Obstetrics & Gynecology

Also called OB/GYN, obstetrics and gynecology are actually two distinct medical specialties. Obstetrics is the science of delivering babies and gynecology deals with the health of a woman’s reproductive system. 

Learn more about obstetrics and gynecology at the Mount Sinai Health System

We've found 251
total results for Obstetrics & Gynecology.
results for Obstetrics & Gynecology that begins with
ALL # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
#

Tests
17-OH progesterone
17-OH progesterone is a blood test that measures the amount of 17-OH progesterone. This is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands and sex glands. adrenal glands

A

Surgery
Abortion - medical
Medical abortion is the use of medicine to end an undesired pregnancy. The medicine helps remove the fetus and placenta from the mother's womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic...

Surgery
Abortion - surgical
Surgical abortion is a procedure that ends an undesired pregnancy by removing the fetus and placenta from the mother's womb (uterus). Surgical abortion is not the same as miscarriage. Miscarriage is when...

Discharge Instructions
Abortion - surgical - aftercare

Diseases & Conditions
Absent menstrual periods - primary
Absence of a woman's monthly menstrual period is called amenorrhea. Primary amenorrhea is when a girl has not yet started her monthly periods, and she: Has gone through other normal changes that occur during...

Diseases & Conditions
Absent menstrual periods - secondary
Absence of a woman's monthly menstrual period is called amenorrhea. Secondary amenorrhea is when a woman who has been having normal menstrual cycles stops getting her periods for 6 months or longer.

Self-Care Instructions
Aches and pains during pregnancy
During pregnancy your body will go through a lot of changes as your baby grows and your hormones change. Along with the other common symptoms during pregnancy, you will often notice new aches and pains...

Diseases & Conditions
Adenomyosis
Adenomyosis is a thickening of the uterus. It occurs when endometrial tissue moves into the outer walls of the uterus. This tissue normally lines the uterus.

Diseases & Conditions
Adhesion
Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue that form between two surfaces inside the body and cause them to stick together.

Self-Care Instructions
After a C-section - in the hospital
Most women will remain in the hospital for 2 to 3 days after a cesarean delivery. Take advantage of the time to bond with your new baby, get some rest, and receive some help with breastfeeding and caring...

Self-Care Instructions
After vaginal delivery - in the hospital
Most women will remain in the hospital for 24 hours after delivery. Take advantage of this time to bond with your new baby, get some rest, and receive some help with breastfeeding and caring for your baby...

Special Topics
Aging changes in the female reproductive system
Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly from changing hormone levels. One clear sign of aging occurs when your menstrual periods stop permanently. This is known as menopause. hormone...

Special Topics
Alcohol and pregnancy
Pregnant women are strongly urged not to drink alcohol during pregnancy. Drinking alcohol while pregnant has been shown to cause harm to a baby as it develops in the womb. Alcohol used during pregnancy...

Self-Care Instructions
Am I in labor?
False labor; Braxton Hicks contractions; Prodromal labor; Latent labor; Pregnancy - labor

Tests
Amniocentesis
Amniocentesis is a test that can be done during pregnancy to look for these problems in the developing baby: Birth defectsGenetic problemsInfectionLung development Birth defects Genetic problems Infection...

Special Topics
Amniotic fluid
Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy. It is contained in the amniotic sac.

Surgery
Anterior vaginal wall repair
Anterior vaginal wall repair is a surgical procedure. This surgery tightens the front (anterior) wall of the vagina. anterior

Diseases & Conditions
Asherman syndrome
Asherman syndrome is the formation of scar tissue in the uterine cavity. The problem most often develops after uterine surgery.

Special Topics
Assisted delivery with forceps
In an assisted vaginal delivery, the doctor will use special tools called forceps to help move the baby through the birth canal. Forceps look like 2 large salad spoons. The doctor uses them to guide the...

B

Self-Care Instructions
Baby supplies you need
Newborn care - baby supplies

Self-Care Instructions
Bacterial vaginosis - aftercare
Nonspecific vaginitis - aftercare; BV

Diseases & Conditions
Bartholin cyst or abscess
Bartholin abscess is the buildup of pus that forms a lump (swelling) in one of the Bartholin glands. These glands are found on each side of the vaginal opening. swelling

Self-Care Instructions
Bed rest during pregnancy

Self-Care Instructions
Benefits of breastfeeding
Nursing your baby; Lactation; Deciding to breastfeed

Special Topics
Birth control - slow release methods
Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. These hormones are normally made in a woman's ovaries. These hormones are called estrogen and progestin. Both of these hormones prevent...

Special Topics
Birth control and family planning
Your choice of a birth control method depends on a number of factors, including your health, how often you have sex, and whether or not you want children.

In-depth Report
Birth control options for women
An in-depth report on the birth control options available to women.

Self-Care Instructions
Birth control pills - combination
Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most effective methods of contraception. For most women they are extremely safe. They also have a number of...

Special Topics
Birth control pills - overview
Birth control pills (BCPs) contain man-made forms of 2 hormones called estrogen and progestin. These hormones are made naturally in a woman's ovaries. Birth control pills can contain both of these hormones...

Self-Care Instructions
Birth control pills - progestin only
Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. The pills with only progestin come in 28-day packs. Every pill is active. Each has only progestin, and no estrogen. These types of birth control...

Tests
Bone mineral density test
A bone mineral density (BMD) test measures how much calcium and other types of minerals are in an area of your bone. This test helps your health care provider detect osteoporosis and predict your risk of...

Diseases & Conditions
Breast cancer
Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the tissues of the breast. There are 2 main types of breast cancer: Ductal carcinoma starts in the tubes (ducts) that carry milk from the breast to the nipple. Most...

In-depth Report
Breast cancer
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

Special Topics
Breast cancer screenings

Diseases & Conditions
Breast infection
A breast infection is an infection in the tissue of the breast.

Symptoms
Breast lump
A breast lump is swelling, a growth, or a lump in the breast. Breast lumps in both men and women raise concern for breast cancer, even though most lumps are not cancer. breast cancer

Self-Care Instructions
Breast milk - pumping and storing
Milk - human; Human milk; Milk - breast; Breast pump information

Symptoms
Breast pain
Breast pain is any discomfort or pain in the breast.

Special Topics
Breast self-exam
A breast self-exam is a check-up a woman does at home to look for changes or problems in the breast tissue. Many women feel that doing this is important to their health. However, experts do not agree about...

Self-Care Instructions
Breast skin and nipple changes
Learn about skin and nipple changes in the breast so you know when to see a health care provider.

Special Topics
Breastfeeding - resources

Self-Care Instructions
Breastfeeding - self-care
Nursing mothers - self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Breastfeeding - skin and nipple changes
Inverted nipple; Nipple discharge

Special Topics
Breech birth
The best position for your baby inside your uterus at the time of delivery is head down. This position makes it easier and safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy...

C

Surgery
C-section
A C-section is the delivery of a baby through a surgical opening in the mother's lower belly area. It is also called a cesarean delivery.

Tests
CA-125 blood test
The CA-125 blood test measures the level of the protein CA-125 in the blood.

Special Topics
Certified nurse-midwife

Diseases & Conditions
Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina.

In-depth Report
Cervical cancer
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cervical cancer.

Self-Care Instructions
Cervical cancer - screening and prevention
Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening

Diseases & Conditions
Cervical dysplasia
Cervical dysplasia refers to abnormal changes in the cells on the surface of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina. cervix The changes are not...

Diseases & Conditions
Cervical polyps
Cervical polyps are fingerlike growths on the lower part of the uterus that connects with the vagina (cervix). cervix

Diseases & Conditions
Cervicitis
Cervicitis is swelling or inflamed tissue of the end of the uterus (cervix). cervix

Special Topics
Cervix

Surgery
Cervix cryosurgery
Cervix cryosurgery is a surgical treatment to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue in the cervix. cervix

Diseases & Conditions
Chlamydia infections in women
Chlamydia is an infection spread through sexual contact (STI). This means this infection is passed from one person to another during sexual contact.

Special Topics
Choosing the right health care provider for pregnancy and childbirth
You have many decisions to make now that you are expecting a baby. One of the first things you will have to decide is what kind of health care provider you would like to care for you during your pregnancy...

Tests
Chorionic villus sampling
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test some pregnant women have to screen their baby for genetic problems.

Tests
Cold knife cone biopsy
A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove a sample of abnormal tissue from the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina. Abnormal changes...

Tests
Colposcopy - directed biopsy
A colposcopy is a special way of looking at the cervix. It uses a light and a low-powered microscope to make the cervix appear much larger. This helps your health care provider find and then biopsy abnormal...

Self-Care Instructions
Common symptoms during pregnancy

Tests
Cord blood testing
Cord blood refers to a sample of blood collected from the umbilical cord when a baby is born. The umbilical cord is the cord connecting the baby to the mother's womb. Cord blood testing can be done to evaluate...

Tests
Culdocentesis
Culdocentesis is a procedure that checks for abnormal fluid in the space just behind the vagina. This area is called the cul-de-sac. vagina

D

Surgery
D and C
D and C (dialation and curretage) is a procedure to scrape and collect the tissue (endometrium) from inside the uterus. Dilation (D) is a widening of the cervix to allow instruments into the uterus. Curettage...

Special Topics
Deciding about an IUD

Special Topics
Delivery presentations
Delivery presentation describes the way the baby is positioned to come down the birth canal for delivery. Your baby must pass through your pelvic bones to reach the vaginal opening. The ease at which this...

Diseases & Conditions
Developmental disorders of the female genital tract
Developmental disorders of the female reproductive tract are problems in a baby girl's reproductive organs. They occur while she is growing in her mother's womb. Female reproductive organs include the vagina...

Nutrition
Diabetes diet - gestational
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that starts during pregnancy. Eating a balanced, healthy diet can help you manage gestational diabetes. The diet recommendations that follow are for women...

E

Self-Care Instructions
Eating right during pregnancy
Pregnant women should eat a balanced diet. Making a baby is hard work for a woman's body. Eating right is one of the best things you can do to help your baby grow and develop normally. Eating a balanced...

Diseases & Conditions
Eclampsia
Eclampsia is the new onset of seizures or coma in a pregnant woman with preeclampsia. These seizures are not related to an existing brain condition. seizures

Diseases & Conditions
Ectopic pregnancy
An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that occurs outside the womb (uterus). It is life-threatening to the mother.

Special Topics
Emergency contraception
Emergency contraception is a birth control method to prevent pregnancy in women. It can be used: After a sexual assault or rapeWhen a condom breaks or a diaphragm slips out of placeWhen a woman forgets...

Special Topics
Ending pregnancy with medications
Abortion pill

Surgery
Endometrial ablation
Endometrial ablation is a surgery or procedure done to damage the lining of the uterus in order to minimize heavy or prolonged menstrual flow. This lining is called the endometrium.

Tests
Endometrial biopsy
Endometrial biopsy is the removal of a small piece of tissue from the lining of the uterus (endometrium) for examination. biopsy

Diseases & Conditions
Endometrial polyps
Endometrium is the lining of the inside of the womb (uterus). Overgrowth of this lining can create polyps. Polyps are fingerlike growths that attach to the wall of the uterus. They can be as small as a...

Diseases & Conditions
Endometriosis
Endometriosis occurs when cells from the lining of your womb (uterus) grow in other areas of your body. This can cause pain, heavy bleeding, bleeding between periods, and problems getting pregnant (infertility...

In-depth Report
Endometriosis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of endometriosis.

Diseases & Conditions
Endometritis
Endometritis is an inflammation or irritation of the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). It is not the same as endometriosis. endometriosis

Special Topics
Episiotomy
Labor - episiotomy; Vaginal delivery - episiotomy

Self-Care Instructions
Episiotomy - aftercare
Perineal laceration - aftercare; Vaginal birth perineal tear - aftercare; Postpartum care - episiotomy - aftercare; Labor - episiotomy aftercare; Vaginal delivery - episiotomy aftercare

Tests
Estradiol blood test
An estradiol test measures the amount of a hormone called estradiol in the blood.

F

Special Topics
Female condoms
The female condom is a device used for birth control. Like a male condom, it creates a barrier to prevent the sperm from getting to the egg. birth control

Tests
Fetal scalp pH testing
Fetal scalp pH testing is a procedure performed when a woman is in active labor to determine if the baby is getting enough oxygen.

Tests
Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution
The fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution test is used to measure the number of the unborn baby's red blood cells in a pregnant woman's blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Fibroadenoma - breast
Fibroadenoma of the breast is a benign tumor. Benign tumor means it is not caused by cancer.

Diseases & Conditions
Fibrocystic breast disease
Fibrocystic breast disease is a common way to describe painful, lumpy breasts.

Tests
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test
The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, located on the underside of the brain.

G

Special Topics
Genetic counseling
Genetics is the study of heredity, the process of a parent passing certain genes on to their children. A person's appearance, such as height, hair color, skin color, and eye color, are determined by genes...

Self-Care Instructions
Genital herpes - self-care
It is normal to be worried after finding out that you have genital herpes. But know that you are not alone. Millions of people carry the virus. Although there is no cure, genital herpes can be treated....

Symptoms
Genital sores - female
Sores or lesions on the female genitalia or in the vagina may occur for many reasons.

Diseases & Conditions
Genital warts
Genital warts are soft growths on the skin and mucus membranes of the genitals. They may be found on the penis, vulva, urethra, vagina, cervix, and around and in the anus. penis vulva vagina cervix Genital...

Diseases & Conditions
Gestational diabetes
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (diabetes) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. diabetes

Self-Care Instructions
Gestational diabetes - self-care
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that happens during pregnancy. Usually there are no symptoms. But gestational diabetes may: Cause mild symptoms, such as increased thirst or shakiness...

Diseases & Conditions
Gestational trophoblastic disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of conditions in which tumors grow inside a woman's uterus (womb). The abnormal cells start in the tissue that would normally become the placenta. The...

Tests
Glucose screening tests during pregnancy
A glucose screening test is a routine test during pregnancy that checks a pregnant woman's blood glucose (sugar) level. Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (diabetes) that starts or is found during...

Discharge Instructions
Going home after a C-section
You are going home after a C-section. You should expect to need help caring for yourself and your newborn. Talk to your partner, parents, in-laws, or friends.

Self-Care Instructions
Group B streptococcus - pregnancy
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some women carry in their intestines and vagina. It is not passed through sexual contact. Most of the time, GBS is harmless. However, GBS can be passed...

H

Tests
HCG blood test - qualitative
A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin in your blood. HCG is a hormone produced in the body during pregnancy. human chorionic gonadotropin Other HCG...

Tests
HCG blood test - quantitative
A quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test measures the specific level of HCG in the blood. HCG is a hormone produced in the body during pregnancy. Other HCG tests include: HCG urine testHCG...

Tests
HCG in urine
This type of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test measures the specific level of HCG in the urine. HCG is a hormone produced in the body during pregnancy. Other HCG tests include: HCG in blood serum...

Diseases & Conditions
HELLP syndrome
HELLP syndrome is a group of symptoms that occur in pregnant women who have: H: hemolysis (the breakdown of red blood cells)EL: elevated liver enzymesLP: low platelet count H: hemolysis (the breakdown of...

Special Topics
HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv. html. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Special Topics
HPV vaccine
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine protects against infection by certain strains of HPV. Human papillomavirus can cause cervical cancer and genital warts. cervical cancer genital warts HPV has also...

In-depth Report
Herpes simplex
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of herpes simplex.

Diseases & Conditions
Hydatidiform mole
Hydatidiform mole is a rare mass or growth that forms inside the womb (uterus) at the beginning of a pregnancy. It is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). gestational trophoblastic disease...

Special Topics
Hydramnios
Hydramniosis a condition that occurs when too much amniotic fluid builds up during pregnancy. It is also called amniotic fluid disorder, or polyhydramnios.

Diseases & Conditions
Hyperemesis gravidarum
Hyperemesis gravidarum is extreme, persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. It can lead to dehydration, weight loss, and electrolyte imbalances. dehydration

Surgery
Hysterectomy
Hysterectomy is surgery to remove a woman's womb (uterus). The uterus is a hollow muscular organ that nourishes the developing baby during pregnancy.

Discharge Instructions
Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge
While you were in the hospital, you had surgery to remove part or all of your uterus. This is called a hysterectomy. The surgeon made a 5- to 7-inch (13- to 18-centimeter) incision (cut) in the lower part...

Discharge Instructions
Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - discharge
While you were in the hospital, you had surgery to remove your uterus. This is called a hysterectomy. The surgeon made 3 to 5 small cuts in your belly. A laparoscope (a thin tube with a small camera on...

Discharge Instructions
Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge
Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge

Tests
Hysterosalpingography
Hysterosalpingography is a special x-ray using dye to look at the womb (uterus) and fallopian tubes.

Surgery
Hysteroscopy
Hysteroscopy is a procedure to look at the inside of the womb (uterus). Your doctor can look at: The opening to the womb (cervix)The inside of the wombThe openings of the fallopian tubes The opening to...

I

Special Topics
Imperforate hymen

Surgery
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a woman's egg and a man's sperm in a laboratory dish. In vitro means outside the body. Fertilization means the sperm has attached to and entered the egg.

Special Topics
Inducing labor
Inducing labor refers to different treatments used to either start or move your labor along at a faster pace. The goal is to bring on contractions or to make them stronger. Several methods can help...

Diseases & Conditions
Infertility
Infertility means you cannot get pregnant (conceive). There are 2 types of infertility: Primary infertility refers to couples who have not become pregnant after at least 1 year having sex without using...

Special Topics
Infertility - resources

In-depth Report
Infertility in women
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of female infertility.

Special Topics
Insufficient cervix
The cervix is the narrow lower end of the uterus that goes into the vagina. In a normal pregnancy, the cervix stays firm, long, and closed until late in the 3rd trimester.In the 3rd trimester, the cervix...

Diseases & Conditions
Intraductal papilloma
Intraductal papilloma is a small, noncancerous (benign) tumor that grows in a milk duct of the breast. tumor

Special Topics
Intrauterine
Intrauterine means "inside the uterus."

Surgery
Intrauterine devices (IUD)
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic T-shaped device used for birth control. It is inserted into the uterus where it stays to prevent pregnancy. birth control

Diseases & Conditions
Intrauterine growth restriction
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to the poor growth of a baby while in the mother's womb during pregnancy.

L

Tests
LH response to GnRH blood test
LH response to GnRH is a blood test to help determine if your pituitary gland can correctly respond to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). LH stands for luteinizing hormone.

Special Topics
Large for gestational age (LGA)
Large for gestational age means that a fetus or infant is larger or more developed than normal for the baby's gestational age. Gestational age is the age of a fetus or baby that starts on the first day...

Self-Care Instructions
Living with endometriosis
Pelvic pain - living with endometriosis; Endometrial implant - living with endometriosis; Endometrioma - living with endometriosis

Self-Care Instructions
Living with uterine fibroids
Leiomyoma - living with fibroids; Fibromyoma - living with fibroids; Myoma - living with fibroids; Vaginal bleeding - living with fibroids; Uterine bleeding - living with fibroids; Pelvic pain - living...

Self-Care Instructions
Losing weight after pregnancy

Tests
Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test
The LH blood test measures the amount of luteinizing hormone (LH) in blood. LH is a hormone released by the pituitary gland, located on the underside of the brain.

M

Special Topics
Mammogram - calcifications
Calcifications are tiny deposits of calcium in your breast tissue. They are often seen on a mammogram. mammogram

Self-Care Instructions
Managing menopause at home
Menopause is most often a natural event that normally occurs between the ages of 45 and 55. After menopause, a woman can no longer become pregnant. For most women, menstrual periods will slowly stop over...

Self-Care Instructions
Managing pain during labor
There is no one best method for dealing with pain during labor. The best choice is the one that makes the most sense for you. Whether you choose to use pain relief or not, it is good to prepare yourself...

Self-Care Instructions
Managing your weight gain during pregnancy
Most women should gain somewhere between 25 and 35 pounds (11.5 to 16 kilograms) during pregnancy. Most will gain 2 to 4 pounds (1 to 2 kilograms) during the first trimester, and then 1 pound (.5 kilogram...

Diseases & Conditions
Menopause
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when her periods (menstruation) stop. Most often, it is a natural, normal body change that most often occurs between ages 45 to 55. After menopause, a woman can no...

In-depth Report
Menopause
An in-depth report on the treatment of menopause-related symptoms.

In-depth Report
Menstrual disorders
An in-depth report on the causes, treatment, and prevention of menstrual cramps.

Diseases & Conditions
Miscarriage
A miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy. (Pregnancy losses after the 20th week are called stillbirths.) A miscarriage may also be called a "spontaneous abortion...

Diseases & Conditions
Miscarriage - threatened
A threatened miscarriage is a condition that suggests a miscarriage might take place before the 20th week of pregnancy. miscarriage

Diseases & Conditions
Mittelschmerz
Mittelschmerz is one-sided, lower abdominal pain that affects some women. It occurs at or around the time of an egg is released from the ovaries (ovulation).

Special Topics
Monitoring your baby before labor
Prenatal care - monitoring; Pregnancy care - monitoring; Non-stress test - monitoring; NST- monitoring; Contraction stress test - monitoring; CST- monitoring; Biophysical profile - monitoring; BPP - monitoring

Symptoms
Morning sickness
Morning sickness is nausea and vomiting that can actually occur at any time of the day during pregnancy. nausea and vomiting

Self-Care Instructions
Morning sickness
The term "morning sickness" is used to describe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Some women also have the symptoms of dizziness and headaches.

N

Diseases & Conditions
Nabothian cyst
A nabothian cyst is a mucus-filled lump on the surface of the cervix. The cervix is located at the lower end of the womb (uterus) at the top of the vagina. It is about 1 inch long.

Diseases & Conditions
Nipple discharge
Nipple discharge is any fluid that comes out of the nipple area in your breast.

Tests
Nuchal translucency test
The nuchal translucency test measures the nuchal fold thickness. This is an area of tissue at the back of an unborn baby's neck. Measuring this thickness helps assess the risk of Down syndrome and other...

O

In-depth Report
Osteoporosis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of osteoporosis.

Diseases & Conditions
Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer is cancer that starts in the ovaries. The ovaries are the female reproductive organs that produce eggs.

In-depth Report
Ovarian cancer
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ovarian cancer.

Diseases & Conditions
Ovarian cysts
An ovarian cyst is a sac filled with fluid that forms on or inside an ovary. This article is about cysts that form during your monthly menstrual cycle, called functional cysts. Functional cysts are not...

Diseases & Conditions
Ovarian hypofunction
Ovarian hypofunction is reduced function of the ovaries (including decreased production of hormones).

Diseases & Conditions
Ovarian overproduction of androgens
Ovarian overproduction of androgens is a condition in which the ovaries make too much testosterone. This leads to the development of male characteristics in a woman. Androgens from other parts of the body...

Tests
Ovulation home test
An ovulation home test is used by women to help determine the time in the menstrual cycle when getting pregnant is most likely. The test detects a rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) in the urine. A rise in...

P

Symptoms
Painful menstrual periods
Painful menstrual periods are periods in which a woman has crampy lower abdominal pain, which can be sharp or aching and come and go. Back pain may also be present. Some pain during your period is normal...

Tests
Pap test
The Pap test checks for cervical cancer. Cells scraped from the opening of the cervix are examined under a microscope. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina...

Special Topics
Pelvic floor muscle training exercises
Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor.

Diseases & Conditions
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of a woman's womb (uterus), ovaries, or fallopian tubes.

Self-Care Instructions
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) - aftercare
PID - aftercare; Oophoritis - aftercare; Salpingitis - aftercare; Salpingo - oophoritis - aftercare; Salpingo - peritonitis - aftercare; STD - PID aftercare; Sexually transmitted disease - PID aftercare...

Surgery
Pelvic laparoscopy
Pelvic laparoscopy is surgery to examine pelvic organs. It uses a viewing tool called a laparoscope. The surgery is also used to treat certain diseases of the pelvic organs.

Tests
Pelvic ultrasound - abdominal
A pelvic (transabdominal) ultrasound is an imaging test. It is used to examine organs in the pelvis.

Special Topics
Placenta abruptio
The placenta connects the fetus (unborn baby) to the mother's uterus. It allows the baby to get nutrients, blood, and oxygen from the mother. It also helps the baby get rid of waste. Placenta abruptio ...

Diseases & Conditions
Placenta abruption - definition
The placenta is the organ that supplies food and oxygen to the baby during pregnancy. Placental abruption is when the placenta detaches from the wall of the womb (uterus) before delivery. The most common...

Diseases & Conditions
Placenta previa
Placenta previa is a problem of pregnancy in which the placenta grows in the lowest part of the womb (uterus) and covers all or part of the opening to the cervix. cervix The placenta grows during pregnancy...

Diseases & Conditions
Placental insufficiency
The placenta is the link between you and your baby. When the placenta does not work as well as it should, your baby can get less oxygen and nutrients from you. As a result, your baby may: Not grow as wellShow...

Diseases & Conditions
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a woman has an imbalance of female sex hormones. This may lead to changes in the menstrual cycle, cysts in the ovaries, trouble getting pregnant...

Symptoms
Polyhydramnios
Polyhydramnios occurs when too much amniotic fluid builds up during pregnancy. It is also called amniotic fluid disorder, or hydramnios.

Self-Care Instructions
Positioning your baby for breastfeeding
Breastfeeding positions; Bonding with your baby

Diseases & Conditions
Postpartum depression
Postpartum depression is moderate to severe depression in a woman after she has given birth. It may occur soon after delivery or up to a year later. Most of the time, it occurs within the first 3 months...

Diseases & Conditions
Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia is when a pregnant woman develops high blood pressure and protein in the urine after the 20th week of pregnancy. high blood pressure protein in the urine

Self-Care Instructions
Preeclampsia - self-care
Toxemia - self-care; PIH - self-care; Pregnancy-induced hypertension - self-care

Special Topics
Pregnancy - health risks
If you are trying to get pregnant, you should try to follow healthy habits. You should stick to these behaviors from the time you are trying to get pregnant all the way through your pregnancy. Do not smoke...

Special Topics
Pregnancy - identifying fertile days
Fertile days are the days a woman is most likely to get pregnant. Infertility is a related topic. Infertility

Special Topics
Pregnancy and the flu
During pregnancy, it is harder for a woman's immune system to fight infections. This makes a pregnant woman more likely to get the flu and other diseases. Pregnant women are more likely than other nonpregnant...

Self-Care Instructions
Pregnancy and travel
Most of the time, it is fine to travel while pregnant. As long as you are comfortable and safe, you should be able to travel. Still, talk to your health care provider if you are planning a trip. When you...

Self-Care Instructions
Pregnancy and work
Most women who are pregnant can keep working during their pregnancy. Some women are able to work right up until they are ready to deliver. Others may need to cut back on their hours or stop working before...

Special Topics
Pregnancy care
Getting good care before, during, and after your pregnancy can help your baby grow and develop and keep you both healthy. It is the best way to be sure your little one gets a head start on a healthy life...

Tests
Pregnancy test
A pregnancy test measures a hormone in the body called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy. It appears in the blood and urine of pregnant women as early as 10...

Special Topics
Premature rupture of membranes
PROM; PPROM; Pregnancy complications - premature rupture

Symptoms
Premenstrual breast changes
Premenstrual swelling and tenderness of both breasts occurs during the second half of the menstrual cycle.

Diseases & Conditions
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a condition in which a woman has severe depression symptoms, irritability, and tension before menstruation. The symptoms of PMDD are more severe than those seen...

Diseases & Conditions
Premenstrual syndrome
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to a wide range of symptoms. The symptoms start during the second half of the menstrual cycle (14 or more days after the first day of your last menstrual period). These...

In-depth Report
Premenstrual syndrome
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

Self-Care Instructions
Premenstrual syndrome - self-care
PMS - self-care; Premenstrual dysphoric disorder - self-care

Self-Care Instructions
Prenatal care in your first trimester
Pregnancy care - first trimester

Self-Care Instructions
Prenatal care in your second trimester
Pregnancy care - second trimester

Self-Care Instructions
Prenatal care in your third trimester
Pregnancy third trimester

Self-Care Instructions
Preterm labor
Pregnancy complications - preterm

Self-Care Instructions
Problems sleeping during pregnancy
You may sleep well during the first trimester. You may also need more sleep than usual. Your body is working hard to make a baby. So you will tire easily. But later in your pregnancy, you may have a hard...

Q

Tests
Quadruple screen test
The quadruple screen test is a blood test done during pregnancy to determine whether the baby is at risk for certain birth defects.

R

Special Topics
Rape prevention
Rape is defined as a sexual act forced on a person against his or her will. The most useful tool to prevent rape is to be more aware of the issue. Always trust your instincts if you are somewhere or with...

Diseases & Conditions
Retroversion of the uterus
Retroversion of the uterus occurs when a woman's uterus (womb) tilts backward rather than forward. It is commonly called a "tipped uterus."

S

Special Topics
Safe sex
Safe sex means taking steps before and during sex that can prevent you from getting an infection, or from giving an infection to your partner.

Tests
Serum progesterone
Serum progesterone is a test to measure the amount of progesterone in the blood. Progesterone is a hormone produced mainly in the ovaries. Progesterone plays a key role in pregnancy. It helps make a woman...

Diseases & Conditions
Sheehan syndrome
Sheehan syndrome is a condition that can occur in a woman who bleeds severely during childbirth. Sheehan syndrome is a type of hypopituitarism. hypopituitarism

Self-Care Instructions
Skin and hair changes during pregnancy
Most women have changes in their skin, hair, and nails during pregnancy. Most of these are normal and go away after pregnancy.

Special Topics
Small for gestational age (SGA)
Small for gestational age means that a fetus or an infant is smaller or less developed than normal for the baby's gender and gestational age. Gestational age is the age of a fetus or baby that starts on...

Self-Care Instructions
Steps to take before you get pregnant

Self-Care Instructions
Strategies for getting through labor
No one will tell you that labor is going to be easy. Labor means work, after all. But, there is plenty you can do ahead of time to prepare for labor. One of the best ways to prepare is to take a childbirth...

Diseases & Conditions
Stress urinary incontinence
Stress incontinence occurs when your bladder leaks urine during physical activity or exertion. It may happen when you cough, lift something heavy, change positions, or exercise.

Diseases & Conditions
Subareolar abscess
Subareolar abscess is an abscess, or growth, on the areolar gland. The areolar gland is located in the breast under or below the areola (colored area around the nipple). abscess

T

Self-Care Instructions
Teenage pregnancy
Most pregnant teenage girls did not plan to get pregnant. If you are a pregnant teen, it is very important to get health care during your pregnancy. Know that there are extra health risks for both...

Self-Care Instructions
Timing of breastfeeding
Breastfeeding pattern; Nursing frequency

Special Topics
Tips for labor coaches

Surgery
Tubal ligation
Tubal ligation is surgery to close a woman's fallopian tubes. (It is sometimes called "tying the tubes.") The fallopian tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. A woman who has this surgery can no longer...

Discharge Instructions
Tubal ligation - discharge
Sterilization surgery - female - discharge; Tubal sterilization - discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge; Contraception - tubal

Surgery
Tubal ligation reversal
Tubal ligation reversal is surgery done to allow a woman who has had her tubes tied (tubal ligation) to become pregnant again. The fallopian tubes are reconnected in this reversal surgery. A tubal ligation...

U

In-depth Report
Urinary incontinence
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of urinary incontinence.

Self-Care Instructions
Urinary tract infection in women - self-care
Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead to infection. Most often the infection occurs in the bladder itself. At times...

Surgery
Uterine artery embolization
Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a procedure to treat fibroids without surgery. Uterine fibroids are noncancerous (benign) tumors that develop in the uterus (womb). fibroids During the procedure, the...

Discharge Instructions
Uterine artery embolization - discharge
You had uterine artery embolization (UAE). UAE is a procedure to treat fibroids using radiology instead of surgery. During the procedure, the blood supply of the fibroids was blocked. This caused them to...

Diseases & Conditions
Uterine fibroids
Uterine fibroids are tumors that grow in a woman's womb (uterus). These growths are typically not cancerous (benign).

In-depth Report
Uterine fibroids and hysterectomy
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of uterine fibroids.

Diseases & Conditions
Uterine prolapse
Uterine prolapse occurs when the womb (uterus) drops down and presses into the vaginal area.

V

Special Topics
Vacuum-assisted delivery

Special Topics
Vagina
The vagina is the female body part that connects the womb (uterus) and cervix to the outside of the body. cervix

Special Topics
Vaginal birth after C-section
If you had a cesarean birth (C-section) before, it does not mean that you will have to deliver the same way again. Many women can have vaginal deliveries after having a C-section in the past. This is called...

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginal bleeding - hormonal
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal bleeding from the vagina that is due to changes in hormone levels. It is bleeding that is NOT caused by: Pregnancy or miscarriageMedical conditions, such...

Symptoms
Vaginal bleeding between periods
This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual periods. Such bleeding may be called "intermenstrual bleeding." Related topics include: Dysfunctional uterine bleedingHeavy...

Self-Care Instructions
Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy
Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is any discharge of blood from the vagina. It can happen any time from conception (when the egg is fertilized) to the end of pregnancy. Some women have vaginal bleeding...

Self-Care Instructions
Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

Symptoms
Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy
Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy is any discharge of blood from the vagina during pregnancy.

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginal cysts
A cyst is a closed pocket or pouch of tissue. It can be filled with air, fluid, pus, or other material. A vaginal cyst occurs on or under the vaginal lining.

Discharge Instructions
Vaginal delivery - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginal dryness
Vaginal dryness is present when the tissues of the vagina are no longer well-lubricated and healthy.

Symptoms
Vaginal itching and discharge - adult and adolescent
Vaginal discharge refers to secretions from the vagina. The discharge may be: vagina Thick, pasty, or thinClear, cloudy, bloody, white, yellow, or greenOdorless or have a bad odor Thick, pasty, or thin...

Symptoms
Vaginal itching and discharge - child
Itching, redness, and swelling of the skin of the vagina and the surrounding area (vulva) is a common problem in girls before the age of puberty. Vaginal discharge may also be present. The color, smell...

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginal or uterine bleeding - overview
Vaginal bleeding normally occurs during a woman's menstrual cycle, when she gets her period. Every woman's period is different. Most women have cycles between 24 and 34 days apart. It usually lasts 4 to...

Special Topics
Vaginal sponge and spermicides
Spermicides and vaginal sponges are 2 over-the-counter birth control methods used during sex to prevent pregnancy. Over-the-counter means that they can be purchased without a prescription.

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginal yeast infection
Vaginal yeast infection is an infection of the vagina. It is most commonly due to the fungus Candida albicans. Candida albicans

Self-Care Instructions
Vaginitis - self-care
Vulvovaginitis - self-care; Yeast infections - vaginitis

Tests
Vaginitis test - wet mount
The vaginitis wet mount test is a test to detect an infection of the vagina.

Special Topics
Vulva
The vulva is made up of the female genital parts that are outside the body. It includes the "lips" or folds of skin (labia), clitoris, and the openings to the urethra and vagina. vagina

Diseases & Conditions
Vulvovaginitis - overview
Vulvovaginitis or vaginitis is swelling or infection of the vulva and vagina. Vaginitis is a common problem that can affect women and girls of all ages.

W

Self-Care Instructions
What to bring to your labor and delivery
Prenatal care - what to bring

Self-Care Instructions
What to include in your birth plan
Birth plans are guides that parents-to-be make to help their health care providers best support them during labor and delivery. There are lot of things to consider before you make a birth plan. This is...

Self-Care Instructions
When you need to gain more weight during pregnancy
Most women should gain somewhere between 25 and 35 pounds (11. 5 to 16 kilograms) during pregnancy. If a woman does not gain enough weight, there may be health problems for the mother and baby. Most women...

Special Topics
When you pass your due date
Pregnancy complications - post-term; Pregnancy complications - overdue

Self-Care Instructions
When your baby is stillborn
Stillbirth

Self-Care Instructions
Women and sexual problems
Frigidity - self-care; Sexual dysfunction - female - self-care

Special Topics
Women's health
Women's health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and conditions that affect a woman's physical and emotional well-being.

Y

Special Topics
Your baby in the birth canal
During labor and delivery, your baby must pass through your pelvic bones to reach the vaginal opening. The goal is to find the easiest way out. Certain body positions give the baby a smaller shape, which...