Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism

Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that looks at the endocrine system, which controls hormones. Often, problems stem from when your body secretes too much or too little of a hormone. These conditions include diabetes, thyroid disorders, and problems with sex hormones such as fertility issues.

Learn more about diabetes at the Mount Sinai Heath System

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Tests
17-Ketosteroids urine test
17-ketosteroids are substances that form when the body breaks down male steroid sex hormones called androgens and other hormones released by the adrenal glands in males and females, and by the testes in...

Tests
17-hydroxycorticosteroid urine test
The 17-hydroxycorticosteroid test measures the level of 17-OHCS in the urine.

Tests
24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test
The 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test measures the amount of aldosterone removed in the urine in a day. Aldosterone can also be measured with a blood test. blood test

Tests
25-hydroxy vitamin D test
The 25-hydroxy vitamin D test is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body. Vitamin D helps control calcium and phosphate levels in the body.

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Tests
A1C test
A1C is a lab test that shows the average level of blood sugar (glucose) over the previous 3 months. It shows how well you are controlling your diabetes.

Tests
ACTH blood test
The ACTH test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood. ACTH is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain.

Tests
ACTH stimulation test
The ACTH stimulation test measures how well the adrenal glands respond to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release...

Diseases & Conditions
Acromegaly
Acromegaly is a condition in which there is too much growth hormone (GH) in the body.

Diseases & Conditions
Acute adrenal crisis
Acute adrenal crisis is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is not enough cortisol. This is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. adrenal glands

Diseases & Conditions
Addison disease
Addison disease is a disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones. adrenal glands

Special Topics
Adrenal glands
The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is located on top of each kidney.

Tests
Aldosterone blood test
The aldosterone blood test measures the level of the hormone aldosterone in blood. Aldosterone can also be measured using a urine test. urine test

Diseases & Conditions
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is when a person who is genetically male (who has one X and one Y chromosome) is resistant to male hormones (called androgens). As a result, the person has some or...

Diseases & Conditions
Anorchia
Anorchia is the absence of both testes at birth. testes

Tests
Anti-insulin antibody test
The anti-insulin antibody test checks to see if your body has produced antibodies against insulin. antibodies Antibodies are proteins the body produces to protect itself when it detects anything "foreign...

Tests
Antidiuretic hormone blood test
Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in blood.

Tests
Antithyroglobulin antibody
Antithyroglobulin antibody is a test to measure antibodies to a protein called thyroglobulin. This protein is found in thyroid cells. antibodies

Tests
Antithyroid microsomal antibody
Microsomes are found inside thyroid cells. The body produces antibodies to microsomes when there has been damage to thyroid cells. The antithyroid microsomal antibody test measures these antibodies in the...

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Tests
Blood sugar test - blood
A blood glucose test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including brain cells. Carbohydrates are found...

Symptoms
Breast enlargement in males
When abnormally large breasts develop in males, it is called gynecomastia. It is due to the excess growth of breast tissue, not excess fat tissue.

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Tests
Calcitonin blood test
The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in the blood.

Tests
Calcium - ionized
Ionized calcium is calcium in your blood that is not attached to proteins. It is also called free calcium. All cells need calcium in order to work. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is important...

Tests
Calcium blood test
The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. This article discusses the test to measure the total amount of calcium in your blood. About half of the calcium in the blood is attached...

Special Topics
Calcium supplements
WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth and bones. Getting enough calcium over your lifetime can help prevent osteoporosis...

Tests
Chloride test - blood
Chloride is a type of electrolyte. It works with other electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These substances help keep the proper balance of body fluids and maintain the body...

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)
Chronic thyroiditis is caused by a reaction of the immune system against the thyroid gland. It often results in reduced thyroid function (hypothyroidism). hypothyroidism The disorder is also called Hashimoto...

Symptoms
Cold intolerance
Cold intolerance is an abnormal sensitivity to a cold environment or cold temperatures.

Tests
Cortisol blood test
The cortisol blood test measures the level of cortisol in the blood. Cortisol is a steroid (glucocorticoid) hormone produced by the adrenal gland. adrenal gland Cortisol can also be measured using a urine...

Tests
Cortisol urine test
The cortisol urine test measures the level of cortisol in the urine. Cortisol is a steroid (glucocorticoid) hormone produced by the adrenal gland. adrenal gland Cortisol can also be measured using a blood...

Diseases & Conditions
Cushing disease
Cushing disease is a condition in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The pituitary gland is an organ of the endocrine system. endocrine system Cushing disease...

Diseases & Conditions
Cushing syndrome
Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a high level of the hormone cortisol.

Diseases & Conditions
Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor
Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor is a form of Cushing syndrome. It occurs when a tumor of the adrenal gland releases excess amounts of the hormone cortisol. Cushing syndrome

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Tests
DHEA-sulfate test
DHEA stands for dehydroepiandrosterone. It is a weak male hormone (androgen) produced by the adrenal glands in both men and women. The DHEA-sulfate test measures the amount of DHEA-sulfate in the blood...

Tests
Dexamethasone suppression test
Dexamethasone suppression test measures whether adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion by the pituitary can be suppressed. ACTH

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in the blood.

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - eye care
Diabetic retinopathy - care

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - foot ulcers
If you have diabetes, you have an increased chance of developing foot sores, or ulcers, also called diabetic ulcers. Foot ulcers are a common reason for hospital stays for people with diabetes. It may take...

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - keeping active
Physical activity - diabetes; Exercise - diabetes

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care
Hypoglycemia - self care; Low blood glucose - self care

Special Topics
Diabetes - resources

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - taking care of your feet
Diabetes - foot care - self-care; Diabetic foot ulcer - foot care; Diabetic neuropathy - foot care

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - tests and checkups
Routine diabetes tests; Diabetes - prevention

In-depth Report
Diabetes - type 2
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of type 2 diabetes.

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - when you are sick
Sick-day management - diabetes; Diabetes - sick day management

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes and exercise
Exercise - diabetes; Exercise - type 1 diabetes; Exercise - type 2 diabetes

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes and nerve damage
Nerve damage that occurs in people with diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy. This condition is a complication of diabetes. diabetes

In-depth Report
Diabetes diet
An in-depth report on how people with diabetes can eat healthy diets and manage their blood glucose.

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes insipidus - central
Central diabetes insipidus is a rare condition that involves extreme thirst and excessive urination.

Nutrition
Diabetes type 2 - meal planning
When you have type 2 diabetes, taking time to plan your meals goes a long way toward controlling your blood sugar and weight. type 2 diabetes

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome
Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) is a complication of type 2 diabetes. It involves extremely high blood sugar (glucose) level without the presence of ketones. type 2 diabetes

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening problem that affects people with diabetes. It occurs when the body cannot use sugar (glucose) as a fuel source because there is no insulin or not enough insulin...

Special Topics
Diet for rapid weight loss
Very low-calorie diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid weight loss; Obesity - rapid weight loss; Diet - rapid weight loss

Diseases & Conditions
Drug-induced low blood sugar
Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. low blood sugar

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Diseases & Conditions
Ectopic Cushing syndrome
Ectopic Cushing syndrome is a form of Cushing syndrome in which a tumor outside the pituitary gland produces a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cushing syndrome

Diseases & Conditions
Empty sella syndrome
Empty sella syndrome is a condition in which the pituitary gland shrinks or becomes flattened.

Special Topics
Endocrine glands
Endocrine glands release (secrete) hormones into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands include: AdrenalHypothalamusIslets of Langerhans in the pancreasOvariesParathyroidPinealPituitaryTestesThyroid Adrenal...

Diseases & Conditions
Exogenous Cushing syndrome
Exogenous Cushing syndrome is a form of Cushing syndrome that occurs in people taking glucocorticoid (also called corticosteroid) hormones. Cushing syndrome

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Diseases & Conditions
Factitious hyperthyroidism
Factitious hyperthyroidism is higher-than-normal thyroid hormone levels in the blood that occur from taking too much thyroid hormone medicine.

Tests
Free T4 test
T4 (thyroxine) is the main hormone produced by the thyroid gland. A laboratory test can be done to measure the amount of free T4 in your blood.

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Tests
Gastrin blood test
The gastrin blood test measures the amount of the hormone gastrin in blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Gigantism
Gigantism is abnormal growth due to an excess of growth hormone during childhood. growth hormone

Tests
Glucagon blood test
A glucagon blood test measures the amount of a hormone called glucagon in your blood. Glucagon is produced by cells in the pancreas. It helps control your blood sugar level by increasing blood sugar when...

Tests
Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant
The glucose tolerance test is a lab test to check how your body breaks down sugar. Tests to screen for diabetes during pregnancy are done differently. Tests to screen for diabetes during pregnancy

Diseases & Conditions
Goiter - simple
A simple goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is usually not a tumor or cancer.

Diseases & Conditions
Graves disease
Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). An autoimmune disorder is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy...

Tests
Growth hormone stimulation test
The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH.

Tests
Growth hormone suppression test
The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is being suppressed by high blood sugar.

Tests
Growth hormone test
The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in the blood. The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which causes a child to grow. This gland is located at the base of the brain.

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Symptoms
Heat intolerance
Heat intolerance is a feeling of being overheated when the temperature around you rises. It can often cause heavy sweating. Heat intolerance usually comes on slowly and lasts for a long time, but it may...

Symptoms
Hump behind the shoulders (Dorsocervical fat pad)
A hump behind the shoulders is an area of fat accumulation on the back of the neck. The medical name of this condition is dorsocervical fat pad.

Diseases & Conditions
Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary
Hyperaldosteronism is a disorder in which the adrenal gland releases too much of the hormone aldosterone into the blood. adrenal gland aldosterone Hyperaldosteronism can be primary or secondary.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypercalcemia
Hypercalcemia means you have too much calcium in your blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Hyperparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism is a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in your neck produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH).

Diseases & Conditions
Hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone. The condition is often called overactive thyroid.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypervitaminosis A
Hypervitaminosis A is having too much vitamin A in the body. vitamin A

Diseases & Conditions
Hypervitaminosis D
Hypervitaminosis D is a condition that occurs after taking very high doses of vitamin D. vitamin D

Diseases & Conditions
Hypogonadism
Hypogonadism occurs when the body's sex glands produce little or no hormones. In men, these glands (gonads) are the testes. In women, these glands are the ovaries.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
Hypogonadism is a condition in which the male testes or the female ovaries produce little or no sex hormones. Hypogonadism testes Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a form of hypogonadism that is due...

Diseases & Conditions
Hypoparathyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in the neck do not produce enough parathyroid hormone (PTH).

Diseases & Conditions
Hypopituitarism
Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypothalamic dysfunction
Hypothalamic dysfunction is a problem with part of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus helps control the pituitary gland and regulates many body functions. hypothalamus

Special Topics
Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that produces hormones that control: Body temperatureHungerMoodRelease of hormones from many glands, especially the pituitary glandSex driveSleepThirstHeart rate...

Diseases & Conditions
Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. This condition is often called underactive thyroid.

In-depth Report
Hypothyroidism
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of hypothyroidism.

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Tests
Insulin C-peptide test
C-peptide is a product that is created when the hormone insulin is produced and released into the body. The insulin C-peptide test measures the amount of this product in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Insulinoma
An insulinoma is a tumor in the pancreas that produces too much insulin. tumor

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Diseases & Conditions
Low blood sugar
Low blood sugar is a condition that occurs when the body's blood sugar (glucose) decreases and is too low. Blood sugar below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) is considered low. Blood sugar at or below this level can...

Diseases & Conditions
Low potassium level
Low potassium level is a condition in which the amount of potassium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical name of this condition is hypokalemia.

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Self-Care Instructions
Managing your blood sugar
Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing

Diseases & Conditions
Metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is a name for a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the chance of having coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. coronary artery disease stroke type 2...

Special Topics
Metabolism
Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, such as: BreathingCirculating bloodControlling body temperatureContracting musclesDigesting food and...

Diseases & Conditions
Methylmalonic acidemia
Methylmalonic acidemia is a disorder in which the body cannot break down certain proteins and fats. The result is a buildup of a substance called methylmalonic acid in the blood. This condition is passed...

Diseases & Conditions
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type I is a disease in which one or more of the endocrine glands are overactive or forms a tumor. It is passed down through families. Endocrine glands most commonly involved...

Diseases & Conditions
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II
Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed down through families in which one or more of the endocrine glands are overactive or form a tumor. Endocrine glands most commonly involved...

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Diseases & Conditions
Neonatal hypothyroidism
Neonatal hypothyroidism is decreased thyroid hormone production in a newborn. In very rare cases, no thyroid hormone is produced. The condition is also called congenital hypothyroidism. Congenital means...

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Diseases & Conditions
Obesity
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as being overweight, which means weighing too much. A person may be overweight from extra muscle or water, as well as from having too much fat...

Diseases & Conditions
Osteitis fibrosa
Osteitis fibrosa is a complication of hyperparathyroidism, a condition in which certain bones become abnormally weak and deformed. hyperparathyroidism

Diseases & Conditions
Osteomalacia
Osteomalacia is softening of the bones. It most often occurs because of a problem with vitamin D, which helps your body absorb calcium. Your body needs calcium to maintain the strength and hardness of your...

Diseases & Conditions
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a problem that is sometimes seen in women who take fertility medicines that stimulate egg production.

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Diseases & Conditions
Paget disease of the bone
Paget disease is a disorder that involves abnormal bone destruction and regrowth. This results in deformity of the affected bones.

Diseases & Conditions
Pancreatic islet cell tumor
A pancreatic islet cell tumor is a rare tumor of the pancreas that starts from a type of cell called the islet cell. tumor

Diseases & Conditions
Parathyroid adenoma
A parathyroid adenoma is a noncancerous (benign) tumor of the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are located in the neck, near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland.

Diseases & Conditions
Parathyroid cancer
Parathyroid cancer is a cancerous (malignant) growth in a parathyroid gland. malignant

Tests
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test
The PTH test measures the level of parathyroid hormone in the blood. PTH stands for parathyroid hormone. It is a protein hormone released by the parathyroid gland. A laboratory test can be done to measure...

Tests
Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test
The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein.

Diseases & Conditions
Parathyroid hyperplasia
Parathyroid hyperplasia is the enlargement of all 4 parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are located in the neck, near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland.

Tests
Phosphorus blood test
The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Pituitary apoplexy
Pituitary apoplexy is a rare, but serious condition of the pituitary gland.

Diseases & Conditions
Pituitary tumor
A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. The pituitary is a small gland at the base of the brain. It regulates the body's balance of many hormones.

Tests
Prolactin blood test
Prolactin is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. The prolactin test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Prolactinoma
A prolactinoma is a noncancerous (benign) pituitary tumor that produces a hormone called prolactin. This results in too much prolactin in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Pseudohypoparathyroidism
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a genetic disorder in which the body fails to respond to parathyroid hormone. parathyroid hormone A related condition is hypoparathyroidism, in which the body does not...

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Tests
Radioactive iodine uptake
Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) tests thyroid function. It measures how much radioactive iodine is taken up by your thyroid gland in a certain time period. A similar test is the thyroid scan. The 2 tests...

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Diseases & Conditions
Silent thyroiditis
Silent thyroiditis is an immune reaction of the thyroid gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism, followed by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, just above where your collarbones...

Tests
Sodium blood test
The sodium blood test measures the amount of sodium in the blood. Sodium can also be measured using a urine test. urine test

Diseases & Conditions
Subacute thyroiditis
Subacute thyroiditis is an immune reaction of the thyroid gland that often follows an upper respiratory infection. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, just above where your collarbones meet in the...

Symptoms
Sweating
Sweating is the release of liquid from the body's sweat glands. This liquid contains salt. This process is also called perspiration. Sweating helps your body stay cool. Sweat is commonly found under the...

Diseases & Conditions
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a condition in which the body makes too much antidiuretic hormone (ADH). This hormone helps the kidneys control the amount of water your...

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Tests
T3 test
Triiodothyronine (T3) is a thyroid hormone. It plays an important role in the body's control of metabolism (the many processes the body does to function). A laboratory test can be done to measure the amount...

Tests
T3RU test
The T3RU test measures the level of proteins that carry thyroid hormone in the blood. This can help your health care provider interpret the results of T3 and T4 blood tests. T3 T4 Because tests called the...

Tests
TSH test
A TSH test measures the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland. It tells the thyroid gland to make and release thyroid hormones into the blood...

Tests
TSI test
TSI stands for thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin. TSIs are antibodies that tell the thyroid gland to become more active and release excess amounts of thyroid hormone into the blood. A TSI test measures...

Diseases & Conditions
Testicular failure
Testicular failure occurs when the testicles cannot produce sperm or male hormones, such as testosterone. testicles

Tests
Testosterone
A testosterone test measures the amount of the male hormone, testosterone, in the blood. Both men and women produce this hormone. The test described in this article measures the total amount of testosterone...

Tests
Thyroid function tests
Thyroid function tests are used to tell whether your thyroid is working normally. The most common thyroid function tests are: Total, or free T4 (the main thyroid hormone in your blood)TSH (the hormone from...

Diseases & Conditions
Thyroid nodule
A thyroid nodule is a growth (lump) in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck, just above where your collarbones meet in the middle.

Diseases & Conditions
Thyroid storm
Thyroid storm is a very rare, but life-threatening condition of the thyroid gland that develops in cases of untreated thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid). hyperthyroidism The thyroid...

Diseases & Conditions
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a condition in which there are episodes of muscle weakness. It occurs in people who have high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood (hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis)...

Diseases & Conditions
Toxic nodular goiter
Toxic nodular goiter involves an enlarged thyroid gland. The gland contains areas that have increased in size and formed nodules. One or more of these nodules produce too much thyroid hormone.

Diseases & Conditions
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

Self-Care Instructions
Type 2 diabetes - self-care
Type 2 diabetes - managing

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Type 2 diabetes - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your provider about diabetes - type 2

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Tests
Vasoactive intestinal peptide test
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount of VIP in the blood.

Special Topics
Virilization
Virilization is a condition in which a female develops characteristics associated with male hormones (androgens), or when a newborn has characteristics of male hormone exposure at birth.

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In-depth Report
Weight control and diet
An in-depth report on losing and managing weight safely for health benefits.

Symptoms
Weight gain - unintentional
Unintentional weight gain is when you gain weight without trying to do so and you are not eating or drinking more.