COPD - managing stress and your mood
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - emotions; Stress - COPD; Depression - COPD
People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a greater risk for depression, stress, and anxiety. Being stressed or depressed can make COPD symptoms worse and make it harder to care for yourself.
For years, you've enjoyed relaxing with a cigarette in your hand, and looked forward to your cigarette breaks at work, but now, all of that smoking has caught up with you. You're coughing, wheezing, often out of breath. Could you have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Let's talk about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, for short. COPD is a lung disease that's usually caused by smoking, although some people who smoke for years never get the condition, while a few get COPD even if they've never lit up. Most people with COPD have a combination of a cough that just won't go away, called chronic bronchitis, and lung damage, called emphysema. The symptoms of COPD can sneak up on you slowly. Over time, you'll develop a cough that lingers, day after day. You'll feel tired, and have trouble catching your breath. Only your doctor can tell for sure whether this is COPD. To test for it, you'll need to breathe or blow into a machine as hard as you can, and hold that breath, as long as you can, in a test called spirometry. You may also need to have a blood test to determine how much oxygen and carbon dioxide is in your blood. If you have COPD, the ways things stand now, you'll have it for life, as there is no cure for this disease. However, there are ways to control the condition and help you breathe more easily. The first thing you do, absolutely need to do, is stop smoking, which will help slow down the damage to your lungs. A few medicines can help relieve COPD symptoms. You may breathe in a bronchodilator medicine through an inhaler to open up your airways, or take steroids to bring down the swelling in your lungs. If you're having real trouble breathing though, call your local emergency services number. You may need to visit the hospital for oxygen or breathing assistance. You may also need to take antibiotics during flare-ups, because getting an infection can make your COPD worse. Though it may be hard to exercise when you're feeling out of breath, staying active will help keep your muscles strong. Your doctor can teach you how to breathe in a different way so that you can exercise with COPD. You can help avoid the shortness of breath, the coughing, and the wheezing of COPD by butting out, kicking your cigarette habit as soon as possible. Not smoking is the absolute best way to prevent COPD. Ask your doctor about programs and medicines that may make it easier for you to quit.
When you have COPD, caring for your emotional health is just as important as taking care of your physical health. Learning how to deal with stress and anxiety and seeking care for depression can help you manage COPD and feel better in general.
COPD and Your Emotions
Having COPD can affect your mood and emotions for several reasons:
- You cannot do all the things you used to do.
- You may need to do things much slower than you used to.
- You may often feel tired.
- You may have a hard time sleeping.
- You may feel ashamed or blame yourself for having COPD.
- You may be more isolated from others because it is harder to get out to do things.
- Breathing problems can be stressful and scary.
All of these factors can make you feel stressed, anxious, or depressed.
How Your Emotions can Affect COPD
Having COPD can change how you feel about yourself. And how you feel about yourself can affect COPD symptoms and how well you care for yourself.
People with COPD who are depressed may have more COPD flare-ups and may have to go to the hospital more often. Depression saps your energy and motivation. When you are depressed, you may be less likely to:
- Eat well and exercise.
- Take your medicines as directed.
- Follow your treatment plan.
- Get enough rest or sleep. Or, you may get too much sleep or be too inactive.
Stress is a known COPD trigger. When you feel stressed and anxious, you may breathe faster, which can make you feel short of breath. When it is harder to breathe, you feel more anxious, and the cycle continues, leading you to feel even worse.
How to Manage Stress and Avoid Depression
There are things you can and should do to protect your emotional health. While you cannot get rid of all the stress in your life, you can learn how to manage it. These suggestions may help you relieve stress and stay positive.
- Identify the people, places, and situations that cause stress. Knowing what causes you stress can help you avoid or manage it.
- Try to avoid things that make you anxious. For example, do not spend time with people who stress you out. Instead, seek out people who nurture and support you. Go shopping during quieter times when there's less traffic and fewer people around.
- Practice relaxation exercises. Deep breathing, visualization, letting go of negative thoughts, and muscle relaxation exercises are all simple ways to release tension and reduce stress.
- Do not take on too much. Take care of yourself by letting go and learning to say no. For example, perhaps you typically host 25 people for Thanksgiving dinner. Cut it back to 8. Or better yet, ask someone else to host. If you work, talk with your boss about ways to manage your workload so you do not feel overwhelmed.
- Stay involved. Do not isolate yourself. Make time every week to spend time with friends or attend social events.
- Practice positive daily health habits. Get up and get dressed every morning. Move your body every day. Exercise is one of the best stress busters and mood boosters around. Eat a healthy diet and get enough sleep every night.
- Talk it out. Share your feelings with trusted family or friends. Or talk with a clergy member. Do not keep things bottled up inside.
- Follow your treatment plan. When your COPD is well-managed, you will have more energy for the things you enjoy.
- Do not delay. Get help for depression.
Feeling angry, upset, sad, or anxious at times is understandable. Having COPD changes your life, and it can be hard to accept a new way of living. However, depression is more than occasional sadness or frustration. Symptoms of depression include:
- Low mood most of the time
- Frequent irritability
- Not enjoying your usual activities
- Trouble sleeping, or sleeping too much
- A big change in appetite, often with weight gain or loss
- Increased tiredness and lack of energy
- Feelings of worthlessness, self-hate, and guilt
- Trouble concentrating
- Feeling hopeless or helpless
- Repeated thoughts of death or suicide
If you have symptoms of depression that last for 2 weeks or more, call your doctor. You do not have to live with these feelings. Treatment can help you feel better.
When to Call Your Doctor
Call 911 or the local emergency number, a suicide hot line, or go to the nearest emergency room if you have thoughts of harming yourself or others.
Call your doctor if:
- You hear voices or other sounds that are not there.
- You cry often for no apparent reason.
- Your depression has affected your work, school, or family life for longer than 2 weeks.
- You have 3 or more symptoms of depression (listed above).
- You think one of your current medicines may be making you feel depressed. Do not change or stop taking any medicines without talking to your doctor.
- You think you should cut back on drinking or drug use, or a family member or friend has asked you to cut back.
- You feel guilty about the amount of alcohol you drink, or you drink alcohol first thing in the morning.
You should also call your doctor if your COPD symptoms get worse, despite following your treatment plan.
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) website. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2020 report.
Han M, Lazarus SC. COPD: Diagnosis and management. In: Broaddus VC, Ernst JD, King TE, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 64.
Last reviewed on: 10/23/2021
Reviewed by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.