( Triglycerides, High; Hypertriglyceridemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia)
Triglycerides are the chemical form in which most fat exists in food and in the body When triglyceride levels are high, it can be associated with coronary artery disease and stroke.
Causes may include:
- Excess triglyceride production in the body, usually related to genetics
- Excess ingestion of triglycerides from food sources
- Kidney problems
- Liver disease
Facters that may increase your risk of high triglycerides include:
- Increased age
- Sex: male
- A family history of hyperlipidemia
- A diet high in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol
- Postmenopause in women
- Lack of exercise
- Excess alcohol intake
- Certain conditions, including:
- Certain medications, such as birth control pills and isotretinoin, which is used to treat acne
High triglyceride levels usually do not cause symptoms. Very high levels of triglycerides can cause:
- Abdominal pain
- Nausea and vomiting—associated with acute pancreatitis
Elevated triglyceride levels can increase your risk of atherosclerosis. This is a dangerous hardening of the arteries. It can end up blocking blood flow. In some cases, this may result in:
Blood Vessel with Atherosclerosis
This condition is diagnosed with blood tests. These tests measure the levels of triglycerides in the blood. The National Cholesterol Education Program advises that you have your lipids checked at least once every five years, starting at age 20. Also, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends lipid screening for children at risk, such as those with a family history of hyperlipidemia or significant obesity starting between 2 to 8 years old. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute recommends routine screening at 9 to 11 years old and again at 17 to 12 years old.
Triglycerides may be part of a fasting lipid profile blood test including:
- Total cholesterol
- LDL (bad cholesterol)
- HDL (good cholesterol)
Your doctor may recommend more frequent or earlier testing if you have a:
- Family history of hyperlipidemia
- Risk factor or disease that may cause hyperlipidemia
- Complication that may result from hyperlipidemia
Treatment is not only aimed at correcting your triglyceride levels, but also at lowering your overall risk for heart disease and stroke.
- Eat a diet low in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol .
- Reduce or eliminate the amount of alcohol you drink.
- Eat more high-fiber foods.
- Maintain a healthy weight .
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit .
- Exercise regularly . Talk to you doctor before starting an exercise program.
- Make sure other medical conditions, such as high blood pressure and diabetes, are being treated and controlled.
There are a number of drugs available, such as statins , to treat this condition and help lower your risk for heart disease. Statins have been shown to reduce death, heart attacks, and stroke in patients with high triglycerides. Talk to your doctor about whether these medications are right for you.
These medications are best used as additions to diet and exercise and should not replace healthy lifestyle changes.
To help reduce your chance of getting hyperlipidemia, take the following steps:
- Have cholesterol tests starting at age 20—or younger if you have risk factors.
- Eat a diet low in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit.
- Drink alcohol in moderation—two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Exercise regularly. Talk with your doctor first.
- If you have diabetes , control your blood sugar.
- Talk to your doctor about medications you are taking. Some may have side effects that cause high triglyceride levels .
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Hypertriglyceridemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 20, 2013. Accessed August 27, 2013.
Side effects of anti-HIV medications. National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/SideEffectAnitHIVMeds_cbrochure_en.pdf. Published October 2005. Accessed August 27, 2013.
Triglycerides. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/Triglycerides_UCM_306029_Article.jsp. Updated October 26, 2012. Accessed August 27, 2013.
7/22/2008 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Daniels SR, Greer FR; Committee on Nutrition. Lipid screening and cardiovascular health in childhood. Pediatrics. 2008;122:198-208.
Last reviewed March 2014 by Michael J. Fucci, DO
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.