Partial (focal) seizure
Focal seizure; Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures
All seizures are caused by abnormal electrical disturbances in the brain. Partial (focal) seizures occur when this electrical activity remains in a limited area of the brain. The seizures can sometimes turn into generalized seizures, which affect the whole brain. This is called secondary generalization.
Partial seizures can be divided into:
- Simple, not affecting awareness or memory
- Complex, affecting awareness or memory of events before, during, and immediately after the seizure, and affecting behavior
Partial seizures are the most common type of seizure in people 1 year and older. In people older than 65 who have blood vessel disease of the brain or brain tumors, partial seizures are very common.
People with complex partial seizures may or may not remember any or all of the symptoms or events during the seizure.
Depending on where in the brain the seizure starts, symptoms can include:
- Abnormal muscle contraction, such as abnormal head or limb movements
- Staring spells, sometimes with repetitive movements such as picking at clothes or lip smacking
- Eyes moving from side to side
- Abnormal sensations, such as numbness, tingling, crawling sensation (like ants crawling on the skin)
- Hallucinations, seeing, smelling, or sometimes hearing things that are not there
- Abdominal pain or discomfort
- Flushed face
- Dilated pupils
- Rapid heart rate/pulse
Other symptoms may include:
Exams and Tests
The doctor will perform a physical exam. This will include a detailed look at the brain and nervous system.
An EEG (electroencephalogram) will be done to check the electrical activity in the brain. People with seizures often have abnormal electrical activity seen on this test. In some cases, the test shows the area in the brain where the seizures start. The brain may appear normal after a seizure or between seizures.
Blood tests may also be ordered to check for other health problems that may be causing the seizures.
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Kanner AM, Ashman E, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline update summary: efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs I: treatment of new-onset epilepsy: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Neurology. 2018;91(2):74-81. PMID: 29898971
Wiebe S. The epilepsies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 375.
Last reviewed on: 2/4/2020
Reviewed by: Amit M. Shelat, DO, FACP, FAAN, Attending Neurologist and Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.