Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol
Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. You may also need more and more alcohol to feel drunk. Stopping suddenly may cause withdrawal symptoms.
No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that it may be a combination of a person's:
Drinking an excessive amount of alcohol can put you at risk for alcohol-related problems if:
One drink is defined as 12 ounces or 360 milliliters of beer (5% alcohol content), 5 ounces or 150 milliliters of wine (12% alcohol content), or a 1.5-ounce or 45 milliliters shot of liquor (80-proof, or 40% alcohol content).
If you have a parent with alcohol use disorder, you are more at risk for alcohol problems.
You also may be more likely to have problems with alcohol if you:
If you are concerned about your drinking, it may help to take a careful look at your alcohol use.
Doctors have developed a list of symptoms that a person has to have in the past year to be diagnosed with alcohol use disorder.
Symptoms may include:
Your health care provider will:
Your provider may order tests to check for health problems that are common in people who use alcohol. These tests may include:
Many people with an alcohol problem need to completely stop using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier to quit drinking.
Some people are able to just cut back on their drinking. So even if you do not give up alcohol altogether, you may be able to drink less. This can improve your health and relationships with others. It can also help you perform better at work or school.
However, many people who drink too much find they cannot just cut back. Abstinence may be the only way to manage a drinking problem.
DECIDING TO QUIT
Like many people with an alcohol problem, you may not recognize that your drinking has gotten out of hand. An important first step is to be aware of how much you drink. It also helps to understand the health risks of alcohol.
If you decide to quit drinking, talk with your provider. Treatment involves helping you realize how much your alcohol use is harming your life and the lives those around you.
Depending on how much and how long you have been drinking, you may be at risk for alcohol withdrawal. Withdrawal can be very uncomfortable and even life-threatening. If you have been drinking a lot, you should cut back or stop drinking only under the care of a doctor. Talk with your provider about how to stop using alcohol.
Alcohol recovery or support programs can help you stop drinking completely. These programs usually offer:
For the best chance of success, you should live with people who support your efforts to avoid alcohol. Some programs offer housing options for people with alcohol problems. Depending on your needs and the programs that are available:
You may be prescribed medicines to help you quit. They are often used with long-term counseling or support groups. These medicines make it less likely that you will drink again or help limit the amount you drink.
Drinking may mask depression or other mood or anxiety disorders. If you have a mood disorder, it may become more noticeable when you stop drinking. Your provider will treat any mental disorders in addition to your alcohol treatment.
Support groups help many people who are dealing with alcohol use.
ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA)
Family members of a person with an alcohol problem often benefit from talking with others.
OTHER SUPPORT GROUPS
Several other support groups are available.
How well a person does depends on whether they can successfully cut back or stop drinking.
It may take several tries to stop drinking for good. If you are struggling to quit, do not give up hope. Getting treatment, if needed, along with support and encouragement from support groups and those around you can help you remain sober.
Alcohol use disorder can increase your risk of many health problems, including:
Alcohol use also increases your risk for violence.
Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant can lead to severe birth defects in the baby. This is called fetal alcohol syndrome.
Talk with your provider if you or someone you know may have an alcohol problem.
Seek immediate medical care or call your local emergency number (such as 911) if you or someone you know has an alcohol problem and develops severe confusion, seizures, or bleeding.
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism recommends:
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Screening and Counseling. Updated January 7, 2014.
Moyer VA; Preventive Services Task Force. Screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(3):210-218. PMID: 23698791
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder.
Sherin K, Seikel S, Hale S. Alcohol use disorders. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 48.
Last reviewed on: 1/31/2016
Reviewed by: Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.