Neuropathy - common peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy
Common peroneal nerve dysfunction is damage to the peroneal nerve leading to loss of movement or sensation in the foot and leg.
The peroneal nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve, which supplies movement and sensation to the lower leg, foot and toes. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction is a type of peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain or spinal cord). This condition can affect people of any age.
Dysfunction of a single nerve, such as the common peroneal nerve, is called a mononeuropathy. Mononeuropathy means the nerve damage occurred in one area. Certain body-wide conditions can also cause single nerve injuries.
Damage to the nerve disrupts the myelin sheath that covers the axon (branch of the nerve cell). The axon can also be injured, which causes more severe symptoms.
Common causes of damage to the peroneal nerve include the following:
Common peroneal nerve injury is often seen in people:
When the nerve is injured and results in dysfunction, symptoms may include:
Examination of the legs may show:
Tests of nerve activity include:
What other tests are done depend on the suspected cause of nerve dysfunction, and the person's symptoms and how they develop. Tests may include blood tests, x-rays and scans.
Treatment aims to improve mobility and independence. Any illness or other cause of the neuropathy should be treated. Padding the knee may prevent further injury by crossing the legs, while also serving as a reminder to not cross your legs.
In some cases, corticosteroids injected into the area may reduce swelling and pressure on the nerve.
You may need surgery if:
Surgery to relieve pressure on the nerve may reduce symptoms if the disorder is caused by pressure on the nerve. Surgery to remove tumors on the nerve may also help.
You may need over-the-counter or prescription pain relievers to control pain. Other medicines that may be used to reduce pain include gabapentin, carbamazepine, or tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline.
If your pain is severe, a pain specialist can help you explore all options for pain relief.
Physical therapy exercises may help you maintain muscle strength.
Vocational counseling, occupational therapy, or similar programs may help you maximize your mobility and independence.
Outcome depends on the cause of the problem. Successfully treating the cause may relieve the dysfunction, although it may take several months for the nerve to improve.
If nerve damage is severe, disability may be permanent. The nerve pain may be very uncomfortable. This disorder does NOT usually shorten a person's expected lifespan.
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of common peroneal nerve dysfunction.
Avoid crossing your legs or putting long-term pressure on the back or side of the knee. Treat injuries to the leg or knee right away.
If a cast, splint, dressing, or other pressure on the lower leg causes a tight feeling or numbness, call your provider.
King JC. Peroneal neuropathy. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 75.
Peroneal neuropathy. In: Preston DC, Shapiro BE, eds. Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 22.
Last reviewed on: 8/13/2015
Reviewed by: Joseph V. Campellone, MD, Division of Neurology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.