Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is the care of eye and vision. In addition to prescribing and fitting glasses and contacts to correct vision problems, ophthalmologists also treat eye diseases (such as glaucoma) and perform eye surgery.

Learn more about ophthalmology at Mount Sinai Health System

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Diseases & Conditions
Allergic conjunctivitis
Allergic conjunctivitis occurs when the conjunctiva becomes swollen or inflamed due to a reaction to pollen, dander, mold, or other allergy-causing substances. The conjunctiva is a clear layer of tissue...

Diseases & Conditions
Amblyopia
Amblyopia the loss of the ability to see clearly through one eye. It is also called "lazy eye. " It is the most common cause of vision problems in children.

Diseases & Conditions
Astigmatism
Astigmatism is a type of refractive error of the eye. Refractive errors cause blurred vision and are the most common reason why a person goes to see an eye professional. Other types of refractive errors...

B

Diseases & Conditions
Blepharitis
Blepharitis is swelling or inflammation of the eyelids. Dandruff-like debris builds up at the base of the eyelashes as well.

Special Topics
Blindness - resources

Symptoms
Blindness and vision loss
Blindness is a lack of vision. It may also refer to a loss of vision that cannot be corrected with glasses or contact lenses. Partial blindness means you have very limited vision.Complete blindness means...

Diseases & Conditions
Blocked tear duct
A blocked tear duct is a partial or complete blockage in the pathway that carries tears from the surface of the eye into the nose.

C

Diseases & Conditions
Cataract - adult
A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye.

Surgery
Cataract removal
Cataract removal is surgery to remove a clouded lens (cataract) from the eye. Cataracts are removed to help you see better. The procedure almost always includes placing an artificial lens (IOL) in the eye...

In-depth Report
Cataracts
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cataracts.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Cataracts - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about cataracts; Lens implants - what to ask your doctor

Diseases & Conditions
Central serous choroidopathy
Central serous choroidopathy is a disease that causes fluid to build up under the retina, the back part of the inner eye that sends sight information to the brain. The fluid leaks from the blood vessel...

Diseases & Conditions
Chalazion
A chalazion is a small bump in the eyelid caused by a blockage of a tiny oil gland.

Symptoms
Chemosis
Chemosis is swelling of the tissue that lines the eyelids and surface of the eye (conjunctiva).

Diseases & Conditions
Choroidal dystrophies
Choroidal dystrophy is an eye disorder that involves a layer of blood vessels called the choroid. These vessels are between the sclera and retina. choroid sclera retina In most cases, choroidal dystrophy...

Special Topics
Ciliary body
The ciliary body is the structure in the eye that releases a clear liquid in the eye. This liquid is called the aqueous humor. The ciliary body also contains the ciliary muscle. This muscle changes the...

Symptoms
Cloudy cornea
A cloudy cornea is a loss of transparency of the cornea.

Symptoms
Coloboma of the iris
Coloboma of the iris is a hole or defect of the iris of the eye. Most colobomas are present since birth (congenital). iris

Diseases & Conditions
Color blindness
Color blindness is the inability to see some colors in the usual way.

Tests
Color vision test
A color vision test checks your ability to distinguish between different colors.

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital cataract
A congenital cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye that is present at birth. The lens of the eye is normally clear. It focuses light that comes into the eye onto the retina. cataract retina

Special Topics
Conjunctiva
The conjunctiva is a thin membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelid and the white part of the eyeball (the sclera). Inflammation of the conjunctiva is called conjunctivitis. It makes the white...

Diseases & Conditions
Conjunctivitis
Conjunctivitis is swelling (inflammation) or infection of the conjunctiva. This is the membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. conjunctiva

Diseases & Conditions
Corneal injury
Corneal injury is a wound to the part of the eye known as the cornea. The cornea is the crystal clear (transparent) tissue that covers the front of the eye. It works with the lens of the eye to focus images...

Surgery
Corneal transplant
The cornea is the clear outer lens on the front of the eye. A corneal transplant is surgery to replace the cornea with tissue from a donor. It is one of the most common transplants done.

Discharge Instructions
Corneal transplant - discharge
Keratoplasty - discharge; Penetrating keratoplasty - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Corneal ulcers and infections
The cornea is the clear tissue at the front of the eye. A corneal ulcer is an open sore in the outer layer of the cornea. It is often caused by infection.

D

Diseases & Conditions
Dacryoadenitis
Dacryoadenitis is inflammation of the tear-producing gland (lacrimal gland).

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes - eye care
Diabetic retinopathy - care

Diseases & Conditions
Diabetes and eye disease
Diabetes can harm the eyes. It can damage the small blood vessels in the retina, the back part of your eye. This condition is called diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes also increases the chance of having glaucoma...

Self-Care Instructions
Diabetes eye exams
Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam

Diseases & Conditions
Dry eye syndrome
You need tears to moisten the eyes and to wash away particles that have gotten in. A healthy tear film on the eye is necessary for good vision. Dry eyes develop when the eye is unable to maintain a healthy...

E

Diseases & Conditions
Ectropion
Ectropion is the turning out of the eyelid so that the inner surface is exposed. It most often affects the lower eyelid.

Tests
Electroretinography
Electroretinography is a test to measure the electrical response of the eye's light-sensitive cells, called rods and cones. These cells are part of the retina (the back part of the eye).

Diseases & Conditions
Endophthalmitis
Endophthalmitis involves swelling (inflammation) within the eyeball. It is a serious condition.

Diseases & Conditions
Entropion
Entropion is the turning in of an edge of an eyelid, causing the lashes to rub against the eye. It most often is seen on the lower eyelid.

Diseases & Conditions
Episcleritis
Episcleritis is irritation and inflammation of the episclera, a thin layer of tissue covering the white part (sclera) of the eye. It is not an infection.

Tests
Extraocular muscle function testing
Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. A health care provider observes the movement of the eyes in six specific directions.

Special Topics
Eye - foreign object in

Symptoms
Eye burning - itching and discharge
Eye burning with discharge is burning, itching, or drainage from the eye of any substance other than tears.

Injury
Eye emergencies
Eye emergencies include cuts, scratches, objects in the eye, burns, chemical exposure, and blunt injuries to the eye or eyelid. Certain eye infections and other medical conditions, such as blood clots or...

Special Topics
Eye floaters

Surgery
Eye muscle repair
Eye muscle repair is surgery to correct eye muscle problems that cause strabismus (crossed eyes). strabismus

Symptoms
Eye pain
Pain in the eye may be described as a burning, throbbing, aching, or stabbing sensation in or around the eye. It may also feel like you have a foreign object in your eye. This article discusses eye pain...

Symptoms
Eye redness
Eye redness is most often due to swollen or dilated blood vessels. This makes the surface of the eye look red or bloodshot.

Diseases & Conditions
Eyelid bump
Most bumps on the eyelid are styes. A stye is an inflamed oil gland on the edge of your eyelid, where the lash meets the lid. It appears as a red, swollen bump that looks like a pimple. It is often tender...

Diseases & Conditions
Eyelid drooping
Eyelid drooping is excess sagging of the upper eylid. The edge of the upper eyelid may be lower than it should be (ptosis) or there may be excess baggy skin in the upper eyelid (dermatochalasis). Eyelid...

Surgery
Eyelid lift
Eyelid lift surgery is done to repair sagging or drooping upper eyelids (ptosis). The surgery is called blepharoplasty. ptosis Sagging or drooping eyelids occur with increasing age. Some people are born...

F

Diseases & Conditions
Farsightedness
Farsightedness is greater difficulty seeing near objects than distant objects.

Tests
Fluorescein angiography
Fluorescein angiography is an eye test that uses a special dye and camera to look at blood flow in the retina and choroid. These are the two layers in the back of the eye. retina choroid

Tests
Fluorescein eye stain
This is a test that uses orange dye (fluorescein) and a blue light to detect foreign bodies in the eye. This test can also detect damage to the cornea. The cornea is the outer surface of the eye.

Diseases & Conditions
Fuchs dystrophy
Fuchs' (pronounced "fooks") dystrophy is an eye disease in which cells lining the inner surface of the cornea slowly start to die off. The disease usually affects both eyes.

G

Diseases & Conditions
Glaucoma
Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that can damage the optic nerve. This nerve sends the images you see to your brain. Most often, optic nerve damage is caused by increased pressure in the eye. This...

In-depth Report
Glaucoma
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of glaucoma.

H

Symptoms
Heterochromia
Heterochromia is different colored eyes in the same person.

Diseases & Conditions
High blood pressure and eye disease
Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina from high blood pressure. The retina is the layer of tissue at the back part of the eye. It changes light and images that enter the eye into nerve signals...

Tests
Home vision tests
Home vision tests measure the ability to see fine detail.

Diseases & Conditions
Hyphema
Hyphema is blood in the front area (anterior chamber) of the eye. The blood collects behind the cornea and in front of the iris.

I

Diseases & Conditions
Interstitial keratitis
Interstitial keratitis is inflammation of the tissue of the cornea, the clear window on the front of the eye. The condition can lead to vision loss.

Surgery
Intravitreal injection
An intravitreal injection is a shot of medicine into the eye. The inside of the eye is filled with a jelly-like fluid (vitreous). During this procedure, your health care provider injects medicine into the...

Special Topics
Iris
The iris is the colored part of the eye. It is located between the cornea and lens. The round, central opening of the iris is called the pupil. Very small muscles in the iris cause the pupil to get smaller...

K

Diseases & Conditions
Keratoconus
Keratoconus is an eye disease that affects the structure of the cornea. The cornea is the clear tissue that covers the front of the eye. With this condition, the shape of the cornea slowly changes shape...

L

Surgery
LASIK eye surgery
LASIK is eye surgery that permanently changes the shape of the cornea (the clear covering on the front of the eye). It is done to improve vision and reduce a person's need for glasses or contact lenses...

Surgery
Laser photocoagulation - eye
Diabetes can harm the eyes. It can damage the small blood vessels in the retina, the back part of your eye. This condition is called diabetic retinopathy. Laser photocoagulation is eye surgery using...

Discharge Instructions
Lasik eye surgery - discharge
Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis - discharge; Laser vision correction - discharge; LASIK - discharge; Myopia - Lasik discharge; Nearsightedness - Lasik discharge

Self-Care Instructions
Living with vision loss
Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have already tried the available medical or surgical treatments. And no other treatments will...

M

Special Topics
Macula lutea
When an eye is looking directly at an object, light rays from that object are focused on the macula lutea. This is a yellow oval spot at the center of the retina (back of the eye). It is the part of the...

Diseases & Conditions
Macular degeneration - age-related
Macular degeneration is an eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central vision. This makes it difficult to see fine details and read. The disease is most common in people over age 60, which is why it...

Diseases & Conditions
Meibomianitis
Meibomianitis is inflammation of the meibomian glands, a group of oil-releasing (sebaceous) glands in the eyelids. These glands have tiny openings to release oils onto the surface of the cornea.

N

Diseases & Conditions
Nearsightedness
Nearsightedness is when light entering the eye is focused incorrectly, making distant objects appear blurred. Nearsightedness is a type of refractive error of the eye. If you are nearsighted, you have trouble...

Special Topics
Neuroretinitis
Neuroretinitis is inflammation of the retina and optic nerve of the eye. The condition can be caused by bacteria, viruses or autoimmune disease. It shares some features of optic neuritis. There is mostly...

Special Topics
Neuroretinitis - definition
Neuroretinitis is inflammation of the retina and optic nerve of the eye. The condition can be caused by bacteria, viruses or autoimmune disease. It shares some features of optic neuritis. There is mostly...

O

Self-Care Instructions
Oculoplastic procedures
Oculoplastics

Tests
Ophthalmoscopy
Ophthalmoscopy is an examination of the back part of the eye (fundus), which includes the retina, optic disc, choroid, and blood vessels. retina choroid

Diseases & Conditions
Optic nerve atrophy
Optic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries images of what the eye sees to the brain.

Diseases & Conditions
Optic neuritis
The optic nerve carries images of what the eye sees to the brain. When this nerve become swollen or inflamed, it is called optic neuritis. It may cause sudden, reduced vision in the affected eye.

Diseases & Conditions
Orbital cellulitis
Orbital cellulitis is a sudden (acute) infection of the tissues around the eye. It affects the eyelids, eyebrow, and cheek. acute

Diseases & Conditions
Orbital pseudotumor
Orbital pseudotumor is the swelling of tissue behind the eye in an area called the orbit. The orbit is the hollow space in the skull where the eye sits. The orbit protects the eyeball and the muscles and...

P

Special Topics
PAM
PAM stands for "potential acuity meter. " It is an instrument used to examine the eyes. Your health care provider can use this tool to predict how well you may see after eye surgery. People who have reduced...

Diseases & Conditions
Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome
Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome is an eye problem that is similar to conjunctivitis ("pink eye"). It usually affects only one eye and occurs with swollen lymph nodes and an illness with a fever. swollen...

Symptoms
Photophobia
Photophobia is eye discomfort in bright light.

Diseases & Conditions
Pinguecula
A pingueculum is a common, non-cancerous growth of the conjunctiva. This is the clear, thin tissue that covers the white part of the eye (sclera). The growth occurs in the part of the conjunctiva that is...

Diseases & Conditions
Presbyopia
Presbyopia is a condition in which the lens of the eye loses its ability to focus. This makes it hard to see objects up close.

Diseases & Conditions
Pterygium
A pterygium is a non-cancerous growth that starts in the clear, thin tissue (conjunctiva) of the eye. This growth covers the white part of the eye (sclera) and extends onto the cornea. It is often slightly...

Symptoms
Ptosis - infants and children
Ptosis (eyelid drooping) in infants and children is when the upper eyelid is lower than it should be. This may occur in one or both eyes. Eyelid drooping that occurs at birth or within the first year is...

Symptoms
Pupil - white spots
White spots in the pupil is a condition that causes the pupil of the eye to look white instead of black.

R

Tests
Refraction test
The refraction test is an eye exam that measures a person's prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses.

Discharge Instructions
Refractive corneal surgery - discharge
You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects mild-to-moderate nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. You will...

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Refractive eye surgery - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about refractive eye surgery; Nearsightedness surgery - what to ask your doctor; LASIK - what to ask your doctor; Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis - what to ask your doctor...

Special Topics
Retina
The retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eyeball. Images that come through the eye's lens are focused on the retina. The retina then converts these images to electric signals...

Diseases & Conditions
Retinal artery occlusion
Retinal artery occlusion is a blockage in one of the small arteries that carry blood to the retina. The retina is a layer of tissue in the back of the eye that is able to sense light. retina

Diseases & Conditions
Retinal detachment
Retinal detachment is a separation of the light-sensitive membrane (retina) in the back of the eye from its supporting layers.

Surgery
Retinal detachment repair
Retinal detachment repair is eye surgery to place a retina back into its normal position. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue in the back of the eye. Detachment means that it has pulled away from the...

Diseases & Conditions
Retinal vein occlusion
Retinal vein occlusion is a blockage of the small veins that carry blood away from the retina. The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye that converts light images to nerve signals...

Diseases & Conditions
Retinitis pigmentosa
Retinitis pigmentosa is an eye disease in which there is damage to the retina. The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye. This layer converts light images to nerve signals and sends...

Diseases & Conditions
Retinopathy of prematurity
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is abnormal blood vessel development in the retina of the eye. It occurs in infants that are born too early (premature). premature

S

Tests
Schirmer test
The Schirmer test determines whether the eye produces enough tears to keep it moist.

Special Topics
Sclera
The sclera is the white outer coating of the eye. It is tough, fibrous tissue that extends from the cornea (the clear front section of the eye) to the optic nerve at the back of the eye. The sclera gives...

Diseases & Conditions
Scleritis
Scleritis is an inflammation of the sclera (the white outer wall of the eye).

Discharge Instructions
Septoplasty - discharge
Nasal septum repair - discharge

Tests
Slit-lamp exam
The slit-lamp examination looks at structures that are at the front of the eye.

Tests
Standard ophthalmic exam
A standard ophthalmic exam is a series of tests done to check your vision and the health of your eyes.

Diseases & Conditions
Strabismus
Strabismus is a disorder in which both eyes do not line up in the same direction, so they do not look at the same object at the same time. The condition is more commonly known as "crossed eyes."

Diseases & Conditions
Subconjunctival hemorrhage
Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a bright red patch appearing in the white of the eye. This condition is one of several disorders called red eye.

T

Tests
Tonometry
Tonometry is a test to measure the pressure inside your eyes. The test is used to screen for glaucoma. glaucoma

Diseases & Conditions
Trachoma
Trachoma is a bacterial infection of the eye.

U

Special Topics
Uvea
The uvea is the middle layer of the eye. It lies beneath the white part of the eye (the sclera). It is made of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. These structures control many eye functions, including...

Diseases & Conditions
Uveitis
Uveitis is swelling and irritation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye. The uvea provides most of the blood supply to the retina. uvea retina

V

Diseases & Conditions
Vernal conjunctivitis
Vernal conjunctivitis is long-term (chronic) swelling (inflammation) of the outer lining of the eyes. It is due to an allergic reaction. allergic reaction

Symptoms
Vision - night blindness
Night blindness is poor vision at night or in dim light.

Symptoms
Vision problems
There are many types of eye problems and vision disturbances, such as: HalosBlurred vision (the loss of sharpness of vision and the inability to see fine details)Blind spots or scotomas (dark "holes" in...

Tests
Visual acuity test
The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest letters you can read on a standardized chart (Snellen chart) or a card held 20 feet away. Special charts are used when testing at distances shorter...

Tests
Visual field
The visual field refers to the total area in which objects can be seen in the side (peripheral) vision as you focus your eyes on a central point. This article describes the test that measures your visual...

W

Symptoms
Watery eyes
Watery eyes means you have too many tears draining from the eyes. Tears help keep the surface of the eye moist. They wash away particles and foreign objects in the eye.