Pediatrics

Pediatrics addresses the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents, typically up to age 16 or 18. Children are not ‘little adults’ but have particular health needs because of their anatomical, physiological, developmental, and psychological makeup. Pediatricians often treat the whole family, not just the patient.

Learn more about pediatrics at Mount Sinai Health System

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Symptoms
Abdominal pain
Abdominal pain is pain that you feel anywhere between your chest and groin. This is often referred to as the stomach region or belly.

Diseases & Conditions
Absent pulmonary valve
Absent pulmonary valve is a rare defect in which the pulmonary valve is either missing or poorly formed. Oxygen-poor blood flows from the heart to the lungs (where it picks up oxygen) through which this...

Self-Care Instructions
Acetaminophen dosing for children
Tylenol

Diseases & Conditions
Achondrogenesis
Achondrogenesis is a rare type of growth hormone deficiency in which there is a defect in the development of bone and cartilage. growth hormone deficiency

Diseases & Conditions
Achondroplasia
Achondroplasia is a disorder of bone growth that causes the most common type of dwarfism.

Special Topics
Adolescent development
The development of children ages 12 through 18 years old should include expected physical and mental milestones.

Special Topics
Adolescent test or procedure preparation
Preparing for a medical test or procedure can reduce anxiety, encourage cooperation, and help your teen develop coping skills.

Diseases & Conditions
Adrenoleukodystrophy
Adrenoleukodystrophy describes several closely related disorders that disrupt the breakdown of certain fats. These disorders are passed down (inherited) in families.

Diseases & Conditions
Aicardi syndrome
Aicardi syndrome is a rare disorder in which the structure that connects the two sides of the brain (called the corpus callosum) is partly or completely missing. Nearly all known cases of Aicardi syndrome...

Injury
Allergic reactions
Allergic reactions are sensitivities to substances called allergens that come into contact with the skin, nose, eyes, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. They can be breathed into the lungs,...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - child
What to ask your doctor about allergic rhinitis - child; Hay fever - what to ask your doctor - child; Allergies - what to ask your doctor - child

Self-Care Instructions
Allergies, asthma, and dust
Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust

Self-Care Instructions
Allergies, asthma, and molds
Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen

Self-Care Instructions
Allergies, asthma, and pollen
Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen

Discharge Instructions
Allergy shots
Allergy injections; Allergen immunotherapy

Diseases & Conditions
Alström syndrome
Alström syndrome is a very rare disease passed down through families (inherited) that can lead to blindness, deafness, diabetes, and obesity. blindness deafness diabetes obesity

Symptoms
Ambiguous genitalia
Ambiguous genitalia is a birth defect where the outer genitals do not have the typical appearance of either a boy or a girl.

Diseases & Conditions
Amniotic band syndrome
Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a group of birth defects that result when strands of the amniotic sac detach and wrap around parts of the baby in the womb. The defects may affect the face, arms, legs, fingers...

Diseases & Conditions
Anemia caused by low iron - children
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Iron helps make red blood cells, so...

Diseases & Conditions
Anencephaly
Anencephaly is the absence of a large part of the brain and the skull.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child
What to ask your doctor about anesthesia - child

Diseases & Conditions
Angelman syndrome
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic condition that causes problems with the way a child's body and brain develop. The syndrome is present from birth (congenital). However, it often isn't diagnosed until...

Symptoms
Ankle pain
Ankle pain involves any discomfort in one or both ankles.

Diseases & Conditions
Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery
Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a heart defect. The left coronary artery (LCA), which carries blood to the heart muscle, begins from the pulmonary artery instead of...

Diseases & Conditions
Anorexia
Anorexia is an eating disorder that causes people lose more weight than is considered healthy for their age and height. People with this disorder may have an intense fear of weight gain, even when they...

Injury
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. A tear may be partial or complete.

Surgery
Anti-reflux surgery - children
Anti-reflux surgery is surgery to tighten the muscles at the bottom of the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach). Problems with these muscles can lead to gastroesophageal...

Discharge Instructions
Anti-reflux surgery - children - discharge
Your child had surgery to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD is a condition that causes acid, food, or liquid to come up from the stomach into the esophagus. This is the tube that carries...

Self-Care Instructions
Antihistamines for allergies
Antihistamines are drugs that treat allergy symptoms. When taken by mouth, they come as pills, chewable tablets, capsules, and liquids.

Diseases & Conditions
Aortopulmonary window
Aortopulmonary window is a rare heart defect in which there is a hole connecting the major artery taking blood from the heart to the body (the aorta) and the one taking blood from the heart to the lungs...

Tests
Apgar score
Apgar is a quick test performed on a baby at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. The 1-minute score determines how well the baby tolerated the birthing process. The 5-minute score tells the doctor how well the...

Diseases & Conditions
Apnea of prematurity
Apnea is breathing that slows down or stops from any cause. Apnea of prematurity refers to short episodes of stopped breathing in babies who were born before their due date (premature). premature Most preterm...

Symptoms
Appetite - decreased
A decreased appetite is when your desire to eat is reduced. The medical term for a loss of appetite is anorexia.

Symptoms
Appetite - increased
Increased appetite means you have an excess desire for food.

Special Topics
Appropriate for gestational age (AGA)
Gestation is the period of time between conception and birth. During this time, the baby grows and develops inside the mother's womb. If the baby's gestational age findings after birth match the calendar...

Symptoms
Arachnodactyly
Arachnodactyly is a condition in which the fingers are long, slender, and curved. They look like the legs of a spider (arachnid).

Diseases & Conditions
Arrhenoblastoma of ovary
Arrhenoblastoma of the ovary is an ovarian tumor that releases the male hormone testosterone or other hormones. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor is a related condition. ovarian tumor testosterone Sertoli-Leydig...

Diseases & Conditions
Asperger syndrome
Asperger syndrome is often considered a high functioning form of autism. It can lead to difficulty interacting socially, repeat behaviors, and clumsiness. Asperger syndrome is a part of the larger developmental...

Discharge Instructions
Asthma - child - discharge
Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Asthma - children
Asthma is a disease that causes the airways to swell and get narrow. It leads to wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. Asthma

Self-Care Instructions
Asthma - control drugs
Asthma - inhaled corticosteroids; Asthma - long-acting beta-agonists; Asthma - leukotriene modifiers; Asthma - cromolyn; Bronchial asthma-control drugs; Wheezing - control drugs; Reactive airway disease...

Self-Care Instructions
Asthma - quick-relief drugs
Asthma - quick-relief drugs - short-acting beta-agonists; Asthma - quick-relief drugs - bronchodilators; Asthma - quick-relief drugs - oral steroids; Asthma - rescue drugs; Bronchial asthma - quick relief...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Asthma - what to ask your doctor - child
What to ask your doctor about asthma - child

Self-Care Instructions
Asthma and school
Asthma action plan - school; Wheezing - school; Reactive airway disease - school; Bronchial asthma - school

In-depth Report
Asthma in children and adolescents
An in-depth report on how asthma is diagnosed, treated, and managed in children and adolescents.

Diseases & Conditions
Athlete's foot
Athlete's foot is an infection of the feet caused by fungus or yeast. The medical term is tinea pedis, or ringworm of the foot.

Self-Care Instructions
Atopic dermatitis - children - homecare
Infantile eczema; Dermatitis - atopic children; Eczema - atopic - children

Self-Care Instructions
Atopic dermatitis - self-care
Eczema - self-care; Skin rash - atopic dermatitis

Diseases & Conditions
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by the presence of 1 or more of these findings: not being able to focus, being overactive, or not being able control behavior.

In-depth Report
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ADHD.

Special Topics
Autism - resources

Diseases & Conditions
Autism spectrum disorder
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder. It often appears in the first 3 years of life. ASD affects the brain's ability to develop normal social and communication skills.

B

Special Topics
Babies and heat rashes
Heat rash occurs in babies when the pores of the sweat glands become blocked. This happens most often when the weather is hot or humid. As your infant sweats, little red bumps, and possibly tiny blisters...

Special Topics
Babies and shots
Immunizations (vaccinations) are important to keep your child healthy. This article discusses how to ease the pain of shots for babies.

Self-Care Instructions
Baby supplies you need
Newborn care - baby supplies

Self-Care Instructions
Bathing an infant
Bathing safety tips; Infant bathing; Newborn bathing; Bathing your newborn baby

Diseases & Conditions
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is a growth disorder that causes large body size, large organs, and other symptoms. It is a congenital condition, which means it is present at birth. The signs and symptoms of...

Special Topics
Bedtime habits

Special Topics
Bedwetting
Enuresis; Nocturnal enuresis

Diseases & Conditions
Bezoar
A bezoar is a ball of swallowed foreign material most often composed of hair or fiber. It collects in the stomach and fails to pass through the intestines.

Diseases & Conditions
Bicuspid aortic valve
A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is an aortic valve that only has 2 leaflets, instead of 3. The aortic valve regulates blood flow from the heart into the aorta. The aorta is the major blood vessel that brings...

Self-Care Instructions
Bicycle safety
Many cities and states have bike lanes and laws that protect bicycle riders. But riders are still at risk of being hit by cars. Therefore, you need to ride carefully, obey the laws, and watch for other...

Special Topics
Bili lights
Bili lights are a type of light therapy (phototherapy) that is used to treat newborn jaundice. Jaundice is a yellow coloring of the skin and eyes. It is caused by too much of a yellow substance called bilirubin...

Diseases & Conditions
Biliary atresia
Biliary atresia is a blockage in the tubes (ducts) that carry a liquid called bile from the liver to the gallbladder.

Diseases & Conditions
Bilirubin encephalopathy
Bilirubin encephalopathy is a rare neurological condition that occurs in some newborns with severe jaundice. newborns with severe jaundice

Symptoms
Binge eating disorder
Binge eating is an eating disorder in which a person regularly eats unusually large amounts of food. During binge eating, the person also feels a loss of control and is not able to stop eating.

Diseases & Conditions
Blount disease
Blount disease is a growth disorder of the shin bone (tibia) in which the lower leg turns inward, making it look like a bowleg.

Special Topics
Bonding with your newborn

Discharge Instructions
Bone marrow transplant – children - discharge
Transplant - bone marrow - children - discharge; Stem cell transplant - children - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant -children - discharge; Reduced intensity, non-myeloablative transplant -...

Diseases & Conditions
Bowlegs
Bowlegs is a condition in which the knees stay wide apart when a person stands with the feet and ankles together. It is considered normal in children under 18 months.

Diseases & Conditions
Brachial plexus injury in newborns
The brachial plexus is a group of nerves around shoulder. A loss of movement or weakness of the arm may occur if these nerves are damaged. This injury is called neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP)

Diseases & Conditions
Brain tumor - children
A brain tumor is a group (mass) of abnormal cells that start in the brain. This article focuses on primary brain tumors in children.

Diseases & Conditions
Branchial cleft cyst
A branchial cleft cyst is a lump that develops in the neck or just below the jawbone. It is a type of birth defect.

Diseases & Conditions
Breast milk jaundice
Jaundice is a condition that causes the skin and whites of the eyes to turn yellow. If jaundice lasts past the first week of life in a breastfed baby who is otherwise healthy, the condition may be called...

Diseases & Conditions
Breath holding spell
Some children have breath holding spells. This is an involuntary stop in breathing that is not in the child's control.

Symptoms
Breath sounds
Breath sounds are the noises produced by the structures of the lungs during breathing.

Symptoms
Broad nasal bridge
Broad nasal bridge is a widening of the top part of the nose.

Injury
Broken bone
If more pressure is put on a bone than it can stand, it will split or break. A break of any size is called a fracture. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open fracture (compound fracture...

Diseases & Conditions
Bronchiolitis
Bronchiolitis is swelling and mucus buildup in the smallest air passages in the lungs (bronchioles). It is usually due to a viral infection.

Discharge Instructions
Bronchiolitis - discharge
RSV bronchiolitis - discharge; Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Bronchitis - acute
Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main passages that carry air to the lungs. This swelling narrows the airways, which makes it harder to breathe. Other symptoms of bronchitis are a...

Special Topics
Bug repellent safety

Diseases & Conditions
Bulimia
Bulimia is an eating disorder in which a person has regular episodes of eating a very large amount of food (bingeing) during which the person feels a loss of control over eating. The person then uses different...

C

Diseases & Conditions
Canker sore
A canker sore is a painful, open sore in the mouth. Canker sores are white or yellow and surrounded by a bright red area. They are not cancerous. A canker sore is not the same as a fever blister (cold sore...

Tests
Capillary sample
A capillary sample is a blood sample collected by pricking the skin. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels near the surface of the skin.

Diseases & Conditions
Caput succedaneum
Caput succedaneum is swelling of the scalp in a newborn. It is most often brought on by pressure from the uterus or vaginal wall during a head-first (vertex) delivery. swelling

Special Topics
Central venous line - infants
A central venous line (CVL) is a long, soft, plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? A CVL is often put in when a baby cannot get a percutaneous inserted central catheter...

Special Topics
Changes in the newborn at birth
Changes in the newborn at birth refer to the changes an infant's body undergoes to adapt to life outside the womb.

Diseases & Conditions
Chickenpox
Chickenpox is a viral infection in which a person develops very itchy blisters all over the body. It was more common in the past. The illness is rare today because of the chickenpox vaccine.

Diseases & Conditions
Chiggers
Chiggers are tiny, 6-legged wingless organisms (larvae) that mature to become a type of mite. Chiggers are found in tall grass and weeds. Their bite causes severe itching.

Diseases & Conditions
Child abuse - physical
Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: A report of child abuse happens every 10 seconds.Five children die each day from child abuse. Most children who die from abuse are under 3...

Diseases & Conditions
Child neglect and emotional abuse
Neglect and emotional abuse can cause a child a lot of harm. It is often hard to see or prove this kind of abuse, so other people are less likely to help the child. When a child is being physically or sexually...

Self-Care Instructions
Child safety seats
Child safety seats are proven to save children's lives in accidents. In the United States, all states require children to be secured in a car seat or booster seat until they reach certain height or weight...

Diseases & Conditions
Childhood disintegrative disorder
Childhood disintegrative disorder is a condition in which children develop normally through age 3 or 4. Then, over a few months, they lose language, motor, social, and other skills that they already learned...

Self-Care Instructions
Children and grief

Special Topics
Children's cancer centers
Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center

Surgery
Circumcision
Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis. penis

Diseases & Conditions
Cleft lip and palate
Cleft lip and palate are birth defects that affect the upper lip and the roof of the mouth.

Diseases & Conditions
Clubfoot
Clubfoot is when the foot turns inward and downward. It is a congenital condition, which means it is present at birth.

Surgery
Clubfoot repair
Clubfoot repair is surgery to correct a birth defect of the foot and ankle. Clubfoot

Special Topics
Colds and flus - antibiotics
Antibiotics do NOT cure colds and flus.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - child
What to ask your doctor about colds and the flu - child; Influenza - what to ask your doctor - child; Upper respiratory infection - what to ask your doctor - child; URI - what to ask your doctor - child...

Self-Care Instructions
Colic and crying - self-care
Infantile colic - self-care; Fussy baby - colic - self-care

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Concussion - what to ask your doctor - child
What to ask your doctor about concussion - child; Brain injury - mild - what to ask your doctor - child

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital cytomegalovirus
Congenital cytomegalovirus is a condition that can occur when an infant is infected with a virus called cytomegalovirus (CMV) before birth. Congenital means the condition is present at birth.

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital heart disease
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth.

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital rubella
Congenital rubella is a condition that occurs in an infant whose mother is infected with the virus that causes German measles. Congenital means the condition is present at birth.

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital syphilis
Congenital syphilis is a severe, disabling, and often life-threatening infection seen in infants. A pregnant mother who has syphilis can spread the disease through the placenta to the unborn infant.

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital toxoplasmosis
Congenital toxoplasmosis is a group of symptoms that occur when an unborn baby (fetus) is infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasma gondii

Self-Care Instructions
Constipation - self-care
Constipation is when you do not pass stool as often as you normally do. Your stool becomes hard and dry, and it is difficult to pass. You might feel bloated and have pain, or you might have to strain when...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Constipation - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about constipation

Diseases & Conditions
Coronary artery fistula
Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal connection between one of the coronary arteries and a heart chamber or another blood vessel. The coronary arteries are blood vessels that bring oxygen-rich blood to...

Symptoms
Cough
Coughing is an important way to keep your throat and airways clear. But too much coughing may mean you have a disease or disorder. Some coughs are dry. Others are productive. A productive cough is one...

Nutrition
Cow's milk - infants
If your child is under 1 year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Cow's milk does not provide enough: Vitamin EIronEssential fatty acids...

Special Topics
Cow's milk and children
You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain nutrients. Also, it's hard for your baby to digest...

Diseases & Conditions
Cradle cap
Cradle cap is seborrheic dermatitis that affects the scalp of infants. seborrheic dermatitis

Diseases & Conditions
Craniopharyngioma
A craniopharyngioma is a noncancerous (benign) tumor that develops at the base of the brain near the pituitary gland. tumor

Discharge Instructions
Craniosynostosis repair - discharge
Craniectomy - child - discharge; Synostectomy - discharge; Strip craniectomy - discharge; Endoscopy-assisted craniectomy - discharge; Sagittal craniectomy - discharge; Frontal-orbital advancement - discharge...

Diseases & Conditions
Craniotabes
Craniotabes is a softening of the skull bones.

Self-Care Instructions
Cribs and crib safety
Whether new or old, your crib should meet all current government safety standards: Cribs should not have drop-rails. They are not safe for babies.Crib parts and hardware must be stronger than in the past...

Diseases & Conditions
Croup
Croup is breathing difficulty and a "barking" cough. Croup is due to swelling around the vocal cords. It is common in infants and children. breathing difficulty

Special Topics
Crying in childhood

Special Topics
Crying in infancy
Infants have a cry reflex that is a normal response to stimuli, such as pain or hunger. Premature infants may not have a cry reflex. Therefore, they must be monitored closely for signs of hunger and pain...

Diseases & Conditions
Cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis is a disease that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs, digestive tract, and other areas of the body. It is one of the most common chronic lung diseases in children and young...

D

Self-Care Instructions
Daily bowel care program
Nerves that help your bowels work smoothly can be damaged after a brain or spinal cord injury. People with multiple sclerosis also have problems with their bowels. Those with poorly controlled diabetes...

Special Topics
Day care health risks

Special Topics
Deciding about treatments that prolong life
Palliative care - treatments that prolong life; Palliative care - life support; End-of-life-treatments that prolong life; Ventilator - treatments that prolong life; Respirator - treatments that prolong...

Diseases & Conditions
Dehydration
Dehydration occurs when your body does not have as much water and fluids as it should. Dehydration can be mild, moderate, or severe, based on how much of your body's fluid is lost or not replaced. Severe...

Symptoms
Delayed growth
Delayed growth is poor or abnormally slow height or weight gains in a child younger than age 5. This may just be normal, and the child may outgrow it.

Diseases & Conditions
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a dislocation of the hip joint that is present at birth. The condition is found in babies or young children.

Special Topics
Developmental milestones record
Developmental milestones are behaviors or physical skills seen in infants and children as they grow and develop. Rolling over, crawling, walking, and talking are all considered milestones. The milestones...

Special Topics
Developmental milestones record - 12 months
The typical 12-month-old child will demonstrate certain physical and mental skills. These skills are called developmental milestones.

Special Topics
Developmental milestones record - 18 months
The typical 18-month-old child will demonstrate certain physical and mental skills. These skills are called developmental milestones.

Special Topics
Developmental milestones record - 2 months
This article describes the skills and growth targets of 2-month-old infants.

Special Topics
Developmental milestones record - 2 years
Physical and motor skill markers: Able to turn a door knob.Can look through a book turning one page at a time.Can build a tower of 6 to 7 cubes.Can kick a ball without losing balance.Can pick up objects...

Special Topics
Developmental milestones record - 3 years
This article describes the skills and growth markers that are relevant to 3-year-olds.

Special Topics
Developmental milestones record - 4 months
Typical 4-month-old infants are expected to develop certain physical and mental skills. These skills are called milestones.

Special Topics
Developmental milestones record - 4 years
The typical 4-year-old child will demonstrate certain physical and mental skills. These skills are called developmental milestones.

Special Topics
Developmental milestones record - 5 years
This article describes the expected skills and growth markers of most 5-year-old children.

Special Topics
Developmental milestones record - 6 months
This article describes the skills and growth targets for 6-month-old infants.

Special Topics
Developmental milestones record - 9 months
At 9 months, a typical infant will have certain skills and reach growth markers called milestones.

Diseases & Conditions
Developmental reading disorder
Developmental reading disorder is a reading disability that occurs when the brain does not properly recognize and process certain symbols. It is also called dyslexia.

Diseases & Conditions
Dextrocardia
Dextrocardia is a condition in which the heart is pointed toward the right side of the chest. Normally, the heart points to the left. The condition is present at birth (congenital).

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Diaper rash
A diaper rash is a skin problem that develops in the area under an infant's diaper.

Diseases & Conditions
Diaphragmatic hernia
A diaphragmatic hernia is a birth defect in which there is an abnormal opening in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the muscle between the chest and abdomen that helps you breathe. The opening allows part...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child
What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child

Special Topics
Diarrhea in infants

Special Topics
Diarrhea in infants
Diarrhea - babies

Diseases & Conditions
Diastasis recti
Diastasis recti is a separation between the left and right side of the rectus abdominis muscle. This muscle covers the front surface of the belly area.

Self-Care Instructions
Diet - clear liquid
Clear liquid diet; Surgery - clear liquid diet; Medical test - clear liquid diet

Self-Care Instructions
Diet - full liquid
Full liquid diet; Surgery - full liquid diet; Medical test - full liquid diet

Special Topics
Dietary fat and children

Special Topics
Discipline
All children misbehave sometimes. As a parent, you have to decide how you will respond. Your child needs rules to understand how to behave. Discipline involves both punishment and rewards. When you discipline...

Injury
Dislocation
A dislocation is a separation of 2 bones where they meet at a joint. Joints are areas where 2 bones come together. A dislocated joint is a joint where the bones are no longer in their normal positions.

Symptoms
Dizziness
Dizziness is a term that is often used to describe 2 different symptoms: lightheadedness and vertigo. Lightheadedness is a feeling that you might faint. Vertigo is a feeling that you are spinning or moving...

Special Topics
Do-not-resuscitate order
No code; End-of-life; Do not resuscitate; Do not resuscitate order; DNR; DNR order; Advance care directive - DNR; Health care agent - DNR; Health care proxy - DNR; End-of-life - DNR; Living will - DNR

Diseases & Conditions
Double aortic arch
Double aortic arch is an abnormal formation of the aorta, the large artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. It is a congenital problem, which means that it is present at birth...

Diseases & Conditions
Double inlet left ventricle
Double inlet left ventricle (DILV) is a heart defect that is present from birth (congenital). It affects the valves and chambers of the heart. Babies born with this condition have only one working pumping...

Diseases & Conditions
Double outlet right ventricle
Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is present from birth (congenital). The aorta connects to the right ventricle (RV, the chamber of the heart that pumps oxygen-poor blood to the...

Diseases & Conditions
Down syndrome
Down syndrome is a genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. chromosomes

Symptoms
Drooling
Drooling is saliva flowing outside the mouth.

Self-Care Instructions
Dysarthria - care
Speech and language disorder - dysarthria care; Slurred speech - dysarthria; Articulation disorder - dysarthria

E

Diseases & Conditions
E. coli enteritis
E. coli enteritis is swelling (inflammation) of the small intestine from Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. It is the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea. E. coli Escherichia coli E. coli

Diseases & Conditions
ECHO virus
Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. gastrointestinal infection

Symptoms
Ear discharge
Ear discharge is drainage of blood, ear wax, pus, or fluid from the ear. ear wax

Diseases & Conditions
Ear infection - acute
Ear infections are one of the most common reasons parents take their children to the doctor. The most common type of ear infection is called otitis media. It is caused by swelling and infection of the middle...

Diseases & Conditions
Ear infection - chronic
Chronic ear infection is fluid, swelling, or an infection behind the eardrum that does not go away or keeps coming back. It causes long-term or permanent damage to the ear. It most often involves a hole...

In-depth Report
Ear infections
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ear infections.

Symptoms
Ear tag
An ear tag is a small skin tag or pit in front of the outside part of the ear.

Symptoms
Earache
An earache is a sharp, dull, or burning pain in one or both ears. The pain may last a short time or be ongoing. Related conditions include: Otitis mediaSwimmer's earMalignant otitis externa Otitis media...

Diseases & Conditions
Ebstein anomaly
Ebstein anomaly is a rare heart defect in which parts of the tricuspid valve are abnormal. The tricuspid valve separates the right lower heart chamber (right ventricle) from the right upper heart chamber...

Tests
Echocardiogram - children
An echocardiogram is a test that uses sound waves to create pictures of the heart. It is used with children to help diagnose defects of the heart that are present at birth (congenital). The picture is more...

Diseases & Conditions
Eisenmenger syndrome
Eisenmenger syndrome is a condition that affects blood flow from the heart to the lungs in some people who were born with structural problems of the heart.

Diseases & Conditions
Encopresis
If a child over the age of 4 has been toilet trained and then passes stool and soils clothes again, this is called encopresis. The child may or may not be doing this on purpose.

Diseases & Conditions
Endocardial cushion defect
Endocardial cushion defect (ECD) is an abnormal heart condition. The walls separating all 4 chambers of the heart are poorly formed or absent. Also, the valves separating the upper and lower chambers of...

Diseases & Conditions
Endocarditis - children
The inner lining of the heart chambers and heart valves is called the endocardium. Endocarditis occurs when this tissue becomes swollen or inflamed.

Symptoms
Epicanthal folds
An epicanthal fold is skin of the upper eyelid that covers the inner corner of the eye. The fold runs from nose to the inner side of the eyebrow.

Diseases & Conditions
Epiglottitis
Epiglottitis is inflammation of the epiglottis. This is the tissue that covers the trachea (windpipe). Epiglottitis is a life-threatening disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Epilepsy - children
Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures over time. seizures A seizure is a sudden change in the electrical and chemical activity in the brain. A single seizure that does not...

Diseases & Conditions
Epstein pearls
Epstein pearls are whitish-yellow cysts. These form on the gums and roof of the mouth in a newborn baby. newborn baby Milia are a similar kind of skin problem in babies. Milia

Diseases & Conditions
Erythema toxicum
Erythema toxicum is a common skin condition seen in newborns.

Surgery
Exchange transfusion
Exchange transfusion is a potentially life-saving procedure that is done to counteract the effects of serious jaundice or changes in the blood due to diseases such as sickle cell anemia. The procedure involves...

Self-Care Instructions
Exercise-induced asthma
Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise

Self-Care Instructions
Exercising and asthma at school
Asthma - exercise school; Exercise - induced asthma - school

Diseases & Conditions
Expressive language disorder - developmental
Developmental expressive language disorder is a condition in which a child has lower than normal ability in vocabulary, saying complex sentences, and remembering words. However, a child with this disorder...

Special Topics
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a treatment that uses a pump to circulate blood through an artificial lung back into the bloodstream of a very ill baby. This system provides heart-lung bypass...

Symptoms
Eye burning - itching and discharge
Eye burning with discharge is burning, itching, or drainage from the eye of any substance other than tears.

Discharge Instructions
Eye muscle repair - discharge
You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that cause crossed eyes. The medical term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often receive general anesthesia for...

Diseases & Conditions
Eyelid twitch
An eyelid twitch is a general term for spasms of the eyelid muscles that happen without your control. The eyelid may repeatedly close (or nearly close) and reopen. This article discusses eyelid twitches...

F

Symptoms
Face pain
Face pain may be dull and throbbing or an intense, stabbing discomfort in the face or forehead. It can occur in one or both sides.

Symptoms
Facial swelling
Facial swelling is the buildup of fluid in the tissues of the face. Swelling may also affect the neck and upper arms.

Diseases & Conditions
Failure to thrive
Failure to thrive refers to children whose current weight or rate of weight gain is much lower than that of other children of similar age and gender.

Symptoms
Fainting
Fainting is a brief loss of consciousness due to a drop in blood flow to the brain. The episode most often lasts less than a couple of minutes and you usually recover from it quickly. The medical name for...

Diseases & Conditions
Febrile seizures
A febrile seizure is a convulsion in a child triggered by a fever. convulsion fever

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Febrile seizures - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about febrile seizures

Self-Care Instructions
Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants
Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies and infants; Formula feeding - babies and infants

Self-Care Instructions
Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years
Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age appropriate - children 6 months to 2 years; Babies - feeding solid food

Special Topics
Feeding tube - infants
A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed through the nose (NG) or mouth (OG) into the stomach. These tubes are used to provide feedings and medicines into the stomach until the baby can take...

Diseases & Conditions
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy.

Special Topics
Fetal development
Learn how your baby is conceived and how your baby develops inside the mother's womb.

Tests
Fetal echocardiography
Fetal echocardiography is a test that uses sound waves (ultrasound) to evaluate the baby's heart for problems before birth. ultrasound

Symptoms
Fever
Fever is the temporary increase in the body's temperature in response to a disease or illness. A child has a fever when the temperature is at or above one of these levels: 100.4°F (38°C) measured in the...

Diseases & Conditions
Fifth disease
Fifth disease is caused by a virus that leads to a rash on the cheeks, arms, and legs.

Self-Care Instructions
Fire safety at home
Smoke alarms or detectors work even when you cannot smell smoke. Tips for proper use include: Install them in hallways, in or near all sleeping areas, the kitchen, and garage.Test them once a month. Change...

Diseases & Conditions
Fleas
Fleas are small insects that feed on the blood of humans, dogs, cats, and other warm-blooded animals.

Symptoms
Fontanelles - bulging
A bulging fontanelle is an outward curving of an infant's soft spot (fontanelle).

Symptoms
Fontanelles - enlarged
Enlarged fontanelles are larger than expected soft spots for the age of a baby. The skull of an infant or young child is made up of bony plates that allow for growth of the skull. The borders at which these...

Symptoms
Fontanelles - sunken
Sunken fontanelles are an obvious curving in of the "soft spot" in an infant's head.

Symptoms
Foot pain
Pain or discomfort can be felt anywhere in the foot. You may have pain in the heel, toes, arch, instep, or bottom of foot (sole).

Diseases & Conditions
Fractured clavicle in the newborn
A fractured clavicle in the newborn is a broken collar bone in a baby that was just delivered.

Symptoms
Frontal bossing
Frontal bossing is an unusually prominent forehead. It is sometimes associated with a heavier than normal brow ridge.

Diseases & Conditions
Fungal nail infection
Fungal nail infection is a fungus growing in and around your fingernail or toenail.

Symptoms
Fussy or irritable child
Young children who cannot talk yet will let you know when something is wrong by acting fussy or irritable. If your child is fussier than usual, it could be a sign that something is wrong.

G

Diseases & Conditions
Ganglioneuroblastoma
Ganglioneuroblastoma is an intermediate tumor that arises from nerve tissues. An intermediate tumor is one that is between benign (slow-growing and unlikely to spread) and malignant (fast-growing, aggressive...

Symptoms
Gas - flatulence
Gas is air in the intestine that is passed through the rectum. Air that moves from the digestive tract through the mouth is called belching. belching Gas is also called flatus or flatulence.

Tests
Gastric culture
Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). tuberculosis

Diseases & Conditions
Gastroesophageal reflux in infants
Gastroesophageal reflux occurs when stomach contents leak backward from the stomach into the esophagus. This causes "spitting up" in infants. spitting up

Diseases & Conditions
Gastroschisis
Gastroschisis is a birth defect in which an infant's intestines are outside of the body because of a hole in the abdominal wall.

Discharge Instructions
Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child
Your child has a gastrostomy tube (G-tube). This is a soft, plastic tube placed into your child's stomach. It delivers nutrition (food) and medicines until your child can chew and swallow. Sometimes, it...

Special Topics
Genetic counseling
Genetics is the study of heredity, the process of a parent passing certain genes on to their children. A person's appearance, such as height, hair color, skin color, and eye color, are determined by genes...

Special Topics
Gestational age
Gestation is the period of time between conception and birth. During this time, the baby grows and develops inside the mother's womb. Gestational age is the common term used during pregnancy to describe...

Symptoms
Groin lump
A groin lump is swelling in the groin area (where the upper leg meets the lower abdomen). It may be firm or soft, tender, or not painful at all.

Symptoms
Groin pain
Groin pain refers to discomfort in the area where the abdomen ends and the legs begin. This article focuses on groin pain in men. The terms "groin" and "testicle" are sometimes used interchangeably. But...

Diseases & Conditions
Group B streptococcal septicemia of the newborn
Group B streptococcal septicemia is a severe bacterial infection that affects newborn infants. newborn infants

Special Topics
Growth chart

Diseases & Conditions
Growth hormone deficiency - children
Growth hormone deficiency means the pituitary gland does not make enough growth hormone.

H

Diseases & Conditions
H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)
The H1N1 virus (swine flu) is an infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. It is caused by the H1N1 influenza virus.

Self-Care Instructions
Hand fracture - aftercare
Boxer's fracture - aftercare; Metacarpal fracture - aftercare

Diseases & Conditions
Hand-foot-mouth disease
Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat.

Special Topics
Head circumference
Head circumference is a measurement of a child's head around its largest area. It measures the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head.

Diseases & Conditions
Head lice
Head lice are tiny insects that live on the skin covering the top of your head (scalp). Head lice may also be found in eyebrows and eyelashes. Lice can be spread by close contact with other people.

Symptoms
Headache
A headache is pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. Serious causes of headaches are rare. Most people with headaches can feel much better by making lifestyle changes, learning ways to relax, and...

Self-Care Instructions
Headaches - danger signs
Migraine headache - danger signs; Tension headache - danger signs; Cluster headache - danger signs; Vascular headache - danger signs

Diseases & Conditions
Hearing loss - infants
Hearing loss is not being able to hear sound in one or both ears. Infants may lose all of their hearing or just part of it.

Special Topics
Help your teen cope with stress
Adolescents - stress; Anxiety - cope with stress

Diseases & Conditions
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is a blood disorder in a fetus or newborn infant. In some infants, it can be life threatening. Normally, red blood cells last for about 120 days in the body. In this...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis
Hepatitis is swelling and inflammation of the liver.

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis A - children
Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of the liver due to the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is the most common type of hepatitis in children.

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis B - children
Hepatitis B in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis A and hepatitis C. hepatitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis C - children
Hepatitis C in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of the liver. It occurs due to infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis A and hepatitis B...

Diseases & Conditions
Herpangina
Herpangina is a viral illness that involves ulcers and sores (lesions) inside the mouth, a sore throat, and fever. Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a related topic. Hand, foot, and mouth disease

Symptoms
Hiccups
A hiccup is an unintentional movement (spasm) of the diaphragm, the muscle at the base of the lungs. The spasm is followed by quick closing of the vocal cords, which produces a distinctive sound.

Diseases & Conditions
High arch
High arch is an arch that is raised more than normal. The arch runs from the toes to the heel on the bottom of the foot. It is also called pes cavus. High arch is the opposite of flat feet. flat feet

Diseases & Conditions
High blood pressure - infants
High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of blood against the arteries in the body. This article focuses on high blood pressure in infants.

Self-Care Instructions
High-fiber foods
Dietary fiber - self-care; Constipation - fiber

Symptoms
Hip pain
Hip pain involves any pain in or around the hip joint. You may not feel pain from your hip directly over the hip area. You may feel it in your groin or pain in your thigh or knee.

Diseases & Conditions
Hirschsprung disease
Hirschsprung disease is a blockage of the large intestine. It occurs due to poor muscle movement in the bowel. It is a congenital condition, which means it is present from birth.

Self-Care Instructions
Home apnea monitor use - infants

Self-Care Instructions
Home safety - children
Most American children live healthy lives. Car seats, safe cribs, and strollers help protect your child in and near the home. Yet, parents and caregivers still have to be careful and cautious. Explain certain...

Special Topics
Hormonal effects in newborns
Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb babies are exposed to many chemicals (hormones) that are in the mother's bloodstream. After birth, the infants are no longer exposed to these hormones...

Special Topics
Hospice care
Hospice care helps people with illnesses that cannot be cured and who are nearing death. The goal is to give comfort and peace instead of a cure. Hospice care provides: Support for the patient and the familyRelief...

Self-Care Instructions
How to use a nebulizer
Nebulizer - how to use; Asthma - how to use a nebulizer; COPD - how to use a nebulizer; Wheezing - nebulizer; Reactive airway - nebulizer; COPD - nebulizer; Chronic bronchitis - nebulizer; Emphysema - nebulizer

Self-Care Instructions
How to use an inhaler - with spacer
Metered-dose inhaler (MDI) administration - with spacer; Asthma - inhaler with spacer; Reactive airway disease - inhaler with spacer; Bronchial asthma - inhaler with spacer

Special Topics
Humidifiers and health

Diseases & Conditions
Hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus is a buildup of fluid inside the skull that leads to brain swelling. Hydrocephalus means "water on the brain."

Diseases & Conditions
Hydrops fetalis
Hydrops fetalis is a serious condition. It occurs when abnormal amounts of fluid build up in two or more body areas of a fetus or newborn. It is a symptom of underlying problems.

Symptoms
Hyperactivity
Hyperactivity means having increased movement, impulsive actions, and a shorter attention span, and being easily distracted.

Nutrition
Hyperactivity and sugar
Hyperactivity means an increase in movement, impulsive actions, being easily distracted, and shorter attention span. Some people believe that children are more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar...

Diseases & Conditions
Hyperglycemia - infants
Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term for blood sugar is blood glucose. This article discusses hyperglycemia in infants.

Symptoms
Hypermobile joints
Hypermobile joints are joints that move beyond the normal range with little effort. Joints most commonly affected are the elbows, wrists, fingers, and knees.

Symptoms
Hyperventilation
Hyperventilation is rapid or deep breathing that can occur with anxiety or panic. It is also called overbreathing, and it may leave you feeling breathless.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome occurs when parts of the left side of the heart (mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, and aorta) do not develop completely. The condition is present at birth (congenital...

Symptoms
Hypotonia
Hypotonia means decreased muscle tone.

I

Self-Care Instructions
Ibuprofen dosing for children
Motrin; Advil

Self-Care Instructions
Ileostomy - caring for your stoma
Standard ileostomy - stoma care; Brooke ileostomy - stoma care; Continent ileostomy - stoma care; Abdominal pouch - stoma care; End ileostomy - stoma care; Ostomy - stoma care; Crohn disease - stoma care...

Self-Care Instructions
Ileostomy - changing your pouch
You had an injury or disease in your digestive system and needed an operation called an ileostomy. The operation changed the way your body gets rid of waste (stool, feces, or poop). Now you have an opening...

Self-Care Instructions
Ileostomy and your child
Your child had an injury or disease in their digestive system and needed an operation called an ileostomy. The operation changed the way your child's body gets rid of waste (stool, feces, or poop). Now...

Self-Care Instructions
Ileostomy and your diet
You had an injury or disease in your digestive system and needed an operation called an ileostomy. The operation changed the way your body gets rid of waste (stool, feces, or poop). Now you have an opening...

In-depth Report
Immunizations
Overview Bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other germs (microbes) cause many human diseases. Vaccines can help protect against some of these microbes. The 2016 recommended immunization schedules include...

Diseases & Conditions
Impetigo
Impetigo is a common skin infection.

Nutrition
Inborn errors of metabolism
Inborn errors of metabolism are rare genetic (inherited) disorders in which the body cannot properly turn food into energy. The disorders are usually caused by defects in specific proteins (enzymes) that...

Symptoms
Increased head circumference
Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the widest part of the skull is larger than expected for the child's age and background. head circumference

Symptoms
Indigestion
Indigestion (dyspepsia) is a mild discomfort in the upper belly or abdomen. It occurs during or right after eating. It may feel like: Heat, burning, or pain in the area between the navel and the lower part...

Diseases & Conditions
Infant botulism
Infant botulism is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by a bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. It grows inside a baby's gastrointestinal tract. Clostridium botulinum.

Nutrition
Infant formulas - overview
During the first 4 to 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. Infant formulas include powders, concentrated liquids, and ready-to-use forms.

Special Topics
Infant of a substance using mother
Maternal substance abuse may consist of any combination of drug, chemical, alcohol, and tobacco use during the pregnancy. While in the womb, a fetus grows and develops due to nourishment from the mother...

Diseases & Conditions
Infant of diabetic mother
A fetus (baby) of a mother with diabetes may be exposed to high blood sugar (glucose) levels throughout the pregnancy.

Symptoms
Infant reflexes
A reflex is a muscle reaction that happens automatically in response to stimulation. Certain sensations or movements produce specific muscle responses.

Special Topics
Infant test/procedure preparation
Being prepared before your infant has a medical test can help you know what to expect during the test. It will also help reduce your anxiety so that you can help keep your infant as calm and comfortable...

Diseases & Conditions
Ingrown toenail
An ingrown toenail occurs when the edge of the nail grows down and into the skin of the toe.

Diseases & Conditions
Intellectual disability
Intellectual disability is a condition diagnosed before age 18 that includes below-average intellectual function and a lack of skills necessary for daily living. In the past, the term mental retardation...

Symptoms
Intercostal retractions
Intercostal retractions occur when the muscles between the ribs pull inward. The movement is most often a sign that the person has a breathing problem. Intercostal retractions are a medical emergency.

Diseases & Conditions
Intersex
Intersex is a group of conditions where there is a discrepancy between the external genitals and the internal genitals (the testes and ovaries). The older term for this condition is hermaphroditism. Although...

Diseases & Conditions
Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the newborn is bleeding into the fluid-filled areas (ventricles) inside the brain. The condition occurs most often in babies that are born early (premature).

Diseases & Conditions
Intussusception - children
Intussusception is the sliding of one part of the intestine into another. This article focuses on intussusception in children.

J

Diseases & Conditions
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a term used to describe a group of disorders in children that includes arthritis. They are chronic (long-term) diseases that cause joint pain and swelling.

K

Diseases & Conditions
Knock knees
Knock knees is a condition in which the knees touch, but the ankles do not touch. The legs turn inward.

Diseases & Conditions
Kwashiorkor
Kwashiorkor is a form of malnutrition that occurs when there is not enough protein in the diet. malnutrition protein

L

Diseases & Conditions
Language disorder - children
Language disorder in children refers to problems with either of the following: Getting their meaning or message across to others (expressive language disorder)Understanding the message coming from others...

Diseases & Conditions
Laryngitis
Laryngitis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the voice box (larynx). The problem is most often associated with hoarseness or loss of voice. hoarseness

Surgery
Leg lengthening and shortening
Leg lengthening and shortening are types of surgery to treat some children who have legs of unequal lengths. These procedures may: Lengthen an abnormally short legShorten an abnormally long legLimit growth...

Symptoms
Leg pain
Leg pain is a common problem. It can be due to a cramp, injury, or other cause.

Diseases & Conditions
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease occurs when the ball of the thigh bone in the hip does not get enough blood, causing the bone to die.

Diseases & Conditions
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is a disorder that is passed down through families (inherited). It affects how the body builds and breaks down purines. Purines are a normal part of human tissue that help make up the...

Self-Care Instructions
Lifting and bending the right way
Nonspecific back pain - lifting; Backache - lifting; Sciatica - lifting; Lumbar pain - lifting; Chronic back pain - lifting; Herniated disk - lifting; Slipped disk - lifting

Self-Care Instructions
Living with your ileostomy
Standard ileostomy - living with; Brooke ileostomy - living with; Continent ileostomy - living with; Abdominal pouch - living with; End ileostomy - living with; Ostomy - living with; Crohn's disease - living...

Symptoms
Lordosis - lumbar
Lordosis is the inward curve of the lumbar spine (just above the buttocks). A small degree of lordosis is normal. Too much curving is called swayback.

Diseases & Conditions
Low blood sugar - newborns
A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal hypoglycemia. It refers to low blood sugar (glucose) in the first few days after birth.

Diseases & Conditions
Low calcium level - infants
Calcium is a mineral in the body. It is needed for strong bones and teeth. Calcium also helps the heart, nerves, muscles, and other body systems work well. A low blood calcium level is called hypocalcemia...

Symptoms
Low nasal bridge
A low nasal bridge is the flattening of the top part of the nose.

Symptoms
Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities
Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities refer to an abnormal shape or position of the outer ear (pinna or auricle).

M

Special Topics
Macroglossia
Macroglossia is a disorder in which the tongue is larger than normal.

Special Topics
Macrosomia
Macrosomia refers to a very large body size. It is often used to describe an oversized fetus.

Self-Care Instructions
Managing migraines at home
Headache - migraine - self-care; Vascular headache - self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Managing tension headaches at home
Tension-type headache - self-care; Muscle contraction headache - self-care; Headache - benign - self-care; Headache - tension- self-care; Chronic headaches - tension - self-care; Rebound headaches - tension...

Diseases & Conditions
Measles
Measles is a very contagious (easily spread) illness caused by a virus.

Special Topics
Mechanical ventilator - infants
A mechanical ventilator is a machine that assists with breathing. This article discusses the use of mechanical ventilators in infants.

Diseases & Conditions
Meconium aspiration syndrome
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) refers to breathing problems that a newborn baby may have when: There are no other causes, andThe baby has passed meconium (stool) into the amniotic fluid during labor...

Special Topics
Medicine safety and children
Every year, many children are brought to the emergency room because they took medicine by accident. A lot of medicine is made to look and taste like candy. Children are curious and attracted to medicine...

Diseases & Conditions
Medicines for ADHD
ADHD is a problem that most often affects children. Adults may be affected as well. People with ADHD may have problems with: Being able to focusBeing over-activeNot being able to control behavior Being...

Symptoms
Metopic ridge
A metopic ridge is an abnormal shape of the skull. The ridge can be seen on the forehead.

Symptoms
Microcephaly
Microcephaly is a condition in which a person's head size is much smaller than that of others of the same age and sex. Head size is measured as the distance around the top of the head. A smaller than normal...

Symptoms
Micrognathia
Micrognathia is a term for a lower jaw that is smaller than normal.

Diseases & Conditions
Migraine
A migraine is a type of headache. It may occur with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. In many people, a throbbing pain is felt only on one side of the head.

Diseases & Conditions
Milia
Milia are tiny white bumps or small cysts on the skin. They are almost always seen in newborn babies.

Diseases & Conditions
Mononucleosis
Mononucleosis, or mono, is a viral infection that causes fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, most often in the neck.

Symptoms
Moro reflex
A reflex is a type of involuntary (without trying) response to stimulation. The Moro reflex is one of many reflexes that are seen at birth. It normally goes away after 3 or 4 months.

Symptoms
Mouth sores
There are different types of mouth sores. They can occur anywhere in the mouth including bottom of the mouth, inner cheeks, gums, lips, and tongue.

Diseases & Conditions
Mouth ulcers
Mouth ulcers are sores or open lesions in the mouth. ulcers

Diseases & Conditions
Mumps
Mumps is a contagious disease that leads to painful swelling of the salivary glands. The salivary glands produce saliva, a liquid that moistens food and helps you chew and swallow. salivary glands

Diseases & Conditions
Munchausen syndrome by proxy
Munchausen syndrome by proxy is a mental illness and a form of child abuse. The caretaker of a child, most often a mother, either makes up fake symptoms or causes real symptoms to make it look like the...

Symptoms
Muscle aches
Muscle aches and pains are common and can involve more than 1 muscle. Muscle pain also can involve ligaments, tendons, and fascia. Fascia are the soft tissues that connect muscles, bones, and organs.

Symptoms
Muscle cramps
Muscle cramps are when a muscle gets tight (contracts) without you trying to tighten it, and it does not relax. Cramps may involve all or part of one or more muscles. The most commonly involved muscle groups...

Diseases & Conditions
Muscular dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited disorders that cause muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue, which get worse over time. muscle weakness

Diseases & Conditions
Myelomeningocele
Myelomeningocele is a birth defect in which the backbone and spinal canal do not close before birth. The condition is a type of spina bifida.

Diseases & Conditions
Myocarditis - pediatric
Pediatric myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle in an infant or young child.

N

Special Topics
NICU consultants and support staff
AUDIOLOGIST An audiologist is trained to test a baby's hearing and provide follow-up care to those with hearing problems. Most newborns have their hearing screened before leaving the hospital. Your health...

Special Topics
NICU staff
This article discusses the primary team of caregivers who are involved in the care of your infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The staff often includes the following: ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONAL...

Special Topics
Nail care for newborns

Discharge Instructions
Nasal corticosteroid sprays
Steroid nasal sprays; Allergies - nasal corticosteroid sprays

Symptoms
Nasal flaring
Nasal flaring occurs when the nostrils widen while breathing. It is often a sign of trouble breathing.

Symptoms
Natal teeth
Natal teeth are teeth that are already present at birth. They are different from neonatal teeth, which grow in during the first 30 days after birth.

Symptoms
Nausea and vomiting - adults
Nausea is feeling an urge to vomit. It is often called "being sick to your stomach." Vomiting or throwing-up is forcing the contents of the stomach up through the esophagus and out of the mouth.

Symptoms
Neck lump
A neck lump is any lump, bump, or swelling in the neck.

Diseases & Conditions
Neonatal abstinence syndrome
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a group of problems that occur in a newborn who was exposed to addictive opiate drugs while in the mother’s womb.

Diseases & Conditions
Neonatal conjunctivitis
Conjunctivitis is swelling or infection of the membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. Conjunctivitis may occur in a newborn child.

Tests
Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test
Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening is a blood test that screens newborns for cystic fibrosis (CF). cystic fibrosis

Diseases & Conditions
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a problem often seen in premature babies. The condition makes it hard for the baby to breathe.

Diseases & Conditions
Neonatal sepsis
Neonatal sepsis is a blood infection that occurs in an infant younger than 90 days old. Early-onset sepsis is seen in the first week of life occurs after 1 week and before 3 months of age.

Special Topics
Neonatal weight gain and nutrition
Premature babies need to receive good nutrition so they grow at a rate close to that of babies still inside the womb.

Special Topics
Neonate
A neonate is a baby who is 4 weeks old or younger.

Diseases & Conditions
Neuroblastoma
Neuroblastoma is a very rare type of cancerous tumor that develops from nerve tissue. It usually occurs in infants and children. tumor

Diseases & Conditions
Neutropenia - infants
Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood cells. These cells are called neutrophils. They help the body fight infection. This article discusses neutropenia in newborns.

Special Topics
Newborn head molding
Newborn head molding is an abnormal head shape that results from pressure on the baby's head during childbirth.

Diseases & Conditions
Newborn jaundice
Newborn jaundice occurs when a baby has a high level of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow substance that the body creates when it replaces old red blood cells. The liver helps break down the...

Discharge Instructions
Newborn jaundice - discharge
Your baby has newborn jaundice. This common condition is caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood. Your child's skin and sclera (whites of his eyes) will look yellow. Some newborns need to be treated...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Newborn jaundice - what to ask your doctor
Jaundice - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about newborn jaundice

Tests
Newborn screening tests
Newborn screening tests look for developmental, genetic, and metabolic disorders in the newborn baby. This allows steps to be taken before symptoms develop. Most of these illnesses are very rare, but can...

Diseases & Conditions
Noma
Noma is a type of gangrene that destroys mucous membranes of the mouth and other tissues. It occurs in malnourished children in areas where sanitation and cleanliness are lacking. gangrene

Nutrition
Normal growth and development
A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: InfancyPreschool yearsMiddle childhood yearsAdolescence Infancy Preschool years Middle childhood years Adolescence Soon after birth, an...

Symptoms
Nosebleed
A nosebleed is loss of blood from the tissue lining the nose. Bleeding most often occurs in 1 nostril only.

Diseases & Conditions
Nursemaid’s elbow
Nursemaid's elbow is a dislocation of a bone in the elbow called the radius. Dislocation means the bone slips out of its normal position. dislocation The injury is also called radial head dislocation.

O

Diseases & Conditions
Obesity in children
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means a child’s weight is in the upper range of children of the same age and height. Overweight may be due to extra muscle...

Diseases & Conditions
Omphalocele
An omphalocele is a birth defect in which an infant's intestine or other abdominal organs are outside of the body because of a hole in the belly button (navel) area. The intestines are covered only by a...

Diseases & Conditions
Oppositional defiant disorder
Oppositional defiant disorder is a pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.

Diseases & Conditions
Osgood-Schlatter disease
Osgood-Schlatter disease is a painful swelling of the bump on the upper part of the shinbone, just below the knee. This bump is called the anterior tibial tubercle.

Diseases & Conditions
Osteogenesis imperfecta
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a condition causing extremely fragile bones.

Diseases & Conditions
Osteopenia - premature infants
Osteopenia is a decrease in the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the bone. This can cause bones to be weak and brittle. It increases the risk for broken bones.

Diseases & Conditions
Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma is a very rare type of cancerous bone tumor that usually develops in teenagers. It often occurs when a teen is growing rapidly. bone tumor

Diseases & Conditions
Otitis
Otitis is a general term for infection or inflammation of the ear.

Diseases & Conditions
Otitis media with effusion
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is thick or sticky fluid behind the eardrum in the middle ear. It occurs without an ear infection. ear infection

Nutrition
Overcoming breastfeeding problems
Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest option for both mom and baby. They recommend that babies feed only on breast milk for the first 6 months, and then continue to have breast milk...

Special Topics
Oxygen therapy - infants
Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The air we breathe normally contains 21% oxygen. We can receive up to 100% oxygen. WHY IS OXYGEN USED? Babies with heart or lung problems...

P

Special Topics
Palliative care - fear and anxiety
End of life care - fear and anxiety; Hospice care - fear and anxiety

Special Topics
Palliative care - shortness of breath
Dyspnea - end-of-life; Hospice care - shortness of breath

Symptoms
Palpebral slant - eye
The palpebral slant is the direction of the slant of a line that goes from the outer corner of the eye to the inner corner.

Diseases & Conditions
Pancreatitis - children
Pancreatitis in children occurs when the pancreas becomes swollen and inflamed.

Diseases & Conditions
Patent ductus arteriosus
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus arteriosus does not close. The word "patent" means open. The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that allows blood to go around the baby...

Diseases & Conditions
Patent foramen ovale
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a hole between the left and right atria (upper chambers) of the heart. This hole exists in everyone before birth, but most often closes shortly after being born. PFO is what...

Symptoms
Pectus carinatum
Pectus carinatum is present when the chest protrudes over the sternum. It is often described as giving the person a bird-like appearance.

Symptoms
Pectus excavatum
Pectus excavatum is a medical term that describes an abnormal formation of the rib cage that gives the chest a caved-in or sunken appearance.

Discharge Instructions
Pectus excavatum - discharge
You or your child had surgery to correct pectus excavatum. This is a deformity of the front of the chest wall with a sunken breastbone (sternum) and ribs. There is now a metal bar or strut that goes across...

Diseases & Conditions
Pediatric sleep apnea
With pediatric sleep apnea, a child's breathing pauses during sleep because the airway has become narrowed or partly blocked.

Special Topics
Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants
A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in babies. WHY IS A PICC USED? A PICC is used...

Diseases & Conditions
Perianal streptococcal cellulitis
Perianal streptococcal cellulitis is an infection of the anus and rectum caused by Streptococcus bacteria. Streptococcus

Diseases & Conditions
Periorbital cellulitis
Periorbital cellulitis is an infection of the eyelid or skin around the eye.

Special Topics
Peripheral arterial line - infants
A peripheral arterial line (PAL) is a small, short, plastic catheter that is put through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. Health care providers sometimes call it an "art line. " This article addresses...

Special Topics
Peripheral intravenous line - infants
A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts the PIV through the skin into a vein in the scalp, hand, arm, or foot. This article addresses...

Diseases & Conditions
Periventricular leukomalacia
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a type of brain injury that affects infants. The condition involves the death of small areas of brain tissue around fluid-filled areas called ventricles. The damage...

Diseases & Conditions
Pertussis
Pertussis is a highly contagious bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable, violent coughing. The coughing can make it hard to breathe. A deep "whooping" sound is often heard when the person tries to...

Diseases & Conditions
Phenylketonuria
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare condition in which a baby is born without the ability to properly break down an amino acid called phenylalanine.

Diseases & Conditions
Pinworms
Pinworms are small worms that infect the intestines.

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumothorax - infants
Pneumothorax is the collection of air or gas in the space inside the chest around the lungs, which leads to a lung collapse. Pneumothorax This article discusses pneumothorax in infants.

Injury
Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash
Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly cause an allergic skin reaction. The result is most often an itchy, red rash with bumps or blisters.

Diseases & Conditions
Polycythemia - newborn
Polycythemia can occur when there are too many red blood cells in an infant's blood.

Self-Care Instructions
Postural drainage
Chest physical therapy; CPT; COPD - postural drainage; Cystic fibrosis - postural drainage; Bronchopulmonary dysplasia - postural drainage

Special Topics
Potbellies and toddlers

Diseases & Conditions
Potter syndrome
Potter syndrome and Potter phenotype refers to a group of findings associated with a lack of amniotic fluid and kidney failure in an unborn infant. amniotic fluid kidney failure

Diseases & Conditions
Prader-Willi syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome is a disease that is present from birth (congenital). It affects many parts of the body. People with this condition feel hungry all the time and become obese. They also have poor muscle...

Diseases & Conditions
Precocious puberty
Puberty is the time during which a person's sexual and physical characteristics mature. Precocious puberty is when these body changes happen earlier than normal.

Diseases & Conditions
Pregnancy and herpes
Newborn infants can become infected with herpes virus during pregnancy, during labor or delivery, or after birth.

Diseases & Conditions
Premature infant
A premature infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the due date). gestation

Special Topics
Preschooler development
The normal social and physical development of children ages 3 to 6 years old includes many milestones.

Special Topics
Preschooler test or procedure preparation
Preparing properly for a test or procedure reduces your child's anxiety, encourages cooperation, and helps your child develop coping skills.

Self-Care Instructions
Preventing hepatitis A

Symptoms
Prognathism
Prognathism is an extension or bulging out (protrusion) of the lower jaw (mandible). It occurs when the teeth are not properly aligned due to the shape of the face bones.

Special Topics
Puberty in boys

Special Topics
Puberty in girls

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary atresia
Pulmonary atresia is a form of heart disease in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly. It is present from birth (congenital heart disease). The pulmonary valve is an opening on the right side...

Diseases & Conditions
Pyloric stenosis - infant
Pyloric stenosis is a narrowing of the pylorus, the opening from the stomach into the small intestine. This article describes the condition in infants.

Q

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Questions to ask your child's doctor

R

Symptoms
Rash - child under 2 years
A rash is a change in the color or texture of the skin. A skin rash can be BumpyFlatRed, skin-colored, or slightly lighter or darker than skin colorScaly Bumpy Flat Red, skin-colored, or slightly lighter...

Symptoms
Rashes
Rashes involve changes in the color or texture of your skin.

Diseases & Conditions
Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood
Reactive attachment disorder is a problem in which a child is not able to easily form a normal or loving relationship with others. It is considered to be a result of not forming an attachment to any specific...

Special Topics
Reflux wedge
A reflux wedge is a device prescribed for use in children who have gastroesophageal reflux. The foam wedge tilts the child upward to prevent or reduce gastroesophageal reflux while the child is lying in...

Diseases & Conditions
Repeated nightmares
Repeated nightmares are bad dreams that recur frequently and involve the same theme. nightmares Nightmares usually begin before the age of 10. They are considered a normal part of childhood, unless they...

Diseases & Conditions
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a very common virus that leads to mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can be more serious in young babies, especially those in certain...

Diseases & Conditions
Retinoblastoma
Retinoblastoma is a rare, cancerous tumor of a part of the eye called the retina.

Diseases & Conditions
Reye syndrome
Reye syndrome is sudden (acute) brain damage and liver function problems that do not have a known cause. This syndrome has occurred in children who were given aspirin when they had chickenpox or the flu...

Special Topics
Reye syndrome - resources

Diseases & Conditions
Rh incompatibility
Rh incompatibility is a condition that develops when a pregnant woman has Rh-negative blood and the baby in her womb has Rh-positive blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Rheumatic fever
Rheumatic fever is a disease that may develop after an infection with group A streptococcus bacteria (such as strep throat or scarlet fever). It can cause severe illness in the heart, joints, skin, and...

Diseases & Conditions
Rickets
Rickets is a disorder caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. It leads to softening and weakening of the bones.

Self-Care Instructions
Risks of underage drinking
Puberty and the teenage years are a time of change. Your child may have just started high school or just gotten a driver's license. They may have a sense of freedom they never had before. Teenagers are...

Diseases & Conditions
Roseola
Roseola is a viral infection that commonly affects infants and young children. It involves a pinkish-red skin rash and high fever.

Diseases & Conditions
Rubella
Rubella, also known as the German measles, is an infection in which there is a rash on the skin. Congenital rubella is when a pregnant woman with rubella passes it to the baby that is still in her womb...

S

Special Topics
SIDS - resources

Special Topics
Safe driving for teens
Learning to drive is an exciting time for teenagers and their parents. It opens up many options for a young person, but it also carries risks. Young people between ages 15 and 24 have the highest rate of...

Diseases & Conditions
Salmonella enterocolitis
Salmonella enterocolitis is an infection in the lining of the small intestine that is caused by salmonella bacteria. It is a type of food poisoning.

Diseases & Conditions
Scabies
Scabies is an easily-spread skin disease caused by a very small mite.

Diseases & Conditions
Scalded skin syndrome
Scalded skin syndrome is a skin infection caused by bacteria in which the skin becomes damaged and sheds.

Diseases & Conditions
Scarlet fever
Scarlet fever is caused by an infection with bacteria called A streptococcus. This is the same bacteria that cause strep throat. . strep throat

Special Topics
School age test or procedure preparation
Preparing properly for a test or procedure may reduce your child's anxiety, encourage cooperation, and help your child develop coping skills.

Special Topics
School-age children development
School-age child development describes the expected physical, emotional, and mental abilities of children ages 6 to 12.

Diseases & Conditions
Scoliosis
Scoliosis is an abnormal curving of the spine. Your spine is your backbone. It runs straight down your back. Everyone's spine naturally curves a bit. But people with scoliosis have a spine that curves too...

Special Topics
Scoliosis - resources

Self-Care Instructions
Screen time and children

Diseases & Conditions
Separation anxiety in children
Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which the child is anxious when separated from the primary caregiver (usually the mother).

Diseases & Conditions
Septic shock
Septic shock is a serious condition that occurs when a body-wide infection leads to dangerously low blood pressure.

Tests
Serum phenylalanine screening
Serum phenylalanine screening is a blood test to look for signs of the disease phenylketonuria (PKU). The test detects abnormally high levels of an amino acid called phenylalanine. phenylketonuria

Special Topics
Sexual abuse in children - what to know
One in 4 girls and 1 in 10 boys are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser does to get sexually aroused, including: Touching a child's genitalsRubbing...

Injury
Shaken baby syndrome
Shaken baby syndrome is a severe form of child abuse caused by violently shaking an infant or child.

Symptoms
Short stature
A child who has short stature is much shorter than children who are the same age and sex. Your health care provider will go over your child's growth chart with you. A child with short stature's height is...

Symptoms
Shoulder pain
Shoulder pain is any pain in or around the shoulder joint.

Diseases & Conditions
Sickle cell anemia
Sickle cell anemia is a disease passed down through families. The red blood cells that are normally shaped like a disc take on a sickle or crescent shape. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body...

In-depth Report
Sickle cell disease
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sickle cell disease.

Self-Care Instructions
Signs of an asthma attack
Asthma attack - signs of; Reactive airway disease - asthma attack; Bronchial asthma - attack

Symptoms
Simian crease
A simian crease is a single line that runs across the palm of the hand. People usually have 3 creases in their palms. The term "simian crease" is not used much anymore, since it tends to have a negative...

Symptoms
Skeletal limb abnormalities
Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems in the arms or legs (limbs).

Special Topics
Skin findings in newborns
A newborn infant's skin goes through many changes both in appearance and texture.

Special Topics
Sleepwalking and children

Diseases & Conditions
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
A slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a separation of the ball of the hip joint from the thigh bone (femur) at the upper growing end (growth plate) of the bone.

Self-Care Instructions
Smoking and asthma

Self-Care Instructions
Spitting up - self-care

Discharge Instructions
Spleen removal - child - discharge
Your child's spleen was removed after your child was given general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free). If your child had open surgery, the surgeon made an incision (cut) in your child's belly.If your child...

Injury
Sprains
A sprain is an injury to the ligaments around a joint. Ligaments are strong, flexible fibers that hold bones together. When a ligament is stretched too far or tears, the joint will become painful and swell...

Self-Care Instructions
Stay away from asthma triggers
Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers

Diseases & Conditions
Stereotypic movement disorder
Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes repetitive, purposeless movements. These can be hand waving, body rocking, or head banging. The movements interfere with normal activity...

Diseases & Conditions
Strabismus
Strabismus is a disorder in which both eyes do not line up in the same direction, so they do not look at the same object at the same time. The condition is more commonly known as "crossed eyes."

Injury
Strains
A strain is when a muscle is stretched too much and tears. It is also called a pulled muscle. A strain is a painful injury. It can be caused by an accident, overusing a muscle, or using a muscle in the...

Special Topics
Stress in childhood
Childhood stress can be present in any setting that requires the child to adapt or change. Stress may be caused by positive changes, such as starting a new activity, but it is most commonly linked with...

Symptoms
Stridor
Stridor is an abnormal, high-pitched, musical breathing sound. It is caused by a blockage in the throat or voice box (larynx). It is most often heard when taking in a breath.

Symptoms
Stuffy or runny nose - adult
A stuffy or congested nose occurs when the tissues lining it become swollen. The swelling is due to inflamed blood vessels. The problem may also include nasal discharge or "runny nose. " If excess mucus...

Symptoms
Stuffy or runny nose - children
A stuffy or con