Nephrology

Nephrology focuses on kidney function and treatment. In addition to treating primary kidney disorders, tubuloinstitial kidney diseases, tubular defects, and the effect of toxins on kidneys, nephrologists also address hypertension and dialysis.

Learn more about nephrology at Mount Sinai Health System

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Tests
24-hour urine protein
24-hour urine protein measures the amount of protein released in urine over a 24-hour period.

A

Diseases & Conditions
Acidosis
Acidosis is a condition in which there is too much acid in the body fluids. It is the opposite of alkalosis (a condition in which there is too much base in the body fluids). alkalosis

Diseases & Conditions
Acute arterial occlusion - kidney
Acute arterial occlusion of the kidney is a sudden, severe blockage of the artery that supplies blood to the kidney.

Diseases & Conditions
Acute kidney failure
Acute kidney failure is the rapid (less than 2 days) loss of your kidneys' ability to remove waste and help balance fluids and electrolytes in your body. electrolytes

Diseases & Conditions
Acute nephritic syndrome
Acute nephritic syndrome is a group of symptoms that occur with some disorders that cause swelling and inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney, or glomerulonephritis. glomerulonephritis

Diseases & Conditions
Acute tubular necrosis
Acute tubular necrosis is a kidney disorder involving damage to the tubule cells of the kidneys, which can lead to acute kidney failure. acute kidney failure

Diseases & Conditions
Alkalosis
Alkalosis is a condition in which the body fluids have excess base (alkali). This is the opposite of excess acid (acidosis). acidosis

Diseases & Conditions
Alport syndrome
Alport syndrome is an inherited disorder that damages the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys. It also causes hearing loss and eye problems.

Diseases & Conditions
Analgesic nephropathy
Analgesic nephropathy involves damage to one or both kidneys caused by overexposure to mixtures of medicines, especially over-the-counter pain medicines (analgesics).

Tests
Anti-glomerular basement membrane blood test
The glomerular basement membrane is the part of the kidney that helps filter waste and extra fluid from the blood. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies are antibodies against this membrane. They...

Diseases & Conditions
Atheroembolic renal disease
Atheroembolic renal disease (AERD) occurs when small particles made of hardened cholesterol and fat spread to the small blood vessels of the kidneys.

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Tests
BUN - blood test
BUN stands for blood urea nitrogen. Urea nitrogen is what forms when protein breaks down. A test can be done to measure the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Bartter syndrome
Bartter syndrome is a group of rare conditions that affect the kidneys.

Diseases & Conditions
Bilateral hydronephrosis
Bilateral hydronephrosis is the enlargement of the parts of the kidney that collect urine. Bilateral means both sides.

C

Tests
Calcium - urine
This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order to work. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is important for heart function, and helps with muscle contraction...

Tests
Chloride - urine test
The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in a certain volume of urine.

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main job of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body.

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital nephrotic syndrome
Congenital nephrotic syndrome is a disorder passed down through families in which a baby develops protein in the urine and swelling of the body. Congenital means it is present from birth. However, this...

Tests
Creatinine blood test
The creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. This test is done to see how well your kidneys are working. Creatinine can also be measured with a urine test.

Tests
Creatinine clearance test
The creatinine clearance test helps provide information about how well the kidneys are working. The test compares the creatinine level in urine with the creatinine level in blood.

Tests
Creatinine urine test
The creatinine urine test measures the amount of creatinine in urine. This test is done to see how well your kidneys are working. Creatinine can also be measured by a blood test.

Diseases & Conditions
Cystinuria
Cystinuria is a rare condition in which stones made from an amino acid called cysteine form in the kidney, ureter, and bladder. Cystine is formed when two molecules of an amino acid called cysteine are...

D

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes and kidney disease
Kidney disease or kidney damage often occurs over time in people with diabetes. This type of kidney disease is called diabetic nephropathy.

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes insipidus
Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon condition in which the kidneys are unable to prevent the excretion of water.

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a disorder in which a defect in the small tubes (tubules) in the kidneys causes a person to pass a large amount of urine and lose too much water.

Surgery
Dialysis - peritoneal
Dialysis treats end-stage kidney failure. It removes harmful substances from the blood when the kidneys cannot. This article focuses on peritoneal dialysis.

Diseases & Conditions
Distal renal tubular acidosis
Distal renal tubular acidosis is a disease that occurs when the kidneys do not properly remove acids from the blood into the urine. As a result, too much acid remains in the blood (called acidosis). acidosis

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Special Topics
Electrolytes
Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge. Electrolytes affect how your body functions in many ways, including: The amount of water in your bodyThe acidity...

Tests
Electrolytes - urine
The electrolytes - urine test measures specific chemicals called electrolytes in urine. It usually measures the levels of calcium, chloride, potassium, or sodium. electrolytes

Diseases & Conditions
End-stage kidney disease
End-stage kidney disease is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. This is when your kidneys can no longer support your body's needs. End-stage kidney disease is also called end-stage renal disease ...

F

Diseases & Conditions
Fanconi syndrome
Fanconi syndrome is a disorder of the kidney tubes in which certain substances normally absorbed into the bloodstream by the kidneys are released into the urine instead.

Diseases & Conditions
Fluid imbalance
Every part of your body needs water to function. When you are healthy, your body is able to balance the amount of water that enters or leaves your body. A fluid imbalance may occur when you lose more water...

Diseases & Conditions
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is scar tissue in the filtering unit of the kidney. This structure is called the glomerulus. The glomeruli serve as filters that help the body get rid of harmful substances...

Tests
Fractional excretion of sodium
Fractional excretion of sodium is the amount of salt (sodium) that leaves the body through urine compared to the amount filtered and reabsorbed by the kidney. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is not...

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Tests
Glomerular filtration rate
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. Glomeruli are the tiny filters...

Diseases & Conditions
Glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease in which the part of your kidneys that helps filter waste and fluids from the blood is damaged.

Tests
Glucose urine test
The glucose urine test measures the amount of sugar (glucose) in a urine sample. The presence of glucose in the urine is called glycosuria or glucosuria. Glucose level can also be measured using a blood...

Diseases & Conditions
Goodpasture syndrome
Goodpasture syndrome is a rare disease that can involve quickly worsening kidney failure and lung disease. quickly worsening kidney failure Some forms of the disease involve just the lung or the kidney...

H

Diseases & Conditions
High potassium level
High potassium level is a problem in which the amount of potassium in the blood is higher than normal. The medical name of this condition is hyperkalemia.

Diseases & Conditions
Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis
Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperPP) is a disorder that causes occasional episodes of muscle weakness and sometimes a higher than normal level of potassium in the blood. The medical name for high potassium...

Diseases & Conditions
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP) is a disorder that causes occasional episodes of muscle weakness and sometimes a lower than normal level of potassium in the blood. The medical name for low potassium...

Diseases & Conditions
Hypophosphatemia
Hypophosphatemia is a low level of phosphorus in the blood. phosphorus

I

Diseases & Conditions
Idiopathic hypercalciuria
Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the presence of excess calcium in the urine without an obvious cause. This condition can lead to kidney stones or osteoporosis. kidney stones osteoporosis

Diseases & Conditions
IgA nephropathy
IgA nephropathy is a kidney disorder in which antibodies called IgA build up in kidney tissue. Nephropathy is damage, disease, or other problems with the kidney. IgA nephropathy is also called Berger disease...

Diseases & Conditions
Interstitial nephritis
Interstitial nephritis is a kidney disorder in which the spaces between the kidney tubules become swollen (inflamed). This can cause problems with the way your kidneys work.

K

Tests
Ketones urine test
A ketone urine test measures the amount of ketones in the urine.

Tests
Kidney biopsy
A kidney biopsy is the removal of a small piece of kidney tissue for examination.

Tests
Kidney function tests
Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: BUN (Blood urea nitrogen) Creatinine - bloodCreatinine clearanceCreatinine - urine BUN ...

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Diseases & Conditions
Low magnesium level
Low magnesium level is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical name of this condition is hypomagnesemia.

Diseases & Conditions
Low sodium level
Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The medical name of this condition is hyponatremia.

Diseases & Conditions
Lupus nephritis
Lupus nephritis is a kidney disorder which is a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. systemic lupus erythematosus

M

Diseases & Conditions
Malignant hypertension
Malignant hypertension is very high blood pressure that comes on suddenly and quickly. high blood pressure

Diseases & Conditions
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease is an inherited condition in which cysts in the center of each kidney cause the kidneys to gradually lose their ability to work.

Diseases & Conditions
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is a kidney disorder that involves inflammation and changes to kidney cells. It may lead to kidney failure. kidney failure

Diseases & Conditions
Membranous nephropathy
Membranous nephropathy is a kidney disorder that leads to changes and inflammation of the structures inside the kidney that help filter wastes and fluids. The inflammation may lead to problems with kidney...

Diseases & Conditions
Milk-alkali syndrome
Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there is a high level of calcium in the body (hypercalcemia). This causes a shift in the body's acid/base balance toward alkaline (metabolic alkalosis). As a...

Diseases & Conditions
Minimal change disease
Minimal change disease is a kidney disorder that can lead to nephrotic syndrome, although the kidney looks normal under a regular microscope. nephrotic syndrome

N

Diseases & Conditions
Nephrocalcinosis
Nephrocalcinosis is a disorder in which there is too much calcium deposited in the kidneys. It is common in premature babies.

Diseases & Conditions
Nephrotic syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that include protein in the urine, low blood protein levels in the blood, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and swelling. protein in the urine...

O

Tests
Osmolality - blood test
Osmolality is a test that measures the concentration of all chemical particles found in the fluid part of blood. Osmolality can also be measured with a urine test.

Tests
Osmolality urine test
The osmolality urine test measures the concentration of particles in urine. Osmolality can also be measured using a blood test.

Diseases & Conditions
Osmotic diuresis
Osmotic diuresis is increased urination due to the presence of certain substances in the fluid filtered by the kidneys. This fluid eventually becomes urine. These substances cause additional water to come...

P

Diseases & Conditions
Polycystic kidney disease
Polycystic kidney disease is a kidney disorder passed down through families. In this disease, many cysts form in the kidneys, causing them to become enlarged.

Diseases & Conditions
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (GN)
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (GN) is a disorder of the kidneys that occurs after infection with certain strains of streptococcus bacteria.

Tests
Potassium test
This test measures the amount of potassium in the fluid portion (serum) of the blood. Potassium (K+) helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also helps move nutrients into cells and waste products out...

Tests
Potassium urine test
The potassium urine test measures the amount of potassium in a certain amount of urine.

Diseases & Conditions
Prerenal azotemia
Prerenal azotemia is an abnormally high level of nitrogen waste products in the blood.

Tests
Protein urine test
The protein urine dipstick test measures the presence of proteins, such as albumin, in a urine sample. Albumin and protein can also be measured using a blood test. blood test

Diseases & Conditions
Proximal renal tubular acidosis
Proximal renal tubular acidosis is a disease that occurs when the kidneys don't properly remove acids from the blood into the urine. As a result, too much acid remains in the blood (called acidosis). acidosis

R

Tests
RBC urine test
The RBC urine test measures the number of red blood cells in a urine sample.

Diseases & Conditions
Reflux nephropathy
Reflux nephropathy is a condition in which the kidneys are damaged by the backward flow of urine into the kidney.

Special Topics
Renal
The term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney diseaseKidney disease - dietKidney failureKidney function testsRenal scanKidney transplant...

Diseases & Conditions
Renal and urological disorders
A renal disorder refers to any disease of the kidneys. Urological disorders are diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract. This includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. As well as the...

Diseases & Conditions
Renal papillary necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis is a disorder of the kidneys in which all or part of the renal papillae die. The renal papillae are the areas where the openings of the collecting ducts enter the kidney and where...

Diseases & Conditions
Renal vein thrombosis
Renal vein thrombosis is a blood clot that develops in the vein that drains blood from the kidney. blood clot

Tests
Renin blood test
The renin test measures the level of renin in blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Renovascular hypertension
Renovascular hypertension is high blood pressure due to narrowing of the arteries that carry blood to the kidneys. This condition is also called renal artery stenosis. high blood pressure

Diseases & Conditions
Rhabdomyolysis
Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of muscle tissue that leads to the release of muscle fiber contents into the blood. These substances are harmful to the kidney and often cause kidney damage.

S

Tests
Sodium urine test
The sodium urine test measures the amount of sodium in a certain amount of urine. Sodium can also be measured in a blood sample. blood sample

T

Self-Care Instructions
Taking care of your vascular access for hemodialysis
A vascular access is an opening made in your skin and blood vessel during a short operation. When you have dialysis, your blood flows out of the access into the dialyzer machine. After your blood is filtered...

U

Tests
Urea nitrogen urine test
Urine urea nitrogen is a test that measures the amount of urea in the urine. Urea nitrogen is a waste product resulting from the breakdown of protein in the body.

Tests
Uric acid urine test
The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood test.

Tests
Urinary casts
Urinary casts are tiny tube-shaped particles that can be found when urine is examined under the microscope during a test called urinalysis. urinalysis Urinary casts may be made up of white blood cells,...

Tests
Urine 24-hour volume
The urine 24-hour volume test measures the amount of urine produced in a day. The amount of creatinine, protein, and other chemicals released into the urine during this period is often tested.

Tests
Urine chemistry
Urine chemistry is a group of one or more tests done to check the chemical content of a urine sample.

Tests
Urine concentration test
A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to conserve or excrete water.

Tests
Urine pH test
A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine.

Tests
Urine specific gravity test
Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine.