Response-Based Chemotherapy in Treating Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome in Younger Patients With Down Syndrome

ID#: NCT02521493

Age: 91 days - 3 years

Gender: All

Healthy Subjects: No

Study Phase: Phase 3

Recruitment Status: Recruiting

Start Date: November 23, 2015

Summary: This phase III trial studies response-based chemotherapy in treating newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome in younger patients with Down syndrome. Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Response-based chemotherapy separates patients into different risk groups and treats them according to how they respond to the first course of treatment (Induction I). Response-based treatment may be effective in treating acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome in younger patients with Down syndrome while reducing the side effects.
Eligibility:

Inclusion Criteria:

- Patients must have constitutional trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) or trisomy 21 mosaicism (by karyotype or fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH])

- Patient has one of the following:

- Patient has previously untreated de novo AML and meets the criteria for AML with >= 20% bone marrow blasts as set out in the World Health Organization (WHO) Myeloid Neoplasm classification

- Attempts to obtain bone marrow either by aspirate or biopsy must be made unless clinically prohibitive; in cases where it is clinically prohibitive, peripheral blood with an excess of 20% blasts and in which adequate flow cytometric and cytogenetics/FISH testing is feasible can be substituted for the marrow exam at diagnosis

- Patient has cytopenias and/or bone marrow blasts but does not meet the criteria for the diagnosis of AML (WHO Myeloid Neoplasm classification) because of < 20% marrow blasts and meets the criteria for a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)

- For patients who do not meet criteria for AML or MDS as outlined above; patient has a history of transient myeloproliferative disorder (which may or may not have required chemotherapy intervention and:

- Is > 8 weeks since resolution of transient myeloproliferative disease (TMD) with >= 5% blasts, OR

- Has an increasing blast count (>= 5%) in serial bone marrow aspirates performed at least 4 weeks apart

- Children who have previously received chemotherapy, radiation therapy or any anti-leukemic therapy are not eligible for this protocol, with the exception of cytarabine for the treatment of TMD

- There are no minimal organ function requirements for enrollment on this study

- Note: Previous cardiac repair with sufficient cardiac function is not an exclusion criteria

- Each patient's parents or legal guardians must sign a written informed consent

- All institutional, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and National Cancer Institute (NCI) requirements for human subjects research must be met

Exclusion Criteria:

- Patients with promyelocytic leukemia (French-American-British [FAB] M3)

- Prior therapy

- Patients =< 30 days from the last dose of cytarabine used for treatment of TMD