Type 2 diabetes

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes - type II; Adult-onset diabetes; Diabetic - type 2 diabetes; Oral hypoglycemic - type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

Diabetes and exercise

A person with type 2 diabetes can use exercise to help control their blood sugar levels and provide energy their muscles need to function throughout the day. By maintaining a healthy diet and sufficient exercise, a person with type 2 diabetes may be able to keep their blood sugar in the normal non-diabetic range without medication.

Diabetic emergency supplies

An individual with diabetes should wear or carry I.D. information (such as an alert bracelet) that emergency medical staff can find. A sugar source, such as glucose tablets or raisins should be carried in case blood sugar levels become too low.

Starchy foods

All food that you eat turns to sugar in your body. Carbohydrate-containing foods alter your sugar levels more than any other type of food. Carbohydrates are found in starchy or sugary foods, such as bread, rice, pasta, cereal, potatoes, corn, fruit, fruit juice, cookies, candy, soda, and other sweets. Other possible sources include peas, milk, and yogurt.

Low blood sugar symptoms

Symptoms such as weakness, feeling tired, shaking, sweating, headache, hunger, nervousness and irritability are signs that a persons blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), a sugar-containing food should be eaten right away.

15/15 rule

To treat low blood sugar the 15/15 rule is usually applied. Eat 15 grams of carbohydrate and wait 15 minutes. The following foods will provide about 15 grams of carbohydrate: 3 glucose tablets; half a cup (4 ounces) of fruit juice or regular soda; 6 or 7 hard candies; or 1 tablespoon of sugar. After the carbohydrate is eaten, the person should wait about 15 minutes for the sugar to get into their blood. If the person does not feel better within 15 minutes, more carbohydrate can be consumed. Their blood sugar should be checked to make sure it has come within a safe range.

Glucose in blood

After being diagnosed with diabetes, the first goals are to eliminate the symptoms and stabilize your blood glucose levels. The ongoing goals are to prevent long-term complications and prolong your life. The primary treatment for type 2 diabetes is exercise and diet.

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (such as acarbose) decrease the absorption of carbohydrates from the digestive tract, thereby lowering the after-meal glucose levels.

Biguanides

Biguanides (Metformin) tell the liver to decrease its production of glucose, which lowers glucose levels in the bloodstream.

Sulfonylureas drug

Oral sulfonylureas (like glimepiride, glyburide, and tolazamide) trigger the pancreas to make more insulin.

Thiazolidinediones

Thiazolidinediones (such as rosiglitazone) help insulin work better at the cell site. In essence, they increase the cell's sensitivity (responsiveness) to insulin.

Food and insulin release

Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to increased glucose levels in the blood.

Monitoring blood glucose - Series

Set up the meter according to the specific directions that come with your meter. Get the supplies ready, including a new test strip and disposable lancet. Place the lancet into the lancing device.

Causes

Symptoms

Exams and Tests

Treatment

Support Groups

Outlook (Prognosis)

Possible Complications

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Prevention