Neurological deficits - focal
A focal neurologic deficit is a problem with nerve, spinal cord, or brain function. It affects a specific location, such as the left side of the face, right arm, or even a small area such as the tongue. Speech, vision, and hearing problems are also considered focal neurological deficits.
The type, location, and severity of the problem can indicate which area of the brain or nervous system is affected.
In contrast, a nonfocal problem is NOT specific to a certain area of the brain. It may include a general loss of consciousness or emotional problem.
A focal neurologic problem can affect any of these functions:
Other examples of focal loss of function include:
Anything that damages or disrupts any part of the nervous system can cause a focal neurologic deficit. Examples include:
Home care depends on the type and cause of the problem.
If you have any loss of movement, sensation, or function, call your health care provider.
Your health care provider will take your medical history and perform a physical examination.
The physical examination will include a detailed examination of your nervous system function.
Which tests are done depends on your other symptoms and the possible cause of the nerve function loss. The tests that are used try to locate the part of the nervous system that is involved. Common examples are:
Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC. Diagnosis of neurological disease. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 1.
Griggs RC, Jozefowicz RF, Aminoff MJ. Approach to the patient with neurologic disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap.403.
Last reviewed on: 12/15/2014
Reviewed by: Joseph V. Campellone, M.D., Division of Neurology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.