Diabetes and nerve damage
Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy
Nerve damage that occurs in people with diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy. This condition is a complication of diabetes.
In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is more likely when the blood sugar level is not well controlled over time.
About one half of people with diabetes develop nerve damage. Symptoms often do not begin until many years after diabetes has been diagnosed. Some people who have diabetes that develops slowly already have nerve damage when they are first diagnosed.
People with diabetes are also at higher risk for other nerve problems not caused by their diabetes. These other nerve problems won't have the same symptoms and will progress in a different manner than nerve damage caused by diabetes.
Diabetes is on the rise worldwide, and is a serious, lifelong disease that can lead to heart disease, stroke, and lasting nerve, eye and foot problems. Let's talk about diabetes and the difference between the three types of diabetes. So, what exactly is diabetes and where does it come from? An organ in your body called the pancreas produces insulin, a hormone that controls the levels of your blood sugar. When you have too little insulin in your body, or when insulin doesn't work right in your body, you can have diabetes, the condition where you have abnormally high glucose or sugar levels in your blood. Normally when you eat food, glucose enters your bloodstream. Glucose is your body's source of fuel. Your pancreas makes insulin to move glucose from your bloodstream into muscle, fat, and liver cells, where your body turns it into energy. People with diabetes have too much blood sugar because their body cannot move glucose into fat, liver, and muscle cells to be changed into and stored for energy. There are three major types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes happens when the body makes little or no insulin. It usually is diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. But about 80% of people with diabetes have what's called Type 2 diabetes. This disease often occurs in middle adulthood, but young adults, teens, and now even children are now being diagnosed with it linked to high obesity rates. In Type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond to insulin appropriately. Another type of diabetes is called gestational diabetes. It's when high blood sugar develops during pregnancy in a woman who had not had diabetes beforehand. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born. But, still pay attention. These women are at a higher risk of type 2 diabetes over the next 5 years without a change in lifestyle. If you doctor suspects you have diabetes, you will probably have a hemoglobin A1c test. This is an average of your blood sugar levels over 3 months. You have pre-diabetes if your A1c is 5.7% to 6.4%. Anything at 6.5% or higher indicates you have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a wake up call to focus on diet and exercise to try to control your blood sugar and prevent problems. If you do not control your blood sugar, you could develop eye problems, have problems with sores and infections in your feet, have high blood pressure and cholesterol problems, and have kidney, heart, and problems with other essential organs. People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day, usually injected under the skin using a needle. Some people may be able to use a pump that delivers insulin to their body all the time. People with Type 2 diabetes may be able to manage their blood sugar through diet and exercise. But if not, they will need to take one or more drugs to lower their blood sugar levels. The good news is, people with any type of diabetes, who maintain good control over their blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure, have a lower risk of kidney disease, eye disease, nervous system problems, heart attack, and stroke, and can live, a long and healthy life.
Symptoms often develop slowly over many years. The types of symptoms you have depend on the nerves that are affected.
Nerves in the feet and legs are most often affected. Symptoms often start in the toes and feet, and include tingling or burning, or deep pain. Over time, nerve damage can also occur in the fingers and hands. As the damage gets worse, you will likely lose feeling in your toes, feet, and legs. Your skin will also become numb. Because of this, you may:
- Not notice when you step on something sharp
- Not know that you have a blister or small cut
- Not notice when your feet or hands touch something that is too hot or cold
- Have feet that are very dry and cracked
When the nerves that control digestion are affected, you may have trouble digesting food. This can make your diabetes harder to control. Damage to nerves that control digestion almost always occurs in people with severe nerve damage in their feet and legs. Symptoms of digestion problems include:
- Feeling full after eating only a small amount of food
- Heartburn and bloating
- Nausea, constipation, or diarrhea
- Swallowing problems
- Throwing up undigested food a few hours after a meal
When nerves in your heart and blood vessels are damaged, you may:
- Feel lightheaded when you stand up (orthostatic hypotension)
- Have a fast heart rate
- Not notice angina, the chest pain that warns of heart disease and heart attack
Other symptoms of nerve damage are:
- Sexual problems, which cause trouble getting an erection in men and vaginal dryness or orgasm problems in women.
- Not being able to tell when your blood sugar gets too low.
- Bladder problems, which cause urine leakage or not being able to empty the bladder.
- Sweating too much, even when the temperature is cool, when you're at rest, or at other unusual times.
- Feet that are very sweaty (early nerve damage).