Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus
Norovirus is a virus (germ) that causes an infection of the stomach and intestines. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain.
Many viruses belong to the norovirus group, and they spread very easily. Outbreaks in health care settings occur rapidly and can be hard to control.
Symptoms start within 24 to 48 hours of infection, and can last for 1 to 3 days. Diarrhea and vomiting can be severe, leading the body to not have enough fluids (dehydration).
Anyone can become infected with norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or very ill are most harmed by norovirus illnesses.
Norovirus infection can occur at any time during the year. It can be spread when people:
It is possible to be infected with norovirus more than once in your life.
Most cases do not need testing. In some cases, testing for norovirus is done to understand an outbreak, such as in a hospital setting. This test is done by collecting a stool or vomit sample and sending it to a lab.
Norovirus illnesses are not treated with antibiotics because antibiotics kill bacteria, not viruses. Receiving plenty of extra fluids through a vein (IV, or intravenous) is the best way to prevent the body from becoming dehydrated.
Symptoms most often resolve in 2 to 3 days. Although people may feel better, they can still spread the virus to others for up to 72 hours (in some cases 1 to 2 weeks) after their symptoms have resolved.
Hospital staff and visitors should always stay home if they feel sick or have a fever, diarrhea, or nausea. This helps protect others in the hospital. Remember, what may seem like a small health problem for you can be a big health problem for someone in the hospital who is already sick.
Even when there is no norovirus outbreak, staff and visitors must clean their hands often:
People infected with norovirus are placed in contact isolation. This is a way to create barriers between people and germs.
Staff and health care providers must:
Anyone visiting a patient who has an isolation sign outside their door should stop at the nurses' station before entering the patient's room.
Dolin R, Treanor JJ. Noroviruses and sapoviruses (caliciviruses). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 178.
Franco MA, Greenberg HB. Rotaviruses, noroviruses, and other gastrointestinal viruses. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 380.
Last reviewed on: 3/13/2016
Reviewed by: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.