Otolaryngology (ENT)

Otolaryngology, also known as Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT), encompasses a wide array of concerns including hearing issues, sinus problems, sleep difficulties, and even cosmetic issues.

Learn more about otolaryngology (ENT)/head and neck surgery at Mount Sinai Health System

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A

Diseases & Conditions
Acoustic neuroma
An acoustic neuroma is a slow-growing tumor of the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. This nerve is called the vestibular cochlear nerve. It is behind the ear, right under the brain. An acoustic...

Diseases & Conditions
Acoustic trauma
Acoustic trauma is injury to the hearing mechanisms in the inner ear. It is due to very loud noise.

Surgery
Adenoid removal
Adenoid removal is surgery to take out the adenoid glands. The adenoid glands sit behind your nose above the roof of your mouth. Air passes over these glands when you take a breath. The adenoids are often...

Tests
Audiometry
An audiometry exam tests your ability to hear sounds. Sounds vary, based on their loudness (intensity) and the speed of sound wave vibrations (tone). Hearing occurs when sound waves stimulate the nerves...

Diseases & Conditions
Aural polyps
An aural polyp is a growth in the outside (external) ear canal or middle ear. It may be attached to the eardrum (tympanic membrane), or it may grow from the middle ear space.

B

Diseases & Conditions
Benign ear cyst or tumor
Benign ear cysts are lumps or growths in the ear. They are benign.

Surgery
Botulinum toxin injection - larynx
Botulimum toxin (BTX) is a type of nerve blocker. When injected, BTX blocks nerve signals to muscles so they relax. BTX is the toxin that causes botulism, a rare but serious illness. It is safe when used...

C

Tests
Caloric stimulation
Caloric stimulation is a test that uses differences in temperature to diagnose damage to the acoustic nerve. This is the nerve that is involved in hearing and balance. The test also checks for damage to...

Diseases & Conditions
Choanal atresia
Choanal atresia is a narrowing or blockage of the nasal airway by tissue. It is a congenital condition, meaning it is present at birth.

Diseases & Conditions
Cholesteatoma
Cholesteatoma is a type of skin cyst that is located in the middle ear and mastoid bone in the skull. cyst

Special Topics
Cochlear implant
A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that helps people hear. It can be used for people who are deaf or very hard of hearing. A cochlear implant is not the same thing as a hearing aid. It is implanted...

Diseases & Conditions
Croup
Croup is breathing difficulty and a "barking" cough. Croup is due to swelling around the vocal cords. It is common in infants and children. breathing difficulty

Diseases & Conditions
Cystic hygroma
A cystic hygroma is a growth that often occurs in the head and neck area. It is a birth defect.

E

Diseases & Conditions
Ear barotrauma
Ear barotrauma is discomfort in the ear due to pressure differences between the inside and outside of the eardrum. It may include damage to the ear.

Symptoms
Ear discharge
Ear discharge is drainage of blood, ear wax, pus, or fluid from the ear. ear wax

Injury
Ear emergencies
Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal and ruptured eardrums.

Tests
Ear examination
An ear exam is performed when a health care provider looks inside your ear using an instrument called an otoscope.

Diseases & Conditions
Ear infection - acute
Ear infections are one of the most common reasons parents take their children to the doctor. The most common type of ear infection is called otitis media. It is caused by swelling and infection of the middle...

Diseases & Conditions
Ear infection - chronic
Chronic ear infection is fluid, swelling, or an infection behind the eardrum that does not go away or keeps coming back. It causes long-term or permanent damage to the ear. It most often involves a hole...

In-depth Report
Ear infections
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ear infections.

Surgery
Ear tube insertion
Ear tube insertion involves placing tubes through the eardrums. The eardrum is the thin layer of tissue that separates the outer and middle ear. Note: This article focuses on ear tube insertion in children...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what to ask your doctor

Diseases & Conditions
Ear wax
The ear canal is lined with hair follicles. The ear canal also has glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. The wax will most often make its way to the opening of the ear. There it will fall out or...

Surgery
Eardrum repair
Eardrum repair refers to one or more surgical procedures that are done to correct a tear or other damage to the eardrum (tympanic membrane). Ossiculoplasty is the repair of the small bones in the middle...

Surgery
Emergency airway puncture
Emergency airway puncture is the placement of a hollow needle through the throat into the airway. It is done to treat life-threatening choking.

Diseases & Conditions
Enlarged adenoids
The adenoids are lymph tissues that sit in your upper airway between your nose and the back of your throat. They are similar to the tonsils. Enlarged adenoids means this tissue is swollen.

Surgery
Epley maneuver
The Epley maneuver is a series of head movements to relieve symptoms of benign positional vertigo. Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). BPPV is caused by...

Diseases & Conditions
Ethmoiditis
Ethmoiditis is an infection of the ethmoidal cells in the sinuses. These are the air-filled spaces behind the nose and between the eyes.

Diseases & Conditions
Eustachian tube patency
Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space....

F

Diseases & Conditions
Facial trauma
Facial trauma is an injury of the face. It may include the facial bones such as the upper jaw bone (maxilla).

Diseases & Conditions
Fusion of the ear bones
Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the middle ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Fusion or fixation of the bones leads to hearing loss, because the bones are not moving...

G

Diseases & Conditions
Geographic tongue
Geographic tongue is irregular patches on the surface of the tongue. This gives it a map-like appearance.

Diseases & Conditions
Gingivostomatitis
Gingivostomatitis is an infection of the mouth and gums that leads to swelling and sores. It may be due to a virus or bacteria.

Diseases & Conditions
Glossitis
Glossitis is a problem in which the tongue is swollen and changes color, often making the surface of the tongue appear smooth. Geographic tongue is a type of glossitis. Geographic tongue

Tests
Gum biopsy
A gum biopsy is a surgery in which a small piece of gingival (gum) tissue is removed and examined. biopsy

H

Symptoms
Hearing loss
Hearing loss is being partly or totally unable to hear sound in one or both ears.

Self-Care Instructions
Hearing loss and music
Noise induced hearing loss - music; Sensory hearing loss - music

Symptoms
Hoarseness
Hoarseness refers to a difficulty making sounds when trying to speak. Vocal sounds may be weak, breathy, scratchy, or husky, and the pitch or quality of the voice may change.

I

Diseases & Conditions
Infectious myringitis
Infectious myringitis is an infection that causes painful blisters on the eardrum (tympanum). blisters

J

Diseases & Conditions
Juvenile angiofibroma
Juvenile angiofibroma is a noncancerous growth that causes bleeding in the nose and sinuses. It is most often seen in boys and young adult men.

L

Diseases & Conditions
Labyrinthitis
Labyrinthitis is irritation and swelling of the inner ear. It can cause vertigo and hearing loss.

Diseases & Conditions
Lacrimal gland tumor
A lacrimal gland tumor is a tumor in 1 of the glands that produces tears. The lacrimal gland is located under the outer part of each eyebrow. Lacrimal gland tumors can be harmless (benign) or cancerous...

Diseases & Conditions
Laryngeal nerve damage
Laryngeal nerve damage is injury to one or both of the nerves that are attached to the voice box.

Surgery
Laryngectomy
Laryngectomy is surgery to remove all or part of the larynx (voice box) in your throat.

Diseases & Conditions
Laryngitis
Laryngitis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the voice box (larynx). The problem is most often associated with hoarseness or loss of voice. hoarseness

Tests
Laryngoscopy
Laryngoscopy is an exam of the voice box (larynx). It can be done using a small mirror held just below the back of your palate, or a rigid or flexible viewing tube called a laryngoscope placed in your mouth...

Tests
Laryngoscopy and nasolarynoscopy
Laryngoscopy is an exam of the back of your throat, including your voice box (larynx). Your voice box contains your vocal cords and allows you to speak.

M

Diseases & Conditions
Malignant otitis externa
Malignant otitis externa is a disorder that involves infection and damage of the bones of the ear canal and at the base of the skull.

Surgery
Mastoidectomy
A mastoidectomy is surgery to remove cells in the hollow, air-filled spaces in the skull behind the ear. These cells are called mastoid air cells.

Diseases & Conditions
Mastoiditis
Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid bone of the skull. The mastoid is located just behind the ear.

Special Topics
Ménière disease - self-care
Hydrops - self-care; Endolymphatic hydrops - self-care; Dizziness - Ménière self-care; Vertigo - Ménière self-care; Loss of balance - Ménière self-care

N

Discharge Instructions
Nasal corticosteroid sprays
Steroid nasal sprays; Allergies - nasal corticosteroid sprays

Tests
Nasal endoscopy
Nasal endoscopy is a test to view the inside of the nose and sinuses to check for problems.

Self-Care Instructions
Nasal fracture - aftercare
Your nose has 2 bones at the bridge of your nose and a long piece of cartilage (flexible but strong tissue) that gives your nose its shape. A nasal fracture occurs when the bony part of your nose has been...

Tests
Nasal mucosal biopsy
A nasal mucosal biopsy is the removal of a small piece of tissue from the lining of the nose so that it can be checked for disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Nasal polyps
Nasal polyps are soft, sac-like growths on the lining of the nose or sinuses.

Diseases & Conditions
Nasal septal hematoma
A nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood within the septum of the nose. The septum is the part of the nose between the 2 nostrils. An injury disrupts the blood vessels so that fluid and blood may...

Surgery
Neck dissection
Neck dissection is surgery to remove the lymph nodes in the neck.

Discharge Instructions
Neck dissection - discharge
Radical neck dissection - discharge; Modified radical neck dissection - discharge; Selective neck dissection - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Nonallergic rhinopathy
Rhinitis is a condition that includes a runny nose, sneezing, and nasal stuffiness. When hay fever or allergies are not causing these symptoms, the condition is called nonallergic rhinitis. One type of...

Injury
Nose fracture
A nose fracture is a break in the bone or cartilage over the bridge, or in the sidewall or septum (structure that divides the nostrils) of the nose.

Symptoms
Nosebleed
A nosebleed is loss of blood from the tissue lining the nose. Bleeding most often occurs in 1 nostril only.

O

Diseases & Conditions
Occupational hearing loss
Occupational hearing loss is damage to the inner ear from noise or vibrations due to certain types of jobs.

Self-Care Instructions
Oral mucositis - self-care
Cancer treatment - mucositis; Cancer treatment - mouth pain; Cancer treatment - mouth sores; Chemotherapy - mucositis; Chemotherapy - mouth pain; Chemotherapy - mouth sores; Radiation therapy - mucositis...

Tests
Oropharynx lesion biopsy
An oropharynx lesion biopsy is surgery in which tissue from an abnormal growth or mouth sore is removed and checked for problems.

Diseases & Conditions
Otitis
Otitis is a general term for infection or inflammation of the ear.

Diseases & Conditions
Otitis media with effusion
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is thick or sticky fluid behind the eardrum in the middle ear. It occurs without an ear infection. ear infection

Diseases & Conditions
Otosclerosis
Otosclerosis is an abnormal bone growth in the middle ear that causes hearing loss. hearing loss

Diseases & Conditions
Ozena
Ozena is a disease of the nose in which the bony ridges and mucous membranes of the nose waste away. Ozena is also called atrophic rhinitis.

P

Diseases & Conditions
Palatal myoclonus
Palatal myoclonus is a fast spasm (contraction) of the muscles in the roof of the mouth.

Diseases & Conditions
Peritonsillar abscess
Peritonsillar abscess is a collection of infected material in the area around the tonsils.

Diseases & Conditions
Petrositis
Petrositis most often refers to infection of the temporal bone, the bone in the skull that surrounds the ear. This infection goes deep to the inner ear. It is sometimes associated with otitis media (a middle...

Diseases & Conditions
Pharyngomaxillary space abscess
Pharyngomaxillary space abscess is swelling and irritation (inflammation) or pus in the area between the throat and upper jawbone.

R

Diseases & Conditions
Retropharyngeal abscess
Retropharyngeal abscess is a collection of pus in the tissues in the back of the throat. It can be a life-threatening medical condition.

Diseases & Conditions
Ruptured eardrum
A ruptured eardrum is an opening or hole in the eardrum. The eardrum is a thin piece of tissue that separates the outer and middle ear. Damage to the eardrum may harm hearing.

S

Diseases & Conditions
Salivary duct stones
Salivary duct stones are deposits of minerals in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. Salivary duct stones are a type of salivary gland disorder. salivary gland disorder

Tests
Salivary gland biopsy
Salivary gland biopsy is the removal of cells or a piece of tissue from a salivary gland for exam.

Diseases & Conditions
Salivary gland infections
Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). The infection may be due to bacteria or viruses. There are 3 pairs of major salivary glands: Parotid glands: These are the 2 largest...

Surgery
Septoplasty
Septoplasty is surgery performed to correct any problems in the nasal septum, the structure inside the nose that separates the nose into two chambers.

Tests
Sinus CT scan
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the sinus is an imaging test that uses x-rays to make detailed pictures of the air-filled spaces inside the face (sinuses).

Tests
Sinus MRI scan
A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the sinuses creates detailed pictures of the air-filled spaces inside the skull. These spaces are called the sinuses. The test is noninvasive. MRI uses powerful...

Diseases & Conditions
Sinusitis
Sinusitis is present when the tissue lining the sinuses become swollen or inflamed. It occurs as the result of an infection from a virus, bacteria, or fungus.

In-depth Report
Sinusitis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis.

Self-Care Instructions
Sinusitis in adults - aftercare
Sinus infection - self-care; Rhinosinusitis - self-care

Symptoms
Smell - impaired
Impaired smell is the partial or total loss or abnormal perception of the sense of smell.

Diseases & Conditions
Speech disorders - children
A speech disorder is a condition in which a person has problems creating or forming the speech sounds needed to communicate with others. Three common speech disorders are: Articulation disorders ...

Symptoms
Stuffy or runny nose - children
A stuffy or congested nose occurs when the tissues lining the nose become swollen. The swelling is due to inflamed blood vessels. The problem may also include nasal discharge or "runny nose. " If excess...

T

Symptoms
Taste - impaired
Taste impairment means there is a problem with your sense of taste. Problems range from distorted taste to a complete loss of the sense of taste. A complete inability to taste is rare.

Symptoms
Tinnitus
Tinnitus is the medical term for "hearing" noises in your ears. It occurs when there is no outside source of the sounds. Tinnitus is often called "ringing in the ears. " It may also sound like blowing,...

Tests
Tongue biopsy
A tongue biopsy is a minor surgery that is done to remove a small piece of the tongue. The tissue is then examined under a microscope.

Symptoms
Tongue problems
Tongue problems include pain, swelling, or a change in how the tongue looks.

Diseases & Conditions
Tongue tie
Tongue tie is when the bottom of the tongue is attached to the floor of the mouth. This may make it hard for the tip of the tongue to move freely.

Discharge Instructions
Tonsil and adenoid removal - discharge
Your child had surgery to remove the adenoid glands in the throat. These glands are located between the airway between the nose and the back of the throat. Often, adenoids are removed at the same time as...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Tonsil removal - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about tonsil removal; Tonsillectomy - what to ask your doctor

Surgery
Tonsillectomy
Tonsillectomy is a surgery to remove the tonsils. The tonsils are glands at the back of your throat. The tonsils are often removed along with the adenoid glands. That surgery is called adenoidectomy and...

Diseases & Conditions
Tracheitis
Tracheitis is a bacterial infection of the windpipe (trachea).

Surgery
Tracheostomy
A tracheostomy is a surgical procedure to create an opening through the neck into the trachea (windpipe). A tube is usually placed through this opening to provide an airway and to remove secretions from...

Self-Care Instructions
Tracheostomy tube - eating
Trach - eating

Self-Care Instructions
Tracheostomy tube - speaking
Trach - speaking

Surgery
Turbinate surgery
The inside walls of the nose have 3 pairs of long thin bones covered with thin tissue. These bones are called nasal turbinates. Allergies or other nasal problems can cause the turbinates to swell and block...

Tests
Tympanometry
Tympanometry is a test used to detect problems in the middle ear.

U

Tests
Upper airway biopsy
Upper airway biopsy is surgery to remove a small piece of tissue from the nose, mouth, and throat area for examination.

Diseases & Conditions
Uvulitis
Uvulitis is inflammation of the uvula, the small tongue-shaped piece of tissue that hangs from the top of the back part of the mouth. It is usually associated with inflammation of other mouth parts, such...

Surgery
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP)
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is surgery to open the upper airways by taking out extra tissue in the throat. It may be done to treat mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or severe snoring. sleep apnea...