Rheumatology

Rheumatology is the study and practice of diagnosing and treating musculoskeletal and rheumatic disease. These diseases can affect the joints, muscles, and bones.

Learn more about rheumatology at Mount Sinai Health System

 

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Diseases & Conditions
Adult Still disease
Adult Still disease is a rare illness that causes high fevers, rash, and joint pain. It may lead to long-term (chronic) arthritis. Still disease is a severe version of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA...

Diseases & Conditions
Ankylosing spondylitis
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic form of arthritis. It mostly affects the bones and joints at the base of the spine where it connects with the pelvis. These joints can become swollen and inflamed...

Tests
Anti-DNase B blood test
Anti-DNase B is a blood test to look for antibodies to a substance produced by Group A Streptococcus. This is the bacteria that causes strep throat. Streptococcus. When used together with the ASLO titer...

Tests
Anti-smooth muscle antibody
Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence of antibodies against smooth muscle. The antibody is useful in making a diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. antibodies

Tests
Antimitochondrial antibody
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances (antibodies) that form against mitochondria. The mitochondria are an important part of cells. They are the energy source inside the cells. These help the...

Tests
Antinuclear antibody panel
The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at antinuclear antibodies (ANA). antibodies ANA are substances produced by the immune system that attack the body's own tissues. The screening test...

Diseases & Conditions
Arthritis
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. A joint is the area where 2 bones meet. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis.

Special Topics
Arthritis - resources

Diseases & Conditions
Autoimmune disorders
An autoimmune disorder occurs when the body's immune system attacks and destroys healthy body tissue by mistake. There are more than 80 types of autoimmune disorders. the body's immune system

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Tests
C-reactive protein
C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver. The level of CRP rises when there is inflammation throughout the body. It is one of a group of proteins called acute phase reactants that go up in response...

Tests
C1 esterase inhibitor
C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is a protein found in the fluid part of your blood. It controls a protein called C1, which is part of the complement system. This system is a group of proteins that move freely...

Diseases & Conditions
Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) arthritis is a joint disease that can cause attacks of arthritis. Like gout, crystals form in the joints. But in this arthritis, the crystals are not formed from uric...

Special Topics
Calcium supplements
WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth and bones. Getting enough calcium over your lifetime can help prevent osteoporosis...

Self-Care Instructions
Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones
Your body needs calcium to keep your bones dense and strong. Low bone density can cause your bones to become brittle and fragile. These weak bones can break easily, even without an obvious injury. Vitamin...

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) refers to severe, continued tiredness (fatigue). It does not get better with rest and is not directly caused by other medical problems. fatigue

In-depth Report
Chronic fatigue syndrome
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome.

Special Topics
Chronic pain - resources

Diseases & Conditions
Collagen vascular disease
In a class of diseases known as autoimmune disorders, the body's immune system attacks its own tissues. Some of these diseases are similar to each other. They may involve arthritis and inflammation of arteries...

Tests
Complement
Complement is a blood test that measures the activity of certain proteins in the liquid portion of your blood. The complement system is a group of proteins that move freely through your bloodstream. The...

Tests
Complement component 3 (C3)
Complement C3 is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein. This protein is part of the complement system. The complement system is a group of proteins that move freely through your bloodstream...

Tests
Complement component 4
Complement component 4 is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein. This protein is part of the complement system. The complement system is a group of proteins that move freely through...

Tests
Cryoglobulins
Cryoglobulins are abnormal antibody proteins. This article describes the blood test used to check for them. In the laboratory, cryoglobulins come out of solution in blood when the blood sample is cooled...

D

Diseases & Conditions
Drug-induced lupus erythematosus
Drug-induced lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder that is brought on by a reaction to a medicine. autoimmune disorder

E

Tests
ESR
ESR stands for erythrocyte sedimentation rate. It is commonly called a "sed rate." It is a test that indirectly measures how much inflammation is in the body.

Diseases & Conditions
Eosinophilic fasciitis
Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a syndrome in which tissue under the skin and over the muscle, called fascia, becomes swollen, inflamed and thick. The skin on the arms, legs, neck, abdomen or feet can swell...

Self-Care Instructions
Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones
Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise

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Tests
Febrile/cold agglutinins
Agglutinins are antibodies that cause the red blood cells to clump together. antibodies Cold agglutinins are active at cold temperatures. Febrile (warm) agglutinins are active at normal body temperatures...

Diseases & Conditions
Felty syndrome
Felty syndrome is a disorder that involves rheumatoid arthritis, a swollen spleen, decreased white blood cell count, and repeated infections. It is rare. rheumatoid arthritis white blood cell count

Diseases & Conditions
Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is a common syndrome in which a person has long-term pain that is spread throughout the body. The pain is most often linked to fatigue, sleep problems, headaches, depression, and anxiety. People...

In-depth Report
Fibromyalgia
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of fibromyalgia.

Symptoms
Finger pain
Finger pain is pain in one or more fingers. Injuries and many medical conditions can cause finger pain.

Symptoms
Fingers that change color
Fingers or toes may change color when they are exposed to cold temperatures or stress, or when there is a problem with their blood supply.

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Diseases & Conditions
Gout
Gout is a type of arthritis. It occurs when uric acid builds up in blood and causes inflammation in the joints. uric acid Acute gout is a painful condition that often affects only one joint. Chronic gout...

In-depth Report
Gout
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gout.

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Diseases & Conditions
Henoch-Schönlein purpura
Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a disease that involves purple spots on the skin, joint pain, gastrointestinal problems, and glomerulonephritis (a type of kidney disorder). glomerulonephritis

Diseases & Conditions
Hypersensitivity vasculitis
Hypersensitivity vasculitis is an extreme reaction to a drug, infection, or foreign substance. It leads to inflammation and damage to blood vessels, primarily in the skin.

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Symptoms
Joint pain
Joint pain can affect one or more joints.

Symptoms
Joint swelling
Joint swelling is the buildup of fluid in the soft tissue surrounding the joint.

Diseases & Conditions
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a term used to describe a group of disorders in children that includes arthritis. They are chronic (long-term) diseases that cause joint pain and swelling.

K

Diseases & Conditions
Kawasaki disease
Kawasaki disease is a rare condition that involves inflammation of the blood vessels. It occurs in children.

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Special Topics
Lupus - resources

In-depth Report
Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease.

M

Self-Care Instructions
Managing your chronic back pain
Chronic back pain - managing; Chronic back pain - self-care; Failed back syndrome - managing; Lumbar stenosis -managing; Spinal stenosis - managing; Sciatica - managing; Chronic lumbar pain - managing

Self-Care Instructions
Medicines for osteoporosis
Alendronate (Fosamax); Ibandronate (Boniva); Risedronate (Actonel); Zoledronic acid (Reclast); Raloxifene (Evista); Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis...

Diseases & Conditions
Myositis
Myositis is an inflammation or swelling of the muscles. It is usually caused by injury, infection, medicines, or an autoimmune disorder. autoimmune disorder

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Diseases & Conditions
Necrotizing vasculitis
Necrotizing vasculitis is a group of disorders that involve inflammation of the blood vessel walls. The size of the affected blood vessels helps to determine the names of these conditions and how the disorder...

O

Diseases & Conditions
Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder. It is due to aging and wear and tear on a joint.

In-depth Report
Osteoarthritis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the most common form of arthritis.

In-depth Report
Osteoporosis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of osteoporosis.

Diseases & Conditions
Osteoporosis - overview
Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break (fracture).

P

Diseases & Conditions
Polyarteritis nodosa
Polyarteritis nodosa is a serious blood vessel disease. The small and medium-sized arteries become swollen and damaged.

Diseases & Conditions
Polymyalgia rheumatica
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory disorder. It involves pain and stiffness in the shoulders and often the hips.

Diseases & Conditions
Polymyositis - adult
Polymyositis is a rare inflammatory disease. It leads to muscle weakness, swelling, tenderness, and tissue damage. It is part of a larger group of diseases called myositis.

Diseases & Conditions
Psoriatic arthritis
Psoriatic arthritis is a joint problem (arthritis) that often occurs with a skin condition called psoriasis. arthritis psoriasis

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Diseases & Conditions
Raynaud phenomenon
Raynaud phenomenon is a condition in which cold temperatures or strong emotions cause blood vessel spasms. This blocks blood flow to the fingers, toes, ears, and nose.

Diseases & Conditions
Reactive arthritis
Reactive arthritis is a group of conditions that may involve the joints, eyes, and urinary and genital systems. These areas become swollen and inflamed. It is often in response to infections.

Diseases & Conditions
Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term disease. It leads to inflammation of the joints and surrounding tissues. It can also affect other organs.

In-depth Report
Rheumatoid arthritis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.

Tests
Rheumatoid factor (RF)
Rheumatoid factor (RF) is a blood test that measures the amount of the RF antibody in the blood. antibody

S

Diseases & Conditions
Scleroderma
Scleroderma is a disease that involves the buildup of scar-like tissue in the skin and elsewhere in the body. It also damages the cells that line the walls of the small arteries.

In-depth Report
Scleroderma
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of scleroderma.

Special Topics
Scleroderma - resources

Diseases & Conditions
Scleroma
A scleroma is a hardened patch of tissue in the skin or mucous membranes. It usually forms in the head and neck. The nose is the most common location for scleromas, but they can also form in the throat...

Diseases & Conditions
Septic arthritis
Septic arthritis is inflammation of a joint due to a bacterial or fungal infection. Septic arthritis that is due to the bacteria that cause gonorrhea has different symptoms and is also called gonococcal...

Diseases & Conditions
Sjögren syndrome
Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the glands that produce tears and saliva are destroyed. This causes dry mouth and dry eyes. The condition may affect other parts of the body, including...

Diseases & Conditions
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. In this disease, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. It can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, brain, and other organs...

In-depth Report
Systemic lupus erythematosus
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of lupus.

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Diseases & Conditions
Takayasu arteritis
Takayasu arteritis is an inflammation of the aorta and its major branches. The aorta is the artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. its major branches

Diseases & Conditions
Thromboangiitis obliterans
Thromboangiitis obliterans is a rare disease in which blood vessels of the hands and feet become blocked.

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Diseases & Conditions
Viral arthritis
Viral arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint caused by a viral infection.