Gelman I, Lee K, Tombler E, Gordon R, Lin X. Control of cytoskeletal architecture by the src-suppressed C kinase substrate, SSeCKS. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 1998; 41(1): 1-17.
Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) in many cell types results in cytoskeletal reorganization associated with cell proliferation. We previously described a new cell cycle-regulated myristylated PKC substrate, SSeCKS (pronounced essex), that interacts with the actin cytoskeleton [Lin et al., 1995, 1996]. SSeCKS shares significant homology with Gravin, which encodes kinase scaffolding functions for PKC and PKA [Nauert et al., 1997]. This article describes the cellular effects of ectopically expressing SSeCKS in untransformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Because the constitutive overexpression of SSeCKS is toxic [Lin et al., 1995], we developed cell lines with tetracycline (tet)-regulated SSeCKS expression. The induction of SSeCKS (removal of tet) caused significant cell flattening and the elaboration of an SSeCKS-associated cortical cytoskeletal matrix resistant to Triton X-100 extraction. Flattened cells were growth-arrested and marked by the formation of cellular projections and the temporary loss of actin stress fibers and vinculin-associated adhesion plaques. SSeCKS overexpression did not affect steady-state levels of actin, vinculin, or focal adhesion kinase (FAK) but did increase integrin-independent FAK tyrosine phosphorylation. Stress fiber loss was coincident with induced SSeCKS expression, strongly suggesting a direct effect. Cytochalasin, and to a lesser extent nocodazole, inhibited SSeCKS-induced cell flattening, however, only cytochalasin affected the shape of pre-flattened cells, suggesting a greater dependence on microfilaments, rather than microtubules. By contrast, only nocodazole caused retraction of the filopodia-like processes. These data indicate a role for SSeCKS in modulating both cytoskeletal and signaling pathways. Thus, we propose to expand SSeCKS scaffolding functions to include the ability to control actin-based cytoskeletal architecture, as well as mitogenic signal pathways.
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