Urology

Urology is the branch of medicine that at focuses on diseases of the male and female urinary tract and male reproductive organs. Some of the most common conditions are cancer of the prostate, bladder, kidneys, or testes; kidney stones; fertility problems; and sexual concerns.

Learn more about urology at the Mount Sinai Health System

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A

Special Topics
Aging changes in the male reproductive system
Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, and erectile function. These changes usually occur gradually.

B

Diseases & Conditions
Balanitis
Balanitis is swelling of the foreskin and head of the penis.

In-depth Report
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
An in-depth report about the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Tests
Bladder biopsy
Bladder biopsy is a procedure in which small pieces of tissue are removed from the bladder. The tissue is tested under a microscope. biopsy

Surgery
Bladder exstrophy repair
Bladder exstrophy repair is surgery to repair a birth defect of the bladder. The bladder is inside out. It sticks out of the abdominal wall. The pelvic bones are also separated.

Diseases & Conditions
Bladder outlet obstruction
Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is a blockage at the base of the bladder. It reduces or stops the flow of urine into the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine out of the body.

Diseases & Conditions
Bladder stones
Bladder stones are hard buildups of minerals. These form in the urinary bladder.

Symptoms
Blood in the semen
Blood in the semen is called hematospermia. It may be in amounts too small to be seen except with a microscope, or it may be visible in the ejaculation fluid.

C

Diseases & Conditions
Catheter-related UTI
A catheter is a tube in your bladder that removes urine from the body. This tube may stay in place for an extended period of time. If so, it is called an indwelling catheter. The urine drains from your...

Self-Care Instructions
Changing your urostomy pouch
Urinary pouch; Urinary appliancepasting; Urinary diversion - urostomy pouch; Cystectomy - urostomy pouch

Tests
Clean catch urine sample
A clean catch is a method of collecting a urine sample to be tested. The clean-catch urine method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample.

Special Topics
Could you have low testosterone?
Male menopause; Andropause; Testosterone deficiency; Androgen deficiency of the aging male; Late-onset hypogonadism

Diseases & Conditions
Curvature of the penis
Curvature of the penis is an abnormal bend in the penis that occurs during erection. It is also called Peyronie's disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Cystitis - acute
Acute cystitis is an infection of the bladder or lower urinary tract. Acute means that the infection begins suddenly.

Diseases & Conditions
Cystitis - noninfectious
Cystitis is a problem in which pain, pressure, or burning in the bladder is present. Most often, this problem is caused by germs such as bacteria. Cystitis may also be present when there is no infection...

Tests
Cystometric study
Cystometric study measures the amount of fluid in the bladder when you first feel the need to urinate, when you are able to sense fullness, and when your bladder is completely full.

Tests
Cystoscopy
Cystoscopy is a surgical procedure. This is performed to see the inside of the bladder and urethra using a telescope.

D

Diseases & Conditions
Delayed ejaculation
Delayed ejaculation is a medical condition in which a male cannot ejaculate. It may occur either during intercourse or by manual stimulation with or without a partner. Ejaculation is when semen is released...

E

Diseases & Conditions
Enlarged prostate
The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that carries sperm during ejaculation. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube through which urine passes out of the body. An enlarged prostate...

Self-Care Instructions
Enlarged prostate - after care
The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that carries sperm during ejaculation. It surrounds the tube through which urine passes out of the body (the urethra). An enlarged prostate means the gland...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Enlarged prostate - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about enlarged prostate; Benign prostatic hypertrophy - what to ask your doctor; BPH - what to ask your doctor

Diseases & Conditions
Epididymitis
Epididymitis is swelling (inflammation) of the tube that connects the testicle with the vas deferens. The tube is called the epididymis.

Diseases & Conditions
Epispadias
Epispadias is a rare defect that is present at birth The urethra is the tube that carries urine out of the body from the bladder. In this condition, the urethra does not develop into a full tube. The urine...

In-depth Report
Erectile dysfunction
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of erectile dysfunction.

Self-Care Instructions
Erection problems - aftercare
You have seen your health care provider for erection problems. You may be unable to get an erection at all. Or you may prematurely lose the erection during intercourse. If the condition persists, the medical...

F

Symptoms
Frequent or urgent urination
Frequent urination means needing to urinate more often than usual. Urgent urination is a sudden, strong urge to urinate. This causes a discomfort in your bladder.  Urgent urination makes it difficult to...

G

Injury
Genital injury
A genital injury is an injury to male or female sex organs, especially those outside the body. It also refers to injury in the area between the legs, called the perineum.

Symptoms
Groin pain
Groin pain refers to discomfort in the area where the abdomen ends and the legs begin. This article focuses on groin pain in men. The terms "groin" and "testicle" are sometimes used interchangeably. But...

H

Diseases & Conditions
Hydrocele
A hydrocele is a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum. scrotum

Surgery
Hydrocele repair
Hydrocele repair is surgery to correct the swelling of the scrotum that occurs when you have a hydrocele. A hydrocele is the backup of fluid around a testicle. scrotum hydrocele Baby boys sometimes have...

Diseases & Conditions
Hydronephrosis of one kidney
Hydronephrosis is swelling of one kidney due to a backup of urine. This problem may occur in one kidney.

Diseases & Conditions
Hypospadias
Hypospadias is a birth (congenital) defect in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis. The urethra is the tube that drains urine from the bladder. In males, the opening of the...

Surgery
Hypospadias repair
Hypospadias repair is surgery to correct a defect in the opening of the penis that is present at birth. The urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body) does not end at...

Discharge Instructions
Hypospadias repair - discharge
Your child had hypospadias repair to fix a birth defect in which the urethra does not end at the tip of the penis. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. The type...

I

Special Topics
Incontinence - resources

Self-Care Instructions
Indwelling catheter care
You have an indwelling catheter (tube) in your bladder. "Indwelling" means inside your body. This catheter drains urine from your bladder into a bag outside your body. Common reasons to have an indwelling...

In-depth Report
Infertility in men
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of male infertility.

Surgery
Inflatable artificial sphincter
Sphincters are muscles that allow your body to hold in urine. An inflatable artificial (man-made) sphincter is a medical device. This device keeps urine from leaking. It is used when your urinary sphincter...

Diseases & Conditions
Injury - kidney and ureter
Injury to the kidney and ureter is damage to the organs of the upper urinary tract.

Diseases & Conditions
Interstitial cystitis
Interstitial cystitis is a long-term (chronic) problem in which pain, pressure, or burning is present in the bladder. It is also called painful bladder syndrome.

K

Self-Care Instructions
Kegel exercises - self-care
Kegel exercises can help make the muscles under the uterus, bladder, and bowel (large intestine) stronger. They can help both men and women who have problems with urine leakage or bowel control. You may...

Surgery
Kidney removal
Kidney removal, or nephrectomy, is surgery to remove all or part of a kidney. It may involve: Part of one kidney removed (partial nephrectomy)All of one kidney removed (simple nephrectomy)Removal of one...

Discharge Instructions
Kidney removal - discharge
You had surgery to remove part of one kidney or the entire kidney, the lymph nodes near it, and maybe your adrenal gland. You may have an 8- to 12-inch (20- to 30-centimeters) surgical cut over your belly...

Diseases & Conditions
Kidney stones
A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. One or more stones can be in the kidney or ureter at the same time.

In-depth Report
Kidney stones
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of kidney stones.

Discharge Instructions
Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge
You had lithotripsy, a medical procedure that uses high frequency sound (shock) waves to break up stones in your kidney, bladder, or ureter (the tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder...

Self-Care Instructions
Kidney stones - self-care
You visited your health care provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care steps. Which steps you take depend on the type of stone you have, but they may include...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor
Nephrolithiasis - what to ask your doctor; Renal calculi - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about kidney stones

Surgery
Kidney transplant
A kidney transplant is surgery to place a healthy kidney into a person with kidney failure. kidney failure

L

Surgery
Lithotripsy
Lithotripsy is a procedure that uses shock waves to break up stones in the kidney, bladder, or ureter (tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder). After the procedure, the tiny pieces of...

M

Diseases & Conditions
Meatal stenosis
Meatal stenosis is a narrowing of the opening of the urethra, the tube through which urine leaves the body.

O

Diseases & Conditions
Obstructive uropathy
Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which the flow of urine is blocked. This causes the urine to back up back up and injure one or both kidneys.

Diseases & Conditions
Orchitis
Orchitis is swelling (inflammation) of one or both of the testicles. testicles

P

Diseases & Conditions
Paraphimosis
Paraphimosis occurs when the foreskin of an uncircumcised male cannot be pulled back over the head of the penis.

Surgery
Patent urachus repair
Patent urachus repair is surgery to fix a bladder defect. In an open (or patent) urachus, there is an opening between the bladder and the belly button (navel). The urachus is a tube between the bladder...

Tests
Pelvic ultrasound - abdominal
A pelvic (transabdominal) ultrasound is an imaging test. It is used to examine organs in the pelvis.

Special Topics
Penis
The penis is the male organ used for urination and sexual intercourse. The penis is located above the scrotum. It is made of spongy tissue and blood vessels. scrotum The shaft of the penis surrounds the...

Symptoms
Penis pain
Penis pain is any pain or discomfort in the penis. penis

Surgery
Percutaneous urinary procedures
Percutaneous (through the skin) urinary procedures help drain urine from your bladder and get rid of kidney stones. kidney stones

Discharge Instructions
Percutaneous urinary procedures - discharge
You had percutaneous (through the skin) urinary procedures to help drain urine from your kidney and get rid of kidney stones. If you had a percutaneous nephrostomy, the health care provider inserted a small...

Diseases & Conditions
Premature ejaculation
Premature ejaculation is when a man has an orgasm sooner during intercourse than desired.

Tests
Prostate biopsy
A prostate biopsy is the removal of tiny samples of prostate tissue to examine it for signs of prostate cancer. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized gland just under the bladder. It wraps around the urethra...

Surgery
Prostate brachytherapy
Brachytherapy is a procedure to implant radioactive seeds (pellets) into the prostate gland to kill prostate cancer cells. The seeds may give off high or low amounts of radiation. prostate cancer

Discharge Instructions
Prostate brachytherapy - discharge
You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, depending on the type of treatment you had. Before your treatment started, you were given medicine...

Diseases & Conditions
Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small, walnut-shaped structure that makes up part of a man's reproductive system. It wraps around the urethra, the tube that...

In-depth Report
Prostate cancer
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of prostate cancer.

Discharge Instructions
Prostate cancer - treatment

Discharge Instructions
Prostate cancer staging

Discharge Instructions
Prostate radiation - discharge
Your body undergoes many changes when you have radiation treatment for cancer. You may have the following side effects about 2 to 3 weeks after your first radiation treatment: Skin problems. The skin over...

Surgery
Prostate resection - minimally invasive
Minimally invasive prostate resection is surgery to remove part of the prostate gland. It is done to treat an enlarged prostate. The surgery will improve the flow of urine through the urethra, the tube...

Discharge Instructions
Prostate resection - minimally invasive - discharge
You had minimally invasive prostate resection surgery to remove part of your prostate gland because it was enlarged. Your procedure was done in your health care provider's office or at an outpatient surgery...

Tests
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by prostate cells. The PSA test is done to help diagnose and follow prostate cancer in men.

Diseases & Conditions
Prostatitis - bacterial
Prostatitis is swelling of the prostate gland. Prostate tissue becomes inflamed. This problem can be caused by an infection with bacteria. Acute prostatitis starts quickly and chronic prostatitis lasts...

Diseases & Conditions
Prostatitis - nonbacterial
Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis causes long-term pain and urinary symptoms. It involves the prostate gland or other parts of a man's lower urinary tract or genital area. This condition is not caused by...

Self-Care Instructions
Prostatitis- bacterial - self-care
You have been diagnosed with bacterial prostatitis. This is an infection of the prostate gland.

R

Surgery
Radical prostatectomy
Radical prostatectomy (prostate removal) is surgery to remove all of the prostate gland and some of the tissue around it. It is done to treat prostate cancer. prostate cancer

Discharge Instructions
Radical prostatectomy - discharge
You had surgery to remove all of your prostate, some tissue near your prostate, and probably some lymph nodes. This was done to treat prostate cancer. Your surgeon may have made an incision (cut) either...

Diseases & Conditions
Retrograde ejaculation
Retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen enters the bladder instead of going out through the urethra during ejaculation.

Diseases & Conditions
Retroperitoneal fibrosis
Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare disorder that blocks the tubes (ureters) that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

Surgery
Robotic surgery
Robotic surgery is a method to perform surgery using very small tools attached to a robotic arm. The surgeon controls the robotic arm with a computer.

S

Diseases & Conditions
Scrotal masses
A scrotal mass is a lump or bulge that can be felt in the scrotum. The scrotum is the sac that contains the testicles.

Symptoms
Scrotal swelling
Scrotal swelling is abnormal enlargement of the scrotum. This is the name for the sac surrounding the testicles.

Special Topics
Scrotum
The scrotum is a part of a male's body that is located behind the penis. The scrotum is the sac (pouch) that contains the testes, epididymis, and the lower part of the spermatic cord (blood vessels and...

Self-Care Instructions
Self catheterization - female
Clean intermittent catheterization - female; CIC - female

Self-Care Instructions
Self catheterization - male
Clean intermittent catheterization - male; CIC - male

Tests
Semen analysis
Semen analysis measures the amount and quality of a man's semen and sperm. Semen is the thick, white fluid released during ejaculation that contains sperm. This test is sometimes called a sperm count.

Surgery
Spinal and epidural anesthesia
Spinal and epidural anesthesia are medicines that numb parts of your body to block pain. They are given through shots in or around the spine.

Self-Care Instructions
Suprapubic catheter care
A suprapubic catheter (tube) drains urine from your bladder. It is inserted into your bladder through a small hole in your belly. You may need a catheter because you have urinary incontinence (leakage)...

T

Special Topics
Testes
The testes are 2 egg-shaped male reproductive organs located in the scrotum. They produce sperm and the male hormone, testosterone. scrotum testosterone

Symptoms
Testicle lump
A testicle lump is swelling or a growth (mass) in one or both testicles.

Symptoms
Testicle pain
Testicle pain is discomfort in one or both testicles. The pain can spread into the lower abdomen. testicles

Tests
Testicular biopsy
Testicular biopsy is surgery to remove a piece of tissue from the testicles. The tissue is examined under a microscope. testicles

Tests
Testicular self-exam
Testicular self-exam is an examination of the testicles that you do on yourself.

Diseases & Conditions
Testicular torsion
Testicular torsion is the twisting of the spermatic cord, which supports the testes in the scrotum. When this occurs, blood supply is cut off to the testicles and nearby tissue in the scrotum. scrotum

Surgery
Testicular torsion repair
Testicular torsion repair is surgery to untangle or untwist a spermatic cord. The spermatic cord is the collection of blood vessels in the scrotum that lead to the testicles. Testicular torsion develops...

Surgery
Transurethral resection of the prostate
Transurethral resection of the prostate is a surgery to remove the inside part of the prostate gland. It is done in order to treat symptoms of an enlarged prostate. enlarged prostate Related topics include...

Discharge Instructions
Transurethral resection of the prostate - discharge
You had transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery to treat an enlarged prostate. Your surgeon inserted a tube-like tool called a cystoscope (or endoscope) through your urethra (the tube that...

Diseases & Conditions
Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra
Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra involves damage caused by an outside force.

U

Diseases & Conditions
UPJ obstruction
Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is a blockage at the point where part of the kidney attaches to one of the tubes to the bladder (ureters). This blocks the flow of urine out of the kidney.

Diseases & Conditions
Undescended testicle
Undescended testicle occurs when one or both testicles fail to move into the scrotum before birth.

Surgery
Undescended testicle repair
Undescended testicle repair is surgery to correct testicles that have not dropped down into the correct position in the scrotum. Undescended testicle

Tests
Ureteral retrograde brush biopsy
Ureteral retrograde brush biopsy is a surgical procedure. During the surgery, your surgeon takes a small sample of tissue from the lining of the kidney or ureter. The ureter is the tube that connects a...

Diseases & Conditions
Ureterocele
A ureterocele is a swelling at the bottom of one of the tubes (ureters) that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder. The swollen area can block urine flow. A ureterocele is a birth defect.

Diseases & Conditions
Urethral stricture
Urethral stricture is an abnormal narrowing of the tube that carries urine out of the body from the bladder (urethra).

Diseases & Conditions
Urethritis
Urethritis is inflammation (swelling and irritation) of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the body.

Diseases & Conditions
Urge incontinence
Urge incontinence occurs when you have a strong, sudden need to urinate. The bladder then squeezes, or spasms, and you lose urine.

Special Topics
Urinary catheters
A urinary catheter is a tube placed in the body to drain and collect urine from the bladder.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Urinary catheters - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about urinary catheters

Symptoms
Urinary incontinence
Urinary (or bladder) incontinence happens when you are not able to keep urine from leaking out of your urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine out of your body from your bladder. You may leak...

In-depth Report
Urinary incontinence
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of urinary incontinence.

Surgery
Urinary incontinence - injectable implant
Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage (urinary incontinence) caused by a weak urinary sphincter. The sphincter is a muscle that allows your body to...

Surgery
Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension
Retropubic suspension is surgery to help control stress incontinence. This is urine leakage that happens when you laugh, cough, sneeze, lift things, or exercise. The surgery helps close your urethra and...

Surgery
Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape
Placement of tension-free vaginal tape is surgery to help control stress urinary incontinence. This is urine leakage that happens when you laugh, cough, sneeze, lift things, or exercise. The surgery helps...

Surgery
Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures
Vaginal sling procedures are types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence. This is urine leakage that happens when you laugh, cough, sneeze, lift things, or exercise. The procedure helps...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about urinary incontinence

Self-Care Instructions
Urinary incontinence products - self-care
If you have problems with urinary incontinence (leakage), wearing special products will keep you dry and help you avoid embarrassing situations.

Discharge Instructions
Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge
Stress incontinence is a leakage of urine that happens when you are active or when there is pressure on your pelvic area. Walking or doing other exercise, lifting, coughing, sneezing, and laughing can all...

In-depth Report
Urinary tract infection
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of urinary tract infections.

Diseases & Conditions
Urinary tract infection - adults
A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary tract. The infection can occur at different points in the urinary tract, including: Bladder. An infection in the bladder is also called...

Diseases & Conditions
Urinary tract infection - children
A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. This article discusses urinary tract infections in children. The infection can affect different parts of the urinary tract, including the...

Self-Care Instructions
Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare
Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not be as accurate for girls with more complex problems.

Self-Care Instructions
Urinary tract infection in women - self-care
Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead to infection. Most often the infection occurs in the bladder itself. At times...

Symptoms
Urinating more at night
Normally, the amount of urine your body produces decreases at night. This allows most people to sleep 6 to 8 hours without having to urinate. Some people wake up from sleep more often to urinate during...

Symptoms
Urination - difficulty with flow
Difficulty starting or maintaining a urine stream is called urinary hesitancy.

Symptoms
Urination - excessive amount
Excessive amount of urination means that your body makes larger than normal amounts of urine each day.

Symptoms
Urination - painful
Painful urination is any pain, discomfort, or burning sensation when passing urine.

Symptoms
Urine - abnormal color
The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored.

Symptoms
Urine - bloody
Blood in your urine is called hematuria. The amount may be very small and only detected with urine tests or under a microscope. In other cases, the blood is visible. It often turns the toilet water red...

Self-Care Instructions
Urine drainage bags
Leg bag

Symptoms
Urine odor
Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not have a strong smell if you are healthy and drink plenty of fluids.

Symptoms
Urine output - decreased
Decreased urine output means that you produce less urine than normal. Most adults make at least 500 ml of urine in 24 hours (a little over 2 cups).

Tests
Uroflowmetry
Uroflowmetry is a test that measures the volume of urine released from the body, the speed with which it is released, and how long the release takes.

Self-Care Instructions
Urostomy - stoma and skin care
Ostomy care - urostomy; Urinary diversion - urostomy stoma; Cystectomy - urostomy stoma

Self-Care Instructions
Urostomy pouches and supplies
Cystectomy - urostomy; Urostomy bag; Ostomy appliance; Urinary ostomy; Urinary diversion - urostomy supplies; Cystectomy - urostomy supplies

V

Diseases & Conditions
Varicocele
A varicocele is the swelling of the veins inside the scrotum. These veins are found along the cord that holds up a man's testicles (spermatic cord). testicles

Surgery
Vasectomy
A vasectomy is surgery to cut the vas deferens. These are the tubes that carry a sperm from testicles to the urethra. After a vasectomy, sperm cannot move out of the testes. A man who has had a successful...

In-depth Report
Vasectomy and vasectomy reversal
An in-depth report on vasectomy as a method of male birth control and reversal surgeries.

W

Self-Care Instructions
When you have urinary incontinence