(UC; Colitis, Ulcerative)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of severe, chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which causes:
- Inflammation in the lining of the colon and rectum
- Ulcers in the lining of the colon and rectum
- Bleeding in the lining of the colon and rectum
The exact cause is unknown. A virus or bacteria may cause the immune system to overreact and damage the colon and rectum.
Having a family member with IBD (includes UC and Crohn's disease) may increase your risk of developing UC.
UC may cause:
- Abdominal cramps and pain
- Rectal bleeding
- Weight loss
- Fatigue, weakness
- Skin rashes
- Eye inflammation, such as uveitis
Intestinal complications of UC may include:
- Fistula—abnormal passageway between 2 bodily structures
- Excess bleeding
- Toxic megacolon—a potentially life-threatening condition when the colon severely expands, which may result in reduced blood flow
Other complications of UC may include:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history and perform a physical exam. Your doctor may order tests, such as:
Treatment options may include:
Your doctor may recommend that you avoid certain foods, such as:
- Dairy (due to lactose intolerance)
- Red and processed meats
- Refined sugar
- Saturated fat
Talk to your doctor or dietitian about what foods may work best for you.
There are a range of medications that may be prescribed, such as:
- Steroid anti-inflammatory medications
- Immune modifiers
- Biological agents
Surgery involves partial or complete removal of the colon. This may be necessary for:
- An emergency, such as a perforation, excessive bleeding, or life-threatening infection
- Long-term disease that does not respond to medications or other treatment
- Colon cancer—includes confirmed diagnosis or suspicious tissue on examination
- Lack of growth because of nutritional deficiencies (in children)
Surgery for UC is curative and reduces the risk of colon cancer.
There are no current guidelines for preventing UC.
American Gastroenterological Society
Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America
The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of Canada
D'Haens GR, Sartor RB, et al. Future directions in inflammatory bowel disease management. 2014;8(8):726-734.
Richman S, Schub T. Ulcerative colitis. EBSCO Nursing Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/nursing-reference-center. Updated August 2012. Accessed September 5, 2012.
Ulcerative colitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 12, 2014. Accessed July 25, 2014.
Wedlake L, Slack N, et al. Fiber in the treatment and maintenance of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20(3):576-586.
What is ulcerative colitis? Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America website. Available at: www.ccfa.org/what-are-crohns-and-colitis/what-is-ulcerative-colitis. Accessed September 5, 2012.
Last reviewed September 2013 by Daus Mahnke, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.