Orthopedics

Orthopedics is the diagnosis and treatment of muscle, bone, and joint conditions. Orthopaedists handle sports injuries, deal with spine abnormalities, and perform partial and total joint replacements, among other issues.

Learn more about orthopaedics at the Mount Sinai Health System

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Surgery
ACL reconstruction
ACL reconstruction is surgery to reconstruct the ligament in the center of your knee. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) keeps your shin bone (tibia) in place. A tear of this ligament can cause your knee...

Discharge Instructions
ACL reconstruction - discharge
You had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of your knee and placed a new ligament through these holes. The new ligament was then attached...

Diseases & Conditions
Achilles tendinitis
Achilles tendinitis occurs when the tendon that connects the back of your leg to your heel becomes swollen and painful near the bottom of the foot. This tendon is called the Achilles tendon. It allows you...

Surgery
Achilles tendon repair
Your Achilles tendon joins your calf muscle to your heel. You can tear your Achilles tendon if you land hard on your heel during sports, from a jump, or when stepping into a hole. Surgery to repair the...

Self-Care Instructions
Achilles tendon rupture - aftercare
Heel cord tear; Calcaneal tendon rupture

Injury
Amputation - traumatic
Traumatic amputation is the loss of a body part -- usually a finger, toe, arm, or leg -- that occurs as the result of an accident or injury.

Diseases & Conditions
Ankle arthroscopy
Ankle arthroscopy is surgery that uses a tiny camera and surgical tools to examine or repair the tissues inside or around your ankle. The camera is called an arthroscope. The procedure allows the doctor...

Self-Care Instructions
Ankle fracture - aftercare
Malleolar fracture; Tri-malleolar; Bi-malleolar; Distal tibia fracture; Distal fibula fracture; Malleolus fracture

Symptoms
Ankle pain
Ankle pain involves any discomfort in one or both ankles.

Surgery
Ankle replacement
Ankle replacement is surgery to replace the damaged bone and cartilage in the ankle joint. Artificial joint parts (prosthetics) are used to replace your own bones. There are different types of ankle replacement...

Discharge Instructions
Ankle replacement - discharge
You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped damaged bones, and put in an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were shown how to treat swelling around your new ankle...

Self-Care Instructions
Ankle sprain - aftercare
Lateral ankle sprain - aftercare; Medial ankle sprain - aftercare; Medial ankle injury - aftercare; Ankle syndesmosis sprain -aftercare; Syndesmosis injury - aftercare; ATFL injury - aftercare; CFL injury...

Injury
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. A tear may be partial or complete.

Self-Care Instructions
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury - aftercare
Cruciate ligament injury - aftercare; ACL injury - aftercare

Diseases & Conditions
Anterior knee pain
Anterior knee pain is pain that occurs at the front and center of the knee. It can be caused by many different problems, including: Chondromalacia of the patella -- the softening and breakdown of the tissue...

Tests
Arm CT scan
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the arm is an imaging method that uses x-rays to make cross-sectional pictures of the arm.

Tests
Arm MRI scan
An arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower arm. This may include the elbow, wrist, hands, fingers, and the surrounding muscles and other tissues...

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Self-Care Instructions
Back pain - returning to work
To help prevent reinjuring your back at work, or hurting it in the first place, follow these tips, learn how to lift the right way, and make changes at work, if needed.

Special Topics
Back pain - when you see the doctor
When you first see your health care provider for back pain, you will be asked about your back pain, including how often and when it occurs and how severe it is. Your provider will try to determine the cause...

In-depth Report
Back pain and sciatica
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of back pain, including sciatica.

Self-Care Instructions
Back pain and sports

Diseases & Conditions
Baker cyst
Baker cyst is a buildup of joint fluid (synovial fluid) that forms a cyst behind the knee.

Discharge Instructions
Blood donation before surgery

Surgery
Bone graft
A bone graft is surgery to place new bone or bone substitutes into spaces around a broken bone or bone defects. broken bone

Tests
Bone lesion biopsy
A bone lesion biopsy is the removal of a piece of bone or bone marrow for examination.

Symptoms
Bone pain or tenderness
Bone pain or tenderness is aching or other discomfort in one or more bones.

Injury
Broken bone
If more pressure is put on a bone than it can stand, it will split or break. A break of any size is called a fracture. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open fracture (compound fracture...

Self-Care Instructions
Broken collarbone - aftercare
Collarbone fracture - aftercare; Clavicle fracture - aftercare; Clavicular fracture

Self-Care Instructions
Broken kneecap - aftercare
A broken kneecap occurs when the small round bone (patella) that sits over the front of your knee joint breaks. Sometimes when a broken kneecap occurs, the patellar or quadriceps tendon can also tear. The...

Self-Care Instructions
Broken toe - self-care
Fractured toe - self-care; Broken bone - toe - self-care; Fracture - toe - self-care; Fracture phalanx - toe

Surgery
Bunion removal
Bunion removal is surgery to treat deformed bones of the big toe and foot. A bunion occurs when the big toe points toward the second toe, forming a bump on the inner side of the foot. Bunion

Discharge Instructions
Bunion removal - discharge
You had surgery to repair a bunion. The surgeon made an incision (cut) in your skin to expose the bones and joint of your big toe. Your surgeon then repaired your deformed toe. You may have screws, wires...

Diseases & Conditions
Bunions
A bunion forms when your big toe points toward the second toe. This causes a bump to appear on the inside edge of your toe.

Diseases & Conditions
Bursitis
Bursitis is the swelling and irritation of a bursa. A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that acts as a cushion between a muscles, tendons, and bones.

Diseases & Conditions
Bursitis of the heel
Bursitis of the heel is swelling of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) at the back of the heel bone.

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Special Topics
Calcium and bones

Tests
Carpal tunnel biopsy
Carpal tunnel biopsy is a test in which a small piece of tissue is removed from the carpal tunnel (part of the wrist).

Surgery
Carpal tunnel release
Carpal tunnel release is surgery to treat carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome is pain and weakness in the hand that is caused by pressure on the median nerve in the wrist. carpal tunnel syndrome

Diseases & Conditions
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which there is excessive pressure on the median nerve. This is the nerve in the wrist that allows feeling and movement to parts of the hand. Carpal tunnel syndrome...

In-depth Report
Carpal tunnel syndrome
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of carpal tunnel syndrome.

Tests
Cervical MRI scan
A cervical MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the spine that runs through the neck area (cervical spine). MRI does not use radiation...

Tests
Cervical spine CT scan
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the cervical spine makes cross-sectional pictures of the neck. It uses x-rays to create the images.

Diseases & Conditions
Cervical spondylosis
Cervical spondylosis is a disorder in which there is wear on the cartilage (disks) and bones of the neck (cervical vertebrae). It is a common cause of chronic neck pain.

Diseases & Conditions
Charley horse
A charley horse is the common name for a muscle spasm or cramp. Muscle spasms can occur in any muscle in the body, but often happen in the leg. When a muscle is in spasm, it contracts without your control...

Discharge Instructions
Chiropractic care for back pain

Symptoms
Claw foot
Claw foot is a deformity of the foot. The toe joint nearest the ankle is bent upward and the other toe joints are bent downward. The toe looks like a claw.

Symptoms
Claw hand
Claw hand is a condition that causes curved or bent fingers. This makes the hand appear like the claw of an animal.

Self-Care Instructions
Closed reduction of a fractured bone
Fracture reduction - closed

Self-Care Instructions
Closed reduction of a fractured bone - aftercare
Fracture reduction - closed - aftercare; Cast care

Self-Care Instructions
Collateral ligament (CL) injury - aftercare
Medial collateral ligament injury - aftercare; MCL injury - aftercare; Lateral collateral ligament injury - aftercare; LCL injury - aftercare

Self-Care Instructions
Colles wrist fracture – aftercare
Distal radius fracture; Broken wrist

Diseases & Conditions
Compartment syndrome
Compartment syndrome is a serious condition that involves increased pressure in a muscle compartment. It can lead to muscle and nerve damage and problems with blood flow.

Diseases & Conditions
Compression fractures of the back
Compression fractures of the back are broken vertebrae. Vertebrae are the bones of the spine.

Self-Care Instructions
Compression stockings
Compression hose; Pressure stockings; Support stockings; Gradient stockings; Varicose veins - compression stockings; Venous insufficiency - compression stockings

Symptoms
Contracture deformity
A contracture develops when the normally stretchy (elastic) tissues are replaced by nonstretchy (inelastic) fiber-like tissue. This tissue makes it hard to stretch the area and prevents normal movement...

Diseases & Conditions
Corns and calluses
Corns and calluses are thick layers of skin. They are caused by repeated pressure or friction at the spot where the corn or callus develops.

Discharge Instructions
Crutches and children - stairs

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Self-Care Instructions
De Quervain tendinitis
Tendinopathy - De Quervain tendinitis; de Quervain tenosynovitis

Self-Care Instructions
Deciding to have knee or hip replacement
There are many ways to help decide to have knee or hip replacement surgery or not. These may include reading about the operation and talking to others with knee or hip problems. A key step is talking to...

Surgery
Diskectomy
Diskectomy is surgery to remove all or part of the cushion that helps support part of your spinal column. These cushions are called disks, and they separate your spinal bones (vertebrae).

Diseases & Conditions
Diskitis
Diskitis is swelling (inflammation) and irritation of the space between the bones of the spine (intervertebral disk space).

Self-Care Instructions
Dislocated shoulder - aftercare
Shoulder dislocation - aftercare; Shoulder subluxation - aftercare; Shoulder reduction - aftercare; Glenohumeral joint dislocation

Injury
Dislocation
A dislocation is a separation of 2 bones where they meet at a joint. Joints are areas where 2 bones come together. A dislocated joint is a joint where the bones are no longer in their normal positions.

Diseases & Conditions
Dupuytren contracture
Dupuytrens contracture is a painless thickening and tightening (contracture) of tissue beneath the skin on the palm of the hand and fingers.

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Symptoms
Elbow pain
This article describes aching or other discomfort in the elbow that is not related to direct injury.

Surgery
Elbow replacement
Elbow replacement is surgery to replace the elbow joint with artificial joint parts (prosthetics). prosthetics

Discharge Instructions
Elbow replacement - discharge
You had surgery to replace your elbow joint with artificial joint parts (prosthetics). The surgeon made a cut (incision) in the back of your upper or lower arm and removed damaged tissue and parts of the...

Self-Care Instructions
Elbow sprain - aftercare
Elbow injury - aftercare; Sprained elbow - aftercare

Surgery
Epidural injections for back pain
An epidural steroid injection (ESI) is the delivery of powerful anti-inflammatory medicine directly into the space outside of the sac of fluid around your spinal cord. This area is called the epidural space...

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Discharge Instructions
Femur fracture repair - discharge
You had a fracture (break) in the femur, also called the thigh bone, in your leg. You may have needed surgery to repair the bone. You may have had surgery called an open reduction internal fixation. In...

Special Topics
Flat bones
Flat bones are made up of a layer of spongy bone between two thin layers of compact bone. They have a flat shape, not rounded. Examples include the skull and rib bones. Flat bones have marrow, but they...

Diseases & Conditions
Flat feet
Flat feet (pes planus) refer to a change in foot shape in which the foot does not have a normal arch when standing.

Discharge Instructions
Foot amputation - discharge
Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge

Symptoms
Foot pain
Pain or discomfort can be felt anywhere in the foot. You may have pain in the heel, toes, arch, instep, or bottom of foot (sole).

In-depth Report
Foot pain
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of foot pain.

Special Topics
Foot pain causes

Self-Care Instructions
Foot sprain - aftercare
Mid-foot sprain

Surgery
Foraminotomy
Foraminotomy is surgery that widens the opening in your back where nerve roots leave your spinal canal. You may have a narrowing of the nerve opening (foraminal stenosis).

Diseases & Conditions
Frozen shoulder
Frozen shoulder is a condition in which the shoulder is painful and loses motion because of inflammation.

Self-Care Instructions
Frozen shoulder - aftercare
Adhesive capsulitis - aftercare; Frozen shoulder syndrome - aftercare; Pericapsulitis - aftercare; Stiff shoulder - aftercare; Shoulder pain - frozen shoulder

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Self-Care Instructions
Getting your home ready - knee or hip surgery
Before you go to the hospital for surgery, set up your home to make your recovery and life easier when you come back. Do this well in advance of your surgery. Ask your doctor, nurse, or physical therapist...

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Self-Care Instructions
Halo brace
Halo orthosis

Diseases & Conditions
Hammer toe
Hammer toe is a deformity of the toe. The end of the toe is bent downward.

Surgery
Hammer toe repair
A hammer toe is a toe that stays in a curled or flexed position. Muscle imbalance, arthritis, or shoes that DO NOT fit well can cause this. Hammer toe can occur in more than one toe.

Discharge Instructions
Hammer toe repair - discharge
You had surgery to repair your hammer toe. Your surgeon made an incision (cut) in your skin to expose your toe joint and bones.Your surgeon then repaired your toe.You may have a wire or pin holding...

Self-Care Instructions
Hamstring strain - aftercare
Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring

Self-Care Instructions
Hand fracture - aftercare
Boxer's fracture - aftercare; Metacarpal fracture - aftercare

Surgery
Hardware removal - extremity
Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help fix a broken bone or to correct an abnormality in a bone. Most often, this involves bones of the legs, arms, or spine. Later, if you have a...

Symptoms
Heel pain

Diseases & Conditions
Herniated disk
A herniated (slipped) disk occurs when all or part of a disk is forced through a weakened part of the disk. This may place pressure on nearby nerves or the spinal cord.

Diseases & Conditions
High arch
High arch is an arch that is raised more than normal. The arch runs from the toes to the heel on the bottom of the foot. It is also called pes cavus. High arch is the opposite of flat feet. flat feet

Surgery
Hip arthroscopy
Hip arthroscopy is surgery that is done by making small cuts around your hip and looking inside using a tiny camera. Other medical instruments may also be inserted to examine or treat your hip joint.

Self-Care Instructions
Hip flexor strain - aftercare
Pulled hip flexor - aftercare; Hip flexor injury - aftercare; Hip flexor tear - aftercare; Iliopsoas strain - aftercare; Strained iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Torn iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Psoas strain...

Discharge Instructions
Hip fracture - discharge
You were in the hospital for surgery to repair a hip fracture, a break in the upper part of your thigh bone. You may have had hip pinning surgery or a special metal plate or rod with screws, called compression...

Surgery
Hip fracture surgery
Hip fracture surgery is done to repair a break in the upper part of the thigh bone. The thigh bone is called the femur. It is part of the hip joint. Hip pain is a related topic. Hip pain

Surgery
Hip joint injection
A hip injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It can also help diagnose the source of hip pain.

Surgery
Hip joint replacement
Hip joint replacement is surgery to replace all or part of the hip joint with a man-made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis. prosthesis

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Hip or knee replacement - after - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor after hip or knee replacement; Hip replacement - after - what to ask your doctor; Knee replacement - after - what to ask your doctor; Hip arthroplasty - after - what to ask your...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Hip or knee replacement - before - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor before hip or knee replacement; Hip replacement - before - what to ask your doctor; Knee replacement - before - what to ask your doctor; Hip arthroplasty - before - what to ask your...

Self-Care Instructions
Hip or knee replacement - in the hospital after
You will stay in the hospital for 2 to 3 days after having hip or knee joint replacement surgery. During that time you will recover from your anesthesia and the surgery.

Symptoms
Hip pain
Hip pain involves any pain in or around the hip joint. You may not feel pain from your hip directly over the hip area. You may feel it in your groin or pain in your thigh or knee.

Discharge Instructions
Hip replacement - discharge
You had a hip joint replacement surgery to replace all or part of your hip joint with an artificial joint. This artificial joint is called a prosthesis.

Special Topics
How to choose the best hospital for surgery
The quality of the health care you receive depends on many things besides the skill of your surgeon. Many health care providers at a hospital will be directly involved in your care before, during, and after...

Injury
How to make a splint
A splint is a device used for holding a part of the body stable to decrease pain and prevent further injury.

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Self-Care Instructions
Iliotibial band syndrome - aftercare
IT band syndrome - aftercare; Iliotibial band friction syndrome - aftercare

J

Symptoms
Joint swelling
Joint swelling is the buildup of fluid in the soft tissue surrounding the joint.

K

Tests
Knee CT scan
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the knee is a test that uses x-rays to take detailed images of the knee.

Tests
Knee MRI scan
A knee MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the knee joint and muscles and tissues. An MRI does not use radiation (x-rays). Single MRI images are called...

Surgery
Knee arthroscopy
Knee arthroscopy is surgery that uses a tiny camera to look inside your knee. Small cuts are made to insert the camera and small surgical tools into your knee for the procedure.

Discharge Instructions
Knee arthroscopy - discharge
You had surgery to check for problems in your knee (knee arthroscopy). You may have been checked for: Torn meniscus. Meniscus is cartilage that cushions the space between the bones in the knee. Surgery...

Self-Care Instructions
Knee braces - unloading
When most people talk about the arthritis in their knees, they are referring to a type of arthritis called osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear inside your knee joints. Cartilage, the...

Surgery
Knee joint replacement
Knee joint replacement is a surgery to replace a knee joint with a man-made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis. prosthesis

Discharge Instructions
Knee joint replacement - discharge
You had knee replacement surgery to replace all or part of the bones that make up your knee joint. Your surgeon removed and reshaped your damaged bones, then put your new artificial knee joint in place...

Surgery
Knee microfracture surgery
Knee microfracture surgery is a common procedure used to repair damaged knee cartilage. Cartilage helps cushion and cover the area where bones meet in the joints.

Symptoms
Knee pain
Knee pain is a common symptom in people of all ages. It may start suddenly, often after an injury or exercise. Knee pain also may begin as a mild discomfort, then slowly get worse.

Injury
Kneecap dislocation
Kneecap dislocation occurs when the triangle-shaped bone covering the knee (patella) moves or slides out of place. The problem usually occurs toward the outside of the leg.

Self-Care Instructions
Kneecap dislocation - aftercare
Your kneecap (patella) sits over the front of your knee joint. As you bend or straighten your knee, the underside of your kneecap glides over a groove in the bones that make up your knee joint. A kneecap...

Diseases & Conditions
Knock knees
Knock knees is a condition in which the knees touch, but the ankles do not touch. The legs turn inward.

Surgery
Kyphoplasty
Kyphoplasty is used to treat painful compression fractures in the spine. In a compression fracture, all or part of a spine bone collapses. The procedure is also called balloon kyphoplasty.

Diseases & Conditions
Kyphosis
Kyphosis is a curving of the spine that causes a bowing or rounding of the back, which leads to a hunchback or slouching posture.

L

Surgery
Laminectomy
Laminectomy is surgery to remove the lamina. This is part of the bone that makes up a vertebra in the spine. Laminectomy may also be done to remove bone spurs in your spine. The procedure can take pressure...

Special Topics
Lateral traction
Lateral traction is a treatment technique in which weight or tension is used to move a body part to the side or away from its original location.

Tests
Leg CT scan
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the leg makes cross-sectional pictures of the leg. It uses x-rays to create the images.

Tests
Leg MRI scan
A leg MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may include the ankle, foot, and surrounding tissues. A leg MRI also creates pictures of the...

Discharge Instructions
Leg amputation - discharge
Amputation - leg - discharge; Below knee amputation - discharge; BK amputation - discharge; Above knee - discharge; AK - discharge; Trans-femoral amputation - discharge; Trans-tibial amputation - discharge

Surgery
Leg or foot amputation
Leg or foot amputation is the removal of a leg, foot or toes from the body. These body parts are called extremities. Amputations are done either by surgery or they occur by accident or trauma to the body...

Self-Care Instructions
Lifting and bending the right way
Nonspecific back pain - lifting; Backache - lifting; Sciatica - lifting; Lumbar pain - lifting; Chronic back pain - lifting; Herniated disk - lifting; Slipped disk - lifting

Symptoms
Limited range of motion
Limited range of motion is a term meaning that a joint or body part cannot move through its normal range of motion.

Special Topics
Long bones
Long bones are hard, dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility. The thigh bone (femur) is a long bone. A long bone has a shaft and two ends. Some bones in the fingers are classified as...

Diseases & Conditions
Low back pain - acute
Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your lower back. You may also have back stiffness, decreased movement of the lower back, and difficulty standing straight. Acute back pain can last for a few...

Diseases & Conditions
Low back pain - chronic
Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your lower back. You may also have back stiffness, decreased movement of the lower back, and difficulty standing straight. Low back pain that is long-term is...

Tests
Lumbar MRI scan
A lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the lower part of the spine (lumbar spine). An MRI does not use radiation (x-rays). Single MRI images...

Tests
Lumbar spine CT scan
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the lumbar spine makes cross-sectional pictures of the lower back (lumbar spine). It uses x-rays to create the images.

M

Special Topics
MRI and low back pain
Back pain and sciatica are common health complaints. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Most of the time, the exact cause of the pain cannot be found. Back pain sciatica An MRI scan...

Self-Care Instructions
Mallet finger - aftercare
Baseball finger - aftercare; Drop finger - aftercare; Avulsion fracture - mallet finger - aftercare

Diseases & Conditions
Medial epicondylitis - golfer's elbow
Medial epicondylitis is soreness or pain on the inside of the lower arm near the elbow. It is commonly called golfer’s elbow.

Special Topics
Medications for back pain
Back pain often goes away on its own over several weeks. In some people, back pain persists. It may not go away completely or it may get more painful at times. Medicines can also help with your back pain...

Surgery
Meniscal allograft transplantation
Meniscal allograft transplantation is surgery in which a meniscus -- a cartilage ring in the knee -- is placed into your knee. The new meniscus is taken from a person who has died (cadaver) and donated...

Self-Care Instructions
Meniscus tears - aftercare
Knee cartilage tear - aftercare

Discharge Instructions
Metatarsal fracture (acute) - aftercare
The metatarsal bones are the long bones in your foot that connect your ankle to your toes. They also help you balance when you stand and walk. A sudden blow or severe twist of your foot, or overuse, can...

Self-Care Instructions
Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare
Broken foot bone; March fracture; March foot; Jones fracture

Diseases & Conditions
Metatarsus adductus
Metatarsus adductus is a foot deformity. The bones in the front half of the foot bend or turn in toward the body.

Surgery
Minimally invasive hip replacement
Minimally invasive hip replacement is a technique used to perform hip replacement surgeries. It uses a smaller surgical cut. Also, fewer muscles around the hip are cut or detached.

Diseases & Conditions
Morton neuroma
Morton neuroma is an injury to the nerve between the toes, which causes thickening and pain. It commonly affects the nerve that travels between the third and fourth toes.

Tests
Muscle biopsy
A muscle biopsy is the removal of a small piece of muscle tissue for examination.

Special Topics
Muscle strain treatment
Question: How do you treat a muscle strain? muscle strain Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen (Tylenol) also...

N

Symptoms
Neck pain
Neck pain is discomfort in any of the structures in the neck. These include the muscles, nerves, bones (vertebrae), joints, and the discs between the bones.

Self-Care Instructions
Neck pain or spasms - self care
Pain - neck-self-care; Neck stiffness-self-care; Cervicalgia-self-care; Whiplash-self-care

O

Special Topics
Orthopedic services
Orthopedics, or orthopedic services, aim at the treatment of the musculoskeletal system. This includes your bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.

Diseases & Conditions
Osgood-Schlatter disease
Osgood-Schlatter disease is a painful swelling of the bump on the upper part of the shinbone, just below the knee. This bump is called the anterior tibial tubercle.

Diseases & Conditions
Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder. It is due to aging and wear and tear on a joint.

In-depth Report
Osteoarthritis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the most common form of arthritis.

Diseases & Conditions
Osteonecrosis
Osteonecrosis is bone death caused by poor blood supply. It is most common in the hip and shoulder, but can affect other large joints such as the knee, elbow, wrist and ankle.

Surgery
Osteotomy of the knee
Osteotomy of the knee is surgery that involves making a cut in one of the bones in your lower leg. This can be done to relieve symptoms of arthritis by realignment of your leg.

P

Surgery
Partial knee replacement
A partial knee replacement is surgery to replace only one part of a damaged knee. It can replace either the inside (medial) part, the outside (lateral) part, or the kneecap part of the knee. Surgery to...

Special Topics
Periosteum
The periosteum is a fibrous sheath that covers bones. It contains the blood vessels and nerves that provide nourishment and sensation to the bone.

Self-Care Instructions
Phantom limb pain
Amputation - phantom limb

Self-Care Instructions
Pin care
Broken bone - rod care; Broken bone - nail care; Broken bone - screw care

Self-Care Instructions
Piriformis syndrome
Pseudosciatica; Wallet sciatica; Hip socket neuropathy; Pelvic outlet syndrome; Low back pain - piriformis

Diseases & Conditions
Plantar fasciitis
The plantar fascia is the thick tissue on the bottom of the foot. It connects the heel bone to the toes and creates the arch of the foot. When this tissue becomes swollen or inflamed, it is called plantar...

Self-Care Instructions
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury - aftercare
Cruciate ligament injury - aftercare; PCL injury - aftercare

Q

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Questions to ask your doctor after knee replacement
What to ask your doctor after knee replacement; Knee replacement - after - what to ask your doctor; Knee arthroplasty - after - what to ask your doctor

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Questions to ask your doctor before knee replacement
How do I know if knee replacement surgery will help me? Is there any harm in waiting?Am I too young or too old for knee replacement?What else can be done for knee arthritis besides surgery?What is minimally...

R

Self-Care Instructions
Radial head fracture - aftercare
Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare

Surgery
Repair of webbed fingers or toes
Repair of webbed fingers or toes is surgery to fix webbing of the toes, fingers, or both. The middle and ring fingers or the second and third toes are most often affected. webbed fingers or toes

Surgery
Replantation of digits
Replantation of digits is surgery to reattach fingers or toes that have been cut off (amputated).

Self-Care Instructions
Returning to sports after a back injury
Back injury - returning to sports; Sciatica - returning to sports; Herniated disc - returning to sports; Herniated disk - returning to sports; Spinal stenosis - returning to sports; Back pain - returning...

Discharge Instructions
Risks of hip and knee replacement
All surgeries have risks for complications. Knowing what these risks are and how they apply to you is part of deciding whether or not to have surgery. You can help lower your chances of risks from surgery...

Self-Care Instructions
Rotator cuff - self-care
The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that attach to the bones of the shoulder joint, allowing the shoulder to move and remain stable. Common rotator cuff problems include: Tendinitis, which...

Self-Care Instructions
Rotator cuff exercises
The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that attach to the bones of the shoulder joint, allowing the shoulder to move and keeping it stable. The tendons of the rotator cuff pass underneath a...

Diseases & Conditions
Rotator cuff problems
The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that attach to the bones of the shoulder joint, allowing the shoulder to move and keeping it stable. Rotator cuff tendinitis refers to irritation of these...

Surgery
Rotator cuff repair
Rotator cuff repair is surgery to repair a torn tendon in the shoulder. The procedure can be done with a large (open) incision or with shoulder arthroscopy, which uses small buttonhole-sized incisions....

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Self-Care Instructions
Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare
SIJ pain - aftercare; SIJ dysfunction - aftercare; SIJ strain - aftercare; SIJ subluxation -aftercare; SIJ syndrome - aftercare

Diseases & Conditions
Sciatica
Sciatica refers to pain, weakness, numbness, or tingling in the leg. It is caused by injury to or pressure on the sciatic nerve. Sciatica is a symptom of another medical problem. It is not a medical condition...

In-depth Report
Scoliosis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of scoliosis.

Surgery
Scoliosis surgery - child
Scoliosis surgery repairs abnormal curving of the spine (scoliosis). The goal is to safely straighten your child's spine and align your child's shoulders and hips to correct your child's back problem. scoliosis

Self-Care Instructions
Shin splints - self-care
Shin splints occurs when you have pain in the front of your lower leg. The pain of shin splints is from the inflammation of the muscles, tendons, and bone tissue around your shin. Shin splints are a common...

Special Topics
Short bones
Short bones in the human body are often cube-like, their length, width, and height are all about the same. Short bones include the carpal bones of the hands and wrist, and the tarsal bones of the feet and...

Tests
Shoulder CT scan
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the shoulder is an imaging method that uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the shoulder.

Tests
Shoulder MRI scan
A shoulder MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan is an imaging test that uses energy from powerful magnets and to create pictures of the shoulder area. It does not use radiation (x-rays). Single MRI images...

Surgery
Shoulder arthroscopy
Shoulder arthroscopy is surgery that uses a tiny camera called an arthroscope to examine or repair the tissues inside or around your shoulder joint. The arthroscope is inserted through a small cut (incision...

Symptoms
Shoulder pain
Shoulder pain is any pain in or around the shoulder joint.

Surgery
Shoulder replacement
Shoulder replacement is surgery to replace the bones of the shoulder joint with artificial joint parts.

Discharge Instructions
Shoulder replacement - discharge
You had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder joint with artificial joint parts. The parts include a stem made of metal and a metal ball that fits on the top of the stem. A...

Discharge Instructions
Shoulder surgery - discharge
You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your shoulder joint. The surgeon may have used a tiny camera called an arthroscope to see inside your shoulder. You may have needed open surgery...

Discharge Instructions
Skiers thumb - aftercare
With this injury, the main ligament in your thumb is stretched or torn. The ligament is a strong fiber that attaches one bone to another bone. This injury can be caused by any kind of fall with your thumb...

Injury
Smashed fingers
Smashed fingers is an injury involving trauma to one or more fingers.

Surgery
Spinal cord stimulation
Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses a mild electric current to block nerve impulses in the spine.

Surgery
Spinal fusion
Spinal fusion is surgery to permanently join together two or more bones in the spine so there is no movement between them. These bones are called vertebrae.

Injury
Spinal injury
The spinal cord contains the nerves that carry messages between your brain and body. The cord passes through your neck and back. A spinal cord injury is very serious because it can cause loss of movement...

Diseases & Conditions
Spinal stenosis
Spinal stenosis is narrowing of the spinal column that causes pressure on the spinal cord, or narrowing of the openings (called neural foramina) where spinal nerves leave the spinal column.

Discharge Instructions
Spine surgery - discharge
You were in the hospital for spine surgery. You probably had a problem with one or more disk, a cushion that separates the bones in your spine (vertebrae). You may have had one of these surgeries: Diskectomy...

Diseases & Conditions
Spondylolisthesis
Spondylolisthesis is a condition in which a bone (vertebra) in the spine moves forward out of the proper position onto the bone below it.

Injury
Sprains
A sprain is an injury to the ligaments around a joint. Ligaments are strong, flexible fibers that hold bones together. When a ligament is stretched too far or tears, the joint will become painful and swell...

Self-Care Instructions
Stay active and exercise - arthritis

Surgery
Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint
A steroid injection is a shot of medicine used to relieve a swollen or inflamed area that is often painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa.

Injury
Strains
A strain is when a muscle is stretched too much and tears. It is also called a pulled muscle. A strain is a painful injury. It can be caused by an accident, overusing a muscle, or using a muscle in the...

Tests
Synovial biopsy
A synovial biopsy is the removal of a piece of tissue lining a joint for examination. The tissue is called the synovial membrane.

Tests
Synovial fluid analysis
Synovial fluid analysis is a group of tests that examine joint (synovial) fluid. The tests help diagnose and treat joint-related problems.

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Injury
Tailbone trauma
Tailbone trauma is an injury to the small bone at the lower tip of the spine.

Self-Care Instructions
Tailbone trauma - aftercare
The tailbone, or coccyx, is made up of three to five small bones. It is at the base of your spine. When you have a tailbone injury, you have bruised or fractured one of these bones.

Self-Care Instructions
Taking care of your new hip joint
After you have hip replacement surgery, you will need to be careful how you move your hip, especially for the first few months after surgery. In time, you should be able to return to your previous level...

Self-Care Instructions
Taking care of your new knee joint
After you have knee replacement surgery, you will need to be careful about how you move your knee, especially for the first few months after surgery. In time, you should be able to return to your previous...

Diseases & Conditions
Tendinitis
Tendinitis is inflammation, irritation, and swelling of a tendon. This is the fibrous structure that joins muscle to bone. In many cases, tendinosis (tendon degeneration) is also present.

Surgery
Tendon repair
Tendon repair is surgery to repair damaged or torn tendons.

Diseases & Conditions
Tennis elbow
Tennis elbow is soreness or pain on the outside (lateral) side of the upper arm near the elbow.

Surgery
Tennis elbow surgery
Tennis elbow is caused by doing the same forceful arm movements over and over. It creates small, painful tears in the tendons in your elbow. This injury can be caused by tennis, other racquet sports, and...

Discharge Instructions
Tennis elbow surgery - discharge
Lateral epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Tenosynovitis
Tenosynovitis is inflammation of the lining of the sheath that surrounds a tendon (the cord that joins muscle to bone).

Self-Care Instructions
The night before your surgery

Tests
Thoracic spine CT scan
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the thoracic spine is an imaging method. This uses x-rays to rapidly create detailed pictures of the middle back (thoracic spine).

Special Topics
Tibia
The tibia is the larger of 2 long bones in the lower leg. It is sometimes called the shin bone.

Diseases & Conditions
Toxic synovitis
Toxic synovitis is a condition affecting children that causes hip pain and limping. hip pain

Special Topics
Traction
Traction means pulling on part of the body. Most often, traction uses devices such as weights and pulleys to put tension on a displaced bone or joint, such as a dislocated shoulder. The tension helps put...

Self-Care Instructions
Trigger finger
Digital stenosing tenosynovitis; Trigger digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis

Self-Care Instructions
Trochanteric bursitis
Bursitis of the hip; Hip bursitis

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Self-Care Instructions
Using a cane

Self-Care Instructions
Using a walker

Discharge Instructions
Using crutches

Self-Care Instructions
Using your shoulder after replacement surgery
You have had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder joint with artificial parts. The parts include a stem made of metal and a metal ball that fits on the top of the stem. A plastic...

Self-Care Instructions
Using your shoulder after surgery
You had surgery on your shoulder to repair a muscle, tendon, or cartilage tear. The surgeon may have removed damaged tissue. You will need to know how to take care of your shoulder as it heals, and how...

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Surgery
Vertebroplasty
Vertebroplasty is often an outpatient procedure used to treat painful compression fractures in the spine. In a compression fracture, all or part of a spine bone collapses.

Diseases & Conditions
Volkmann ischemic contracture
Volkmann contracture is a deformity of the hand, fingers, and wrist caused by injury to the muscles of the forearm.

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Diseases & Conditions
Wrist arthroscopy
Wrist arthroscopy is surgery that uses a tiny camera and surgical tools to examine or repair the tissues inside or around your wrist. The camera is called an arthroscope. The procedure allows the doctor...

Symptoms
Wrist pain
Wrist pain is any pain or discomfort in the wrist.

Self-Care Instructions
Wrist sprain - aftercare
Scapholunate ligament sprain - aftercare