temporal arteritisis inflammation and damage to the blood vessels that supply blood to the head, neck, upper body and arms. It is also called giant cell arteritis.
Temporal arteritis affects medium-to-large arteries. It causes inflammation, swelling, tenderness, and damage to the blood vessels that supply blood to the head, neck, upper body and arms. It most commonly occurs in the arteries around the temples (temporal arteries) that branch off from the carotid artery in the neck. In some cases, the condition can occur in medium-to-large arteries in other places in the body as well.
The cause of the condition is unknown. It is believed to be due in part to a faulty immune response. The disorder has been linked to some infections and to certain genes.
The problem may develop with or following another inflammatory disorder known as polymyalgia rheumatica. Giant cell arteritis almost always occurs in people over age 50. It is most common in people of northern European descent. The condition may run in families.
Some common symptoms of this problem are:
Other symptoms may include:
Problems with eyesight may occur, and at times may begin suddenly. These problems include:
Other symptoms may occur with this disease, including:
The health care provider will examine your head.
Blood tests may include:
Blood tests alone cannot provide a diagnosis. You will need to have a biopsy (tissue sample) from the involved artery.
You may also have other tests, including:
Getting prompt treatment can help prevent severe problems such as blindness or even stroke.
Most of the time, you will receive corticosteroids such as prednisone by mouth. These medicines are often started even before a biopsy is done. You may also be told to take aspirin.
Most people begin to feel better within a few days after starting treatment. However, you will need to take medicine for 1 to 2 years. The dose of corticosteroids will be cut back very slowly.
Long-term treatment with corticosteroids can make bones thinner and increase your chance of a fracture. You will need to take the following steps to protect your bone strength.
You may also need to take other medications that suppress the immune system.
Most people make a full recovery, but treatment may be needed for 1 to 2 years or longer. The condition may return at a later date.
Damage to other blood vessels in the body such as aneurysms (ballooning of the blood vessels) may occur. This damage can lead to a stroke in the future.
Call your health care provider if you have:
There is no known prevention.
Hellmann DB. Giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and Takayasu's arteritis. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, et al, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 88.
Last reviewed on: 1/20/2015
Reviewed by: Gordon A. Starkebaum, MD, professor of medicine, division of rheumatology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.