Pathology

Pathology is the branch of medical science that performs laboratory analysis of bodily fluids and tissues. It is vital to diagnosis, forensics, and research.

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Tests
24-hour urine copper test
The 24-hour urine copper test measures the amount of copper in a urine sample.

Tests
5'-nucleotidase
5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT) is a protein produced by the liver. A test can be done to measure the amount of this protein in your blood.

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Acid loading test (pH)
The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the kidneys to send acid to the urine when there is too much acid in the blood. This test involves both a blood test and urine test.

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Acid mucopolysaccharides
Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount of mucopolysaccharides released into the urine either on 1 episode or over a 24-hour period. mucopolysaccharides Mucopolysaccharides are long...

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Aldolase blood test
Aldolase is a protein (called an enzyme) that helps break down certain sugars to produce energy. It is found in high amount in muscle tissue. A test can be done to measure the amount of aldolase in your...

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Alpha fetoprotein
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the liver and yolk sac of a developing baby during pregnancy. AFP levels go down soon after birth. It is likely that AFP has no normal function in adults...

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Alpha-1 antitrypsin blood test
Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a laboratory test to measure the amount of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) in your blood.

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Aminoaciduria
Aminoaciduria is an abnormal amount of amino acids in the urine. Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins in the body.

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Ammonia blood test
The ammonia test measures the level of ammonia in a blood sample.

Special Topics
Anaerobic
The word anaerobic indicates "without oxygen. " The term has many uses in medicine. Anaerobic bacteria are germs that can survive and grow where there is no oxygen. For example, it can thrive in human tissue...

Tests
Antistreptolysin O titer
Antistreptolysin O (ASO) titer is a blood test to measure antibodies against streptolysin O, a substance produced by group A streptococcus bacteria. Antibodies are proteins our bodies produce when they...

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B and T cell screen
B and T cell screen is a laboratory test to determine the amount of T and B cells (lymphocytes) in the blood.

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Basic metabolic panel
The basic metabolic panel is a group of blood tests that provides information about your body's metabolism. metabolism

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Beta-carotene blood test
The beta-carotene test measures the level of beta-carotene in the blood.

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Buccal smear
A buccal  (pronounced "buckle") smear is the painless removal of a sample of cells from the inside of your mouth (cheek) for study.

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Special Topics
Chromatography
Chromatography is a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. Chemical compounds are chemicals that are bonded together. For example, water is a chemical bond of oxygen and hydrogen. Proteins are...

Tests
Chromium - blood test
Chromium is a mineral that affects insulin, carbohydrate, fat, and protein levels in the body. This article discusses the test to check the amount of chromium in your blood.

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Citric acid urine test
Citric acid urine test measures the level of citric acid in urine.

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Comprehensive metabolic panel
A comprehensive metabolic panel is a group of blood tests. They provide an overall picture of your body's chemical balance and metabolism. Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in...

Special Topics
Cytologic evaluation
Cytologic evaluation is the analysis of cells from the body under a microscope. This is done to determine what the cells look like, and how they form and function. The test is usually used to look for cancers...

Tests
Cytology exam of urine
A cytology exam of urine is a test used to detect cancer and other diseases of the urinary tract.

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Tests
D-xylose absorption
D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine how well the intestines absorb a simple sugar (D-xylose). The test helps determine if nutrients are being properly absorbed.

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Delta-ALA urine test
Delta-ALA is a protein (amino acid) produced by the liver. A test can be done to measure the amount of this substance in the urine.

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Digoxin test
A digoxin test checks how much digoxin you have in your blood. Digoxin is a type of medicine called a cardiac glycoside. It is used to treat certain heart problems.

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ELISA blood test
ELISA stands for enzyme-linked immunoassay. It is a commonly used laboratory test to detect antibodies in the blood. An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful...

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Ethylene glycol blood test
This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a type of alcohol found in automotive and household products. It does not have color or odor. It tastes sweet. Ethylene glycol...

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Fibrinopeptide A blood test
Fibrinopeptide A is a substance released as blood clots in your body. A test can be done to measure the level of this substance in your blood.

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HLA-B27 antigen
HLA-B27 is a blood test to look for a protein that is found on the surface of white blood cells. The protein is called human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27). Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are proteins...

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Hemoglobin derivatives
Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that moves oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and body tissues. hemoglobin This article discusses...

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Histocompatibility antigen test
A histocompatibility antigen blood test looks at proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). These are found on the surface of almost all cells in the human body. HLAs are found in large amounts on...

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Hormone levels
Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information...

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Hyperplasia
Hyperplasia is increased cell production in a normal tissue or organ. Hyperplasia may be a sign of abnormal or precancerous changes. This is called pathologic hyperplasia. It can also be due to the growth...

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Latex agglutination test
The latex agglutination test is a laboratory method to check for certain antibodies or antigens in a variety of body fluids including saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, or blood. antibodies antigens

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Lead levels - blood
Blood lead level is a test that measures the amount of lead in the blood.

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Leucine aminopeptidase - urine
Leucine aminopeptidase is a type of protein called an enzyme. It is normally found in liver cells and cells of the small intestine. This test is used to measure how much of this protein appears in your...

Tests
Leucine aminopeptidase blood test
The leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) test measures how much of this enzyme is in your blood. enzyme Your urine can also be checked for LAP.

Tests
Leukocyte esterase urine test
Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection.

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Methanol test
Methanol is a substance that can occur naturally in small amounts in the body. The main sources of methanol in the body include fruits, vegetables, and diet drinks that contain aspartame. Methanol is a...

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Methylmalonic acid blood test
The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the blood.

Tests
Microalbuminuria test
This test looks for a protein called albumin in a urine sample. Albumin can also be measured using a blood test or another urine test called the protein urine test. blood test protein urine test

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Special Topics
Necrosis
Necrosis is the death of body tissue. It occurs when too little blood flows to the tissue. This can be from injury, radiation, or chemicals. Necrosis cannot be reversed. When large areas of tissue die due...

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Tests
PBG urine test
Porphobilinogen (PBG) is one of several types of porphyrins found in your body. Porphyrins help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that...

Tests
Plasma amino acids
Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino acids in the blood. Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins in the body. amino acids

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Porphyrins blood test
Porphyrins help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin. This is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be measured in the blood or...

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Special Topics
Serosanguineous
Serosanguineous means containing or relating to both blood and the liquid part of blood (serum). It usually refers to fluids collected from or leaving the body. For example, fluid leaving a wound that is...

Tests
Sputum direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test
Sputum direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) is a lab test that looks for micro-organisms in lung secretions.

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T-cell count
A T-cell count measures the number of T cells in the blood. Your doctor may order this test if you have signs of a weak immune system, such as due to having HIV/AIDS.

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TBG - blood test
The TBG blood test measures the level of a protein that moves thyroid hormone throughout your body. This protein is called thyroxine binding globulin (TBG).

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Therapeutic drug levels
Therapeutic drug levels are lab tests to look for the presence and the amount of a drug in the blood.

Special Topics
Titer
A titer is a measurement of the amount or concentration of a substance in a solution. It usually refers to the amount of antibodies found in a person's blood. antibodies

Tests
Trypsinogen test
Trypsinogen is a substance that is normally produced in the pancreas and released into the small intestine. Trypsinogen is converted to trypsin. Then it starts the process needed to break down proteins...

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Urine melanin test
Urine melanin test is a test to determine the abnormal presence of melanin in the urine. melanin

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VLDL test
VLDL stands for very low density lipoprotein. Lipoproteins are made up of cholesterol, triglycerides, and proteins. They move cholesterol, triglycerides, and other lipids (fats) to around the body. cholesterol...

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Vitamin A blood test
The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A in the blood.