Neurology

Neurology is the study and treatment of nervous system disorders, including problems with the brain and spinal cord. Some of these issues are movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease; neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease; and seizure disorders, such as epilepsy.

Learn more about neurology at the Mount Sinai Health System

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Special Topics
ALS - resources

Diseases & Conditions
Absence seizure
An absence seizure is the term for a type of seizure involving staring spells. This type of seizure is a brief (usually less than 15 seconds) disturbance of brain function due to abnormal electrical activity...

Tests
Acetylcholine receptor antibody
Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood of most people with myasthenia gravis. The antibody affects a chemical that sends signals from nerves to muscles and between nerves in the...

Diseases & Conditions
Acoustic neuroma
An acoustic neuroma is a slow-growing tumor of the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. This nerve is called the vestibular cochlear nerve. It is behind the ear, right under the brain. An acoustic...

Diseases & Conditions
Acute cerebellar ataxia
Acute cerebellar ataxia is sudden, uncoordinated muscle movement due to disease or injury to the cerebellum. This is the area in the brain that controls muscle movement. uncoordinated muscle movement

Diseases & Conditions
Alcoholic neuropathy
Alcoholic neuropathy is damage to the nerves that results from excessive drinking of alcohol.

Diseases & Conditions
Alzheimer disease
Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Alzheimer disease is one form of dementia. It affects memory, thinking, and behavior.

In-depth Report
Alzheimer disease
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of Alzheimer disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Amaurosis fugax
Amaurosis fugax is a temporary loss of vision in one or both eyes due to a lack of blood flow to the retina. The retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eyeball. retina

Diseases & Conditions
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a disease of the nerve cells in the brain, brain stem and spinal cord that control voluntary muscle movement. ALS is also known as Lou Gehrig disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Aneurysm
An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a part of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel.

Diseases & Conditions
Aneurysm in the brain
An aneurysm is a weak area in the wall of a blood vessel that causes the blood vessel to bulge or balloon out. When an aneurysm occurs in a blood vessel of the brain, it is called a cerebral, or intracranial...

Symptoms
Anisocoria
Anisocoria is unequal pupil size. The pupil is the black part in the center of the eye. It gets larger in dim light and smaller in bright light.

Diseases & Conditions
Apraxia
Apraxia is a disorder of the brain and nervous system in which a person is unable to perform tasks or movements when asked, even though: The request or command is understoodThey are willing to perform the...

Diseases & Conditions
Autonomic dysreflexia
Autonomic dysreflexia is an abnormal, overreaction of the involuntary (autonomic) nervous system to stimulation. This reaction may include: Change in heart rateExcessive sweatingHigh blood pressureMuscle...

Diseases & Conditions
Autonomic neuropathy
Autonomic neuropathy is a group of symptoms that occur when there is damage to the nerves that manage every day body functions. These functions include blood pressure, heart rate, sweating, bowel and bladder...

Diseases & Conditions
Axillary nerve dysfunction
Axillary nerve dysfunction is nerve damage that leads to a loss of movement or sensation in the shoulder.

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Tests
BAER - brainstem auditory evoked response
Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) is a test to measure the brain wave activity that occurs in response to clicks or certain tones.

Symptoms
Babinski reflex
Babinski reflex is one of the normal reflexes in infants. Reflexes are responses that occur when the body receives a certain stimulus. The Babinski reflex occurs after the sole of the foot has been firmly...

Diseases & Conditions
Basal ganglia dysfunction
Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement.

Self-Care Instructions
Bathroom safety - adults
Older adult bathroom safety; Falls - bathroom safety

Diseases & Conditions
Becker muscular dystrophy
Becker muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that involves slowly worsening muscle weakness of the legs and pelvis. muscle weakness

Diseases & Conditions
Bell palsy
Bell palsy is a disorder of the nerve that controls movement of the muscles in the face. This nerve is called the facial or seventh cranial nerve. Damage to this nerve causes weakness or paralysis of these...

Diseases & Conditions
Benign positional vertigo
Benign positional vertigo is the most common type of vertigo. Vertigo is the feeling that you are spinning or that everything is spinning around you. It may occur when you move your head in a certain position...

Diseases & Conditions
Brachial plexopathy
Brachial plexopathy is a form of peripheral neuropathy. It occurs when there is damage to the brachial plexus. This is an area on each side of the neck where nerve roots from the spinal cord split into...

Special Topics
Brachial plexus
The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that run from the lower neck through the upper shoulder area. These nerves provide the shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand with movement and sensation.

Diseases & Conditions
Brain abscess
A brain abscess is a collection of pus, immune cells, and other material in the brain, usually from a bacterial or fungal infection.

Discharge Instructions
Brain aneurysm repair - discharge
You had a brain aneurysm. An aneurysm is a weak area in the wall of a blood vessel that bulges or balloons out. Once it reaches a certain size, it has a high chance of bursting. It can leak blood and cause...

Diseases & Conditions
Brain herniation
A brain herniation is when brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood vessels are moved or pressed away from their usual position inside the skull.

Discharge Instructions
Brain injury - discharge
Head injury - discharge; Head trauma - discharge; Contusion - discharge; Shaken baby syndrome - discharge

Discharge Instructions
Brain surgery - discharge
You had surgery on your brain. During surgery, your doctor made a surgical cut (incision) in your scalp. A small hole was then drilled into your skull bone or a piece of your skull bone was removed. This...

In-depth Report
Brain tumors - primary
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of brain tumors.

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Tests
CSF analysis
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a group of laboratory tests that measure chemicals in the fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. The tests may look for proteins, sugar (glucose...

Tests
CSF cell count
A CSF cell count is a test to measure the number of red and white blood cells that are in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is a clear fluid that in the space around the spinal cord and brain.

Tests
CSF glucose test
A CSF glucose test measures the amount of sugar (glucose) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is a clear fluid that flows in the space surrounding the spinal cord and brain.

Diseases & Conditions
CSF leak
A CSF leak is an escape of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. This fluid is called the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Tests
CSF myelin basic protein
CSF myelin basic protein is a test to measure the level of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). myelin The CSF is the clear liquid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. MBP is...

Tests
CSF oligoclonal banding
CSF oligoclonal banding is a test to look for inflammation-related proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CFS is the clear fluid that flows in the space around the spinal cord and brain. Oligoclonal...

Tests
CSF total protein
CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). protein

Self-Care Instructions
Caring for muscle spasticity or spasms
High muscle tone - care; Increased muscle tension - care; Upper motor neuron syndrome - care; Muscle stiffness - care

Diseases & Conditions
Carotid artery disease
Carotid artery disease occurs when the carotid arteries become narrowed or blocked. The carotid arteries provide part of the main blood supply to your brain. They are located on each side of your neck....

Special Topics
Central nervous system
The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your...

Diseases & Conditions
Central pontine myelinolysis
Central pontine myelinolysis is brain cell dysfunction. It is caused by the destruction of the layer (myelin sheath) covering nerve cells in the middle of the brainstem (pons). myelin sheath

Diseases & Conditions
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a condition in which proteins called amyloid build up on the walls of the arteries in the brain. CAA increases the risk for stroke caused by bleeding and dementia. stroke...

Diseases & Conditions
Cerebral arteriovenous malformation
A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the brain that usually forms before birth.

Diseases & Conditions
Cerebral hypoxia
Cerebral hypoxia occurs when there is not enough oxygen getting to the brain. The brain needs a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to function. Cerebral hypoxia affects the largest parts of the brain...

Diseases & Conditions
Cerebral palsy
Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that can involve brain and nervous system functions, such as movement, learning, hearing, seeing, and thinking. There are several different types of cerebral palsy...

Tests
Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collection
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection is a test to look at the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. CSF acts as a cushion, protecting the brain and spine from injury. The fluid is normally clear...

Tests
Cholinesterase - blood
Serum cholinesterase is a blood test that looks at levels of 2 substances that help the nervous system work properly. They are called acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase. Your nerves need these...

Special Topics
Choroid
The choroid is the layer of blood vessels and connective tissue between the white of the eye and retina (at the back of the eye). It is part of the uvea and supplies nutrients to the inner parts of the...

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a disorder that involves nerve swelling and irritation (inflammation) that leads to a loss of strength or sensation.

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic motor tic disorder
Chronic motor tic disorder is a condition that involves quick, uncontrollable movements or vocal outbursts (but not both).

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic subdural hematoma
A chronic subdural hematoma is an "old" collection of blood and blood breakdown products between the surface of the brain and its outermost covering (the dura). The chronic phase of a subdural hematoma...

Diseases & Conditions
Cluster headache
A cluster headache is a type of headache. It is one-sided head pain that may involve tearing of the eyes, a droopy eyelid, and a stuffy nose. Attacks occur regularly for 1 week to 1 year. The attacks are...

Diseases & Conditions
Common peroneal nerve dysfunction
Common peroneal nerve dysfunction is damage to the peroneal nerve leading to loss of movement or sensation in the foot and leg.

Self-Care Instructions
Communicating with someone with aphasia
Stroke - aphasia; Speech and language disorder - aphasia

Diseases & Conditions
Complex regional pain syndrome
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that can affect any area of the body, but often affects an arm or a leg.

Discharge Instructions
Concussion - adults - discharge
Brain injury - concussion - discharge; Traumatic brain injury - concussion - discharge; Closed head injury - concussion - discharge

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Concussion - what to ask your doctor - adult
What to ask your doctor about concussion - adult; Adult brain injury - what to ask your doctor; Traumatic brain injury - what to ask the doctor

Discharge Instructions
Concussion in children - discharge
Mild brain injury in children - discharge; Brain injury in children - discharge; Mild traumatic brain injury in children - discharge; Closed head injury in children - discharge; TBI in children - discharge

Symptoms
Confusion
Confusion is the inability to think as clearly or quickly as you normally do. You may feel disoriented and have difficulty paying attention, remembering, and making decisions.

Diseases & Conditions
Cranial mononeuropathy III
Cranial mononeuropathy III is a nerve disorder. It affects the function of the third cranial nerve. As a result, the person may have double vision and eyelid drooping.

Diseases & Conditions
Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type
This diabetic type of cranial mononeuropathy III is a complication of diabetes. It causes double vision and eyelid drooping. diabetes eyelid drooping

Diseases & Conditions
Cranial mononeuropathy VI
Cranial mononeuropathy VI is a nerve disorder. It affects the function of the sixth cranial (skull) nerve. As a result, the person may have double vision.

Diseases & Conditions
Craniosynostosis
Craniosynostosis is a birth defect in which one or more of the sutures on a baby's head closes earlier than usual. The skull of an infant or young child is made up of bony plates that allow for growth of...

Diseases & Conditions
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a form of brain damage that leads to a rapid decrease of movement and mental function.

D

Symptoms
Decerebrate posture
Decerebrate posture is an abnormal body posture that involves the arms and legs being held straight out, the toes being pointed downward, and the head and neck being arched backward. The muscles are tightened...

Symptoms
Decorticate posture
Decorticate posture is an abnormal posturing in which a person is stiff with bent arms, clenched fists, and legs held out straight. The arms are bent in toward the body and the wrists and fingers are bent...

Symptoms
Decreased alertness
Decreased alertness is a state of reduced awareness. A coma is a state of decreased alertness from which a person cannot be awakened. A long-term coma is called a vegetative state.

Diseases & Conditions
Delirium
Delirium is sudden severe confusion due to rapid changes in brain function that occur with physical or mental illness. confusion

Diseases & Conditions
Dementia
Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior.

Self-Care Instructions
Dementia - behavior and sleep problems
Sundowning - care

Self-Care Instructions
Dementia - daily care

Special Topics
Dementia - home care
Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, and behavior.

Self-Care Instructions
Dementia - keeping safe in the home

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Dementia - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about dementia; Alzheimer disease - what to ask your doctor; Cognitive impairment - what to ask your doctor

Self-Care Instructions
Dementia and driving

Diseases & Conditions
Dementia due to metabolic causes
Dementia is loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Dementia Dementia due to metabolic causes is a loss of brain function that can occur with abnormal chemical processes in the body. If...

Diseases & Conditions
Distal median nerve dysfunction
Distal median nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy that affects the movement of or sensation in the hands. peripheral neuropathy A common type of distal median nerve dysfunction is carpal...

Symptoms
Dizziness
Dizziness is a term that is often used to describe 2 different symptoms: lightheadedness and vertigo. Lightheadedness is a feeling that you might faint. Vertigo is a feeling that you are spinning or moving...

Diseases & Conditions
Drug-induced tremor
Drug-induced tremor is involuntary shaking due to the use of medicines. Involuntary means you shake without trying to do so and can't stop when you try. The shaking occurs when you move or try to hold your...

Self-Care Instructions
Dry mouth during cancer treatment
Chemotherapy - dry mouth; Radiation therapy - dry mouth; Transplant - dry mouth; Transplantation - dry mouth

Diseases & Conditions
Dysarthria
Dysarthria is a condition in which you have difficulty saying words because of problems with the muscles that help you talk.

E

Tests
EEG
An electroencephalogram is a test to measure the electrical activity of the brain.

Tests
Electromyography
Electromyography (EMG) is a test that checks the health of the muscles and the nerves that control the muscles.

Tests
Electronystagmography
Electronystagmography is a test that looks at eye movements to see how well two nerves in the brain are working. These nerves are: Vestibular nerve (8th cranial nerve), which runs from the brain to the...

Diseases & Conditions
Encephalitis
Encephalitis is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the brain, most often due to infections.

Diseases & Conditions
Epidural hematoma
An epidural hematoma (EDH) is bleeding between the inside of the skull and the outer covering of the brain (called the dura).

In-depth Report
Epilepsy
An in-depth report on the types, causes, diagnosis, and treatment of epilepsy.

Diseases & Conditions
Epilepsy - children
Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures over time. seizures A seizure is a sudden change in the electrical and chemical activity in the brain. A single seizure that does not...

Diseases & Conditions
Epilepsy - overview
Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures over time. Seizures are episodes of uncontrolled and abnormal firing of brain cells that may cause changes in attention or behavior....

Special Topics
Epilepsy - resources

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - adult
What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - adult; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - adult; Seizure - what to ask your doctor

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child
What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - child; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - child

Discharge Instructions
Epilepsy in children - discharge
Seizure disorder in children - discharge

Discharge Instructions
Epilepsy or seizures - discharge
You have epilepsy. People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is a sudden brief change in the electrical and chemical activity in the brain. The doctor gave you a physical and a nervous system examination...

Diseases & Conditions
Essential tremor
Essential tremor (ET) is a type of involuntary shaking movement. It has no identified cause. Involuntary means you shake without trying to do so and are not able to stop the shaking at will.

Tests
Eye and orbit ultrasound
An eye and orbit ultrasound is a test to look at the eye area. It also measures the size and structures of the eye. ultrasound

F

Diseases & Conditions
Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma
Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma is the loss of controllable (voluntary) muscle movement in an infant's face due to pressure on the facial nerve in the face just before or at the time of birth.

Symptoms
Facial paralysis
Facial paralysis occurs when a person is no longer able to move some or all of the muscles on one side of the face.

Diseases & Conditions
Facial tics
A facial tic is a repeated spasm, often involving the eyes and muscles of the face.

Diseases & Conditions
Femoral nerve dysfunction
Femoral nerve dysfunction is a loss of movement or sensation in parts of the legs due to damage to the femoral nerve.

Special Topics
Fine motor control

Symptoms
Focal neurologic deficits
A focal neurologic deficit is a problem with nerve, spinal cord, or brain function. It affects a specific location, such as the left side of the face, right arm, or even a small area such as the tongue...

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Diseases & Conditions
Ganglioneuroma
Ganglioneuroma is a tumor of the autonomic nervous system.

Diseases & Conditions
General paresis
General paresis is a problem with mental function due to damage to the brain from untreated syphilis.

Diseases & Conditions
Generalized tonic-clonic seizure
Generalized tonic-clonic seizure is 1 type of seizure that involves the entire body. It is also called grand mal seizure. The terms seizure, convulsion, or epilepsy are most often associated with generalized...

Diseases & Conditions
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a rare condition in which there are repeated episodes of severe pain in the tongue, throat, ear, and tonsils. This can last from a few seconds to a few minutes.

Special Topics
Gross motor control
Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a leg). It requires proper coordination and function of muscle, bones, and nerves.

Diseases & Conditions
Guillain-Barré syndrome
Guillain-Barré syndrome is a serious health problem that occurs when the body's defense (immune) system mistakenly attacks part of the nervous system. This leads to nerve inflammation that causes muscle...

H

Symptoms
Hand or foot spasms
Spasms are contractions of the muscles of the hands, thumbs, feet, or toes. Spasms are usually brief, but they can be severe and painful.

Symptoms
Headache
A headache is pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. Serious causes of headaches are rare. Most people with headaches can feel much better by making lifestyle changes, learning ways to relax, and...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Headache - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about headaches; Migraine - what to ask your doctor; Tension-type headache - what to ask your doctor; Cluster headache - what to ask your doctor

In-depth Report
Headaches - cluster
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cluster headaches.

Self-Care Instructions
Headaches - danger signs
Migraine headache - danger signs; Tension headache - danger signs; Cluster headache - danger signs; Vascular headache - danger signs

In-depth Report
Headaches - tension
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of common headaches.

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatocerebral degeneration
Hepatocerebral degeneration is a brain disorder that occurs in people with liver damage.

Diseases & Conditions
Horner syndrome
Horner syndrome is a rare condition that affects the nerves to the eye and face.

Diseases & Conditions
Huntington disease
Huntington disease is a disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts of the brain waste away, or degenerate. The disease is passed down through families.

Diseases & Conditions
Hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus is a buildup of fluid inside the skull that leads to brain swelling. Hydrocephalus means "water on the brain."

I

Diseases & Conditions
Increased intracranial pressure
Increased intracranial pressure is a rise in the pressure inside the skull that can result from or cause brain injury.

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Diseases & Conditions
Lambert-Eaton syndrome
Lambert-Eaton syndrome (LES) is a rare disorder in which faulty communication between nerves and muscles leads to muscle weakness. muscle weakness

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Self-Care Instructions
Managing migraines at home
Headache - migraine - self-care; Vascular headache - self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Managing tension headaches at home
Tension-type headache - self-care; Muscle contraction headache - self-care; Headache - benign - self-care; Headache - tension- self-care; Chronic headaches - tension - self-care; Rebound headaches - tension...

Self-Care Instructions
Managing your chronic back pain
Chronic back pain - managing; Chronic back pain - self-care; Failed back syndrome - managing; Lumbar stenosis -managing; Spinal stenosis - managing; Sciatica - managing; Chronic lumbar pain - managing

Symptoms
Memory loss
Memory loss (amnesia) is unusual forgetfulness. You may not be able to remember new events, recall one or more memories of the past, or both. The memory loss may be for a short time and then resolve (transient...

Diseases & Conditions
Metabolic neuropathies
Metabolic neuropathies are nerve disorders that occur with diseases that disrupt the chemical processes in the body

Diseases & Conditions
Migraine
A migraine is a type of headache. It may occur with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. In many people, a throbbing pain is felt only on one side of the head.

Special Topics
Migraine - resources

In-depth Report
Migraine headaches
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of migraine.

Diseases & Conditions
Mononeuropathy
Mononeuropathy is damage to a single nerve, which results in loss of movement, sensation, or other function of that nerve. loss of movement

Symptoms
Movement - uncontrollable
Uncontrollable movements include many types of movements that you cannot control. They can affect the arms, legs, face, neck, or other parts of the body. Examples of uncontrollable movements are: Loss of...

Symptoms
Movement - uncontrolled or slow
Uncontrolled or slow movement is a problem with muscle tone, usually in the large muscle groups. The problem leads to slow, uncontrollable jerky movements of the head, limbs, trunk, or neck.

Symptoms
Movement - uncoordinated
Uncoordinated movement is due to a muscle control problem that causes an inability to coordinate movements. It leads to a jerky, unsteady, to-and-fro motion of the middle of the body (trunk) and an unsteady...

Symptoms
Movement - unpredictable or jerky
Jerky body movement is a condition in which a person makes fast movements that they cannot control and that have no purpose. These movements interrupt the person's normal movement or posture. The medical...

Diseases & Conditions
Multiple mononeuropathy
Multiple mononeuropathy is a nervous system disorder that involves damage to at least 2 separate nerve areas.

Diseases & Conditions
Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). autoimmune disease central nervous system

In-depth Report
Multiple sclerosis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of MS.

Discharge Instructions
Multiple sclerosis - discharge
Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis (MS). This disease affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). Symptoms vary from person to person. With time, each person may have...

Diseases & Conditions
Multiple system atrophy
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare condition that causes symptoms similar to Parkinson disease. However, people with MSA have more widespread damage to the part of the nervous system that controls...

Symptoms
Muscle atrophy
Muscle atrophy is the wasting or loss of muscle tissue.

Diseases & Conditions
Muscle disorder
A muscle disorder includes patterns of weakness, electromyogram (EMG) findings, or biopsy results that suggest a muscle problem. The muscle disorder can be inherited, such as muscular dystrophy, or acquired...

Symptoms
Muscle function loss
Muscle function loss is when a muscle does not work or move normally. The medical term for complete loss of muscle function is paralysis.

Symptoms
Muscle twitching
Muscle twitches are fine movements of a small area of muscle.

Diseases & Conditions
Muscular dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited disorders that cause muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue, which get worse over time. muscle weakness

Diseases & Conditions
Myasthenia gravis
Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular disorder. Neuromuscular disorders involve the muscles and the nerves that control them.

Special Topics
Myelin
Myelin is an insulating layer, or sheath that forms around nerves, including those in the brain and spinal cord. It is made up of protein and fatty substances. This myelin sheath allows electrical impulses...

Diseases & Conditions
Myotonia congenita
Myotonia congenita is an inherited condition that affects muscle relaxation. It is congenital, meaning that it is present from birth. It occurs more frequently in northern Scandinavia.

Diseases & Conditions
Ménière disease
Ménière disease is an inner ear disorder that affects balance and hearing.

N

Diseases & Conditions
Narcolepsy
Narcolepsy is a nervous system problem that causes extreme sleepiness and attacks of daytime sleep.

In-depth Report
Narcolepsy
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy.

Tests
Nerve biopsy
A nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of a nerve for examination.

Tests
Nerve conduction velocity
Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve.

Self-Care Instructions
Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care
Diabetic neuropathy - self-care

Diseases & Conditions
Neuralgia
Neuralgia is a sharp, shocking pain that follows the path of a nerve and is due to irritation or damage to the nerve. Common neuralgias include: Postherptic neuralgia (pain that continues after a bout of...

Diseases & Conditions
Neurocognitive disorder
Neurocognitive disorder is a general term that describes decreased mental function due to a medical disease other than a psychiatric illness. It is often used synonymously (but incorrectly) with dementia...

Diseases & Conditions
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) are a group of rare nervous system disorders. They are passed down through families (inherited). NBIA involves movement problems, dementia, and other...

Diseases & Conditions
Neurogenic bladder
Neurogenic bladder is a problem in which a person lacks bladder control due to a brain, spinal cord, or nerve condition.

Special Topics
Neurologic deficit

Diseases & Conditions
Neuropathy secondary to drugs
Neuropathy secondary to drugs is a loss of sensation or movement in a part of the body due to nerve damage from taking a certain medicine. loss of sensation

Diseases & Conditions
Neurosarcoidosis
Neurosarcoidosis is a complication of sarcoidosis, in which inflammation occurs in the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the nervous system. sarcoidosis

Special Topics
Neurosciences
Neurosciences refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the nervous system. The nervous system is made of two parts: The central nervous system consists of your brain and spinal cord. The peripheral...

Diseases & Conditions
Neurosyphilis
Neurosyphilis is a bacterial infection of the brain or spinal cord. It usually occurs in people who have had untreated syphilis for many years. syphilis

Diseases & Conditions
Night terrors in children
Night terrors (sleep terrors) are a sleep disorder in which a person quickly wakes from sleep in a terrified state.

Diseases & Conditions
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus is a buildup of spinal fluid inside the fluid chambers of the brain. Hydrocephalus means "water on the brain." Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a rise in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in...

Symptoms
Numbness and tingling
Numbness and tingling are abnormal sensations that can occur anywhere in your body, but they are often felt in your fingers, hands, feet, arms, or legs.

Symptoms
Nystagmus
Nystagmus is a term to describe fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes that may be: Side to side (horizontal nystagmus)Up and down (vertical nystagmus)Rotary (rotary or torsional nystagmus) Side to...

O

Diseases & Conditions
Olivopontocerebellar atrophy
Olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) is a disease that causes areas deep in the brain, just above the spinal cord, to shrink (atrophy).

Symptoms
Opisthotonos
Opisthotonos is a condition in which a person holds their body in an abnormal position. The person is usually rigid and arches their back, with their head thrown backward. If a person with opisthotonos...

Diseases & Conditions
Optic glioma
Gliomas are tumors that grow in various parts of the brain. Optic gliomas can affect: One or both of the optic nerves that carry visual information to the brain from each eyeThe optic chiasm, the area where...

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Special Topics
Pain medications - narcotics
Narcotics are also called opioid pain relievers. They are used only for pain that is severe and is not helped by other types of painkillers. When used carefully and under a health care provider's direct...

Diseases & Conditions
Parkinson disease
Parkinson disease causes certain brain cells to die. These are the cells that help control movement and coordination. The disease leads to shaking (tremors) and trouble walking and moving. tremors trouble...

In-depth Report
Parkinson disease
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of Parkinson disease.

Discharge Instructions
Parkinson disease - discharge
Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease. This disease affects the brain and leads to tremors, problems with walking, movement, and coordination. Other symptoms or problems that may appear...

Diseases & Conditions
Partial (focal) seizure
All seizures are caused by abnormal electrical disturbances in the brain. Partial (focal) seizures occur when this electrical activity remains in a limited area of the brain. The seizures can sometimes...

Diseases & Conditions
Peripheral neuropathy
Peripheral nerves carry information to and from the brain. They also carry signals to and from the spinal cord to the rest of the body. Peripheral neuropathy means these nerves don't work properly. Peripheral...

Special Topics
Physical medicine and rehabilitation
Physical medicine and rehabilitation is a medical specialty that helps people regain body functions they lost due to medical conditions or injury. This term is often used to describe the whole medical team...

Diseases & Conditions
Pick disease
Pick disease is a rare form of dementia that is similar to Alzheimer disease, except that it tends to affect only certain areas of the brain. dementia Alzheimer disease

Self-Care Instructions
Postherpetic neuralgia - aftercare
Herpes zoster - postherpetic neuralgia; Varicella-zoster - postherpetic neuralgia

Self-Care Instructions
Preventing falls
Home safety; Safety in the home; Fall prevention

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor
Fall prevention - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about preventing falls

Self-Care Instructions
Preventing head injuries in children
Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury

Diseases & Conditions
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare infection that damages the material (myelin) that covers and protects nerves in the white matter of the brain. myelin white matter of the brain

Diseases & Conditions
Progressive supranuclear palsy
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a movement disorder that occurs from damage to certain nerve cells in the brain.

Diseases & Conditions
Pseudotumor cerebri
Pseudotumor cerebri is a condition in which the pressure inside the skull is increased. The brain is affected in a way that the condition appears to be, but is not, a tumor.

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Diseases & Conditions
Radial nerve dysfunction
Radial nerve dysfunction is a problem with the radial nerve. This is the nerve that travels from the armpit down the back of the arm to the hand. It helps you move your arm, wrist, and hand.

Diseases & Conditions
Ramsay Hunt syndrome
Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a painful rash around the ear, on the face, or on the mouth. It occurs when the varicella-zoster virus infects a nerve in the head. varicella-zoster

Diseases & Conditions
Restless legs syndrome
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a nervous system problem that causes you to feel an unstoppable urge to get up and pace or walk. You feel uncomfortable unless you move your legs. Moving stops the unpleasant...

In-depth Report
Restless legs syndrome and related disorders
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of RLS.

Diseases & Conditions
Rett syndrome
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a disorder of the nervous system. This condition leads to developmental problems in children. It mostly affects language skills and hand use.

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Diseases & Conditions
Secondary parkinsonism
Secondary parkinsonism is similar to Parkinson disease, but the symptoms are caused by certain medicines, a different nervous system disorder, or another illness. Parkinson disease Parkinsonism refers to...

Symptoms
Seizures
A seizure is the physical findings or changes in behavior that occur after an episode of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. The term "seizure" is often used interchangeably with "convulsion. " During...

Diseases & Conditions
Sensorimotor polyneuropathy
Sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a condition that causes a decreased ability to move or feel (sensation) because of nerve damage.

Symptoms
Sensorineural deafness
Sensorineural deafness is a type of hearing loss. It occurs from damage to the inner ear, the nerve that runs from the ear to the brain (auditory nerve), or the brain.

Self-Care Instructions
Shingles - aftercare
Herpes zoster - treatment

In-depth Report
Shingles and chickenpox (Varicella-zoster virus)
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of shingles and chickenpox.

Surgery
Simple prostatectomy
Simple prostate removal is a procedure to remove the inside part of the prostate gland to treat an enlarged prostate. It is done through a surgical cut in your lower belly. enlarged prostate

Diseases & Conditions
Sleepwalking
Sleepwalking is a disorder that occurs when people walk or do other activity while they are still asleep.

Diseases & Conditions
Spasmodic dysphonia
Spasmodic dysphonia is difficulty speaking due to spasms (dystonia) of the muscles that control the vocal cords.

Diseases & Conditions
Spasmus nutans
Spasmus nutans is a disorder affecting infants and young children. It involves rapid, uncontrolled eye movements, head bobbing, and, sometimes, holding the neck in an abnormal position.

Symptoms
Spasticity
Spasticity is stiff or rigid muscles. It may also be called unusual tightness or increased muscle tone. Reflexes (for example, a knee-jerk reflex) are stronger or exaggerated. The condition can interfere...

Diseases & Conditions
Speech disorders - children
A speech disorder is a condition in which a person has problems creating or forming the speech sounds needed to communicate with others. Three common speech disorders are: Articulation disorders ...

Symptoms
Speech impairment (adult)
Speech and language impairment may be any of several problems that make it difficult to communicate.

Diseases & Conditions
Spinal cord trauma
Spinal cord trauma is damage to the spinal cord. It may result from direct injury to the cord itself or indirectly from disease of the nearby bones, tissues, or blood vessels.

Diseases & Conditions
Spinal muscular atrophy
Spinal muscular atrophy is a group of disorders of the motor neurons (motor cells). These disorders are passed down through families (inherited) and can appear at any stage of life. The disorder leads to...

Discharge Instructions
Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge
You received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or radiotherapy. This is a form of radiation therapy that focuses high-powered x-rays onto a small area of your brain or spine. More than one system is used...

Diseases & Conditions
Stroke
A stroke occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops. A stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack." If blood flow is cut off for longer than a few seconds, the brain cannot get nutrients and oxygen...

In-depth Report
Stroke
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of stroke.

Discharge Instructions
Stroke - discharge
You were in the hospital after having a stroke. Stroke happens when blood flow to part of the brain stops. First, you received treatment to prevent further damage to the brain, and to help the heart, lungs...

Self-Care Instructions
Stroke - risk factors
Preventing stroke; Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; TIA - prevention

Diseases & Conditions
Subacute combined degeneration
Subacute combined degeneration is a disorder of the spine, brain, and nerves. It involves weakness, abnormal sensations, mental problems, and vision difficulties. weakness abnormal sensations vision difficulties

Diseases & Conditions
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, disabling, and deadly brain disorder related to measles (rubeola) infection. measles The disease develops many years after the measles infection...

Diseases & Conditions
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is bleeding in the area between the brain and the thin tissues that cover the brain. This area is called the subarachnoid space.

Diseases & Conditions
Subdural effusion
A subdural effusion is a collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) trapped between the surface of the brain and the outer lining of the brain (the dura matter). If this fluid becomes infected, the condition...

Diseases & Conditions
Subdural hematoma
A subdural hematoma is a collection of blood between the covering of the brain (dura) and the surface of the brain.

Diseases & Conditions
Supranuclear ophthalmoplegia
Supranuclear ophthalmoplegia is a condition that affects the movement of the eyes.

Diseases & Conditions
Swallowing difficulty
Difficulty with swallowing is the feeling that food or liquid is stuck in the throat or at any point before the food enters the stomach. This problem is also called dysphagia.

Diseases & Conditions
Sydenham chorea
Sydenham chorea is a movement disorder that occurs after infection with certain bacteria called group A streptococcus.

Diseases & Conditions
Syringomyelia
Syringomyelia is a cyst-like collection of cereberospinal fluid (CSF) that forms in the spinal cord. Over time, it damages the spinal cord.

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Diseases & Conditions
Tardive dyskinesia
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that involves involuntary movements. The movements most often affect the lower face. Tardive means delayed and dyskinesia means abnormal movement.

Diseases & Conditions
Tarsal tunnel syndrome
Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which there is excessive pressure on the tibial nerve. This is the nerve in the ankle that allows feeling and movement to parts of the foot. Tarsal tunnel syndrome...

Diseases & Conditions
Tay-Sachs disease
Tay-Sachs disease is a life-threatening disease of the nervous system passed down through families.

Tests
Tensilon test
The Tensilon test is a method to help diagnose myasthenia gravis. myasthenia gravis

Diseases & Conditions
Tension headache
A tension headache is the most common type of headache. It is pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck, and is often associated with muscle tightness in these areas.

Diseases & Conditions
Tick paralysis
Tick paralysis is a loss of muscle function that results from a tick bite. tick bite

Diseases & Conditions
Torticollis
Torticollis is a condition in which the neck muscles cause the head to turn or rotate to the side.

Diseases & Conditions
Tourette syndrome
Tourette syndrome is a condition that causes a person to make repeated, quick movements or sounds that they cannot control.

Diseases & Conditions
Transient ischemic attack
A transient ischemic attack occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops for a brief time. A person will have stroke-like symptoms for up to 24 hours. In most cases, the symptoms last for 1 to 2...

Diseases & Conditions
Transient tic disorder
Transient tic disorder is a condition in which a person makes 1 or many brief, repeated, movements or noises (tics). These movements or noises are involuntary (not on purpose).

Symptoms
Tremor
A tremor is a type of shaking movement. A tremor is most often noticed in the hands and arms. It may affect any body part, including the head or vocal cords.

Self-Care Instructions
Tremor - self-care
Shaking - self-care; Essential tremor - self-care; Familial tremor - self-care

Diseases & Conditions
Trigeminal neuralgia
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a nerve disorder. It causes a stabbing or electric shock-like pain in parts of the face.

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Diseases & Conditions
Ulnar nerve dysfunction
Ulnar nerve dysfunction is a problem with the nerve that travels from the shoulder to the hand, called the ulnar nerve. It helps you move your arm, wrist, and hand.

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Diseases & Conditions
Vascular dementia
Dementia is a gradual and permanent loss of brain function. This occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Vascular dementia (VaD) is caused by a series...

Discharge Instructions
Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge
Your child has hydrocephalus and needed a shunt placed to drain excess fluid and relieve pressure in the brain. This buildup of brain and spinal cord fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF) and pressure causes...

Diseases & Conditions
Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders
Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders are conditions in which blood supply to the back of the brain is disrupted.

Diseases & Conditions
Vertigo-associated disorders
Vertigo is a sensation of motion or spinning that is often described as dizziness. Vertigo Vertigo is not the same as being lightheaded. People with vertigo feel as though they are actually spinning or...

In-depth Report
Viral encephalitis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of viral encephalitis.

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Symptoms
Walking abnormalities
Walking abnormalities are unusual and uncontrollable walking patterns. They are usually due to diseases or injuries to the legs, feet, brain, spinal cord, or inner ear.

Diseases & Conditions
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a brain disorder due to vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency. vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency

Special Topics
White matter of the brain