Infectious Disease

Infectious diseases are caused by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and can easily spread from one person to another. Some infectious diseases are mild and require nothing more than bed rest while others can be life threatening and warrant hospitalization.

Learn more about infectious disease at Mount Sinai Health System 

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Diseases & Conditions
Abscess
An abscess is a collection of pus in any part of the body. In most cases, the area around an abscess is swollen and inflamed.

Tests
Acid-fast stain
The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body substance is infected with the bacteria that causes tuberculosis (TB) and other illnesses. TB

Diseases & Conditions
Actinomycosis
Actinomycosis is a long-term (chronic) bacterial infection that commonly affects the face and neck.

Tests
Aerobic bacteria
Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that can grow and live when oxygen is present.

Diseases & Conditions
Amebiasis
Amebiasis is an infection of the intestines. It is caused by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Entamoeba histolytica

Diseases & Conditions
Amebic liver abscess
Amebic liver abscess is a collection of pus in the liver in response to an intestinal parasite called Entamoeba histolytica. Entamoeba histolytica

Tests
Anaerobic bacteria
Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. They play a role in conditions such as appendicitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Anthrax
Anthrax is an infectious disease caused due to a bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Infection in humans most often involves the skin, gastrointestinal tract, or lungs. Bacillus anthracis

Tests
Anthrax blood test
The anthrax blood test looks for antibodies against Bacillus anthracis, the bacteria that cause anthrax. Bacillus anthracis

Diseases & Conditions
Ascariasis
Ascariasis is an infection with the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Ascaris lumbricoides

Diseases & Conditions
Aspergillosis
Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response due to the aspergillus fungus. allergic response

Tests
Aspergillosis precipitin
Aspergillosis precipitin is a laboratory test to detect antibodies in the blood resulting from exposure to the fungus aspergillus. antibodies aspergillus

Diseases & Conditions
Asymptomatic HIV infection
Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. HIV/AIDS During this phase, the immune system in someone with HIV slowly weakens, but the person has...

Diseases & Conditions
Asymptomatic bacteriuria
Most of the time, your urine is sterile. This means there is no bacteria growing. On the other hand, if you have symptoms of a bladder or kidney infection, bacteria will be present and growing in your urine...

Diseases & Conditions
Atypical pneumonia
Pneumonia is inflamed or swollen lung tissue due to infection with a germ. With atypical pneumonia, the infection is caused by different bacteria than the more common ones that cause pneumonia. Atypical...

Diseases & Conditions
Avian influenza
Avian influenza A viruses cause the flu infection in birds. The viruses that cause the disease in birds can change (mutate) so it can spread to humans. flu

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Tests
Bile culture
Bile culture is a laboratory test to detect disease-causing germs in the biliary system.

Diseases & Conditions
Blastomycosis
Blastomycosis is an infection caused by breathing in the Blastomyces dermatitidis fungus. The fungus is found in decaying wood and soil. Blastomyces dermatitidis

Tests
Blood culture
A blood culture is a laboratory test to check for bacteria or other germs in a blood sample.

Special Topics
Bloodborne pathogens
Bloodborne infections

Diseases & Conditions
Botulism
Botulism is a rare but serious illness caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. The bacteria may enter the body through wounds, or by eating them from improperly canned or preserved food. Clostridium botulinum

Tests
Bronchoscopic culture
Bronchoscopic culture is a laboratory exam to check a piece of tissue or fluid from the lungs for infection-causing germs.

Diseases & Conditions
Brucellosis
Brucellosis is an infectious disease that occurs from contact with animals carrying brucella bacteria.

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Diseases & Conditions
CMV pneumonia
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can occur in people who have a suppressed immune system.

Diseases & Conditions
CMV retinitis
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a viral infection of the retina of the eye resulting in inflammation.

Tests
CMV serology test
The CMV serology test determines the presence of antibodies to a virus called cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the blood.

Tests
CSD skin test
The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help diagnose CSD. cat scratch disease The test is no longer used today. There are better methods available to diagnose CSD, such as antibody detection...

Tests
CSF coccidioides complement fixation test
CSF coccidioides complement fixation is a test that checks for infection due to the fungus Coccidioides in the cerebrospinal (CSF) fluid. This is the fluid surrounding the brain and spine. The name of this...

Tests
CSF smear
A cerebrospinal fluid smear is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in the space around the spinal cord and brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protects the brain...

Tests
CSF-VDRL test
The CSF-VDRL test is used to help diagnose neurosyphilis. It looks for substances called antibodies, which are sometimes produced by the body in reaction to the syphilis-causing bacteria.

Tests
Campylobacter serology test
Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look for antibodies to bacteria called campylobacter. antibodies

Diseases & Conditions
Candida infection of the skin
Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection of the skin. The medical name of the condition is cutaneous candidiasis.

Tests
Capillary nail refill test
The capillary nail refill test is a quick test done on the nail beds. It is used to monitor dehydration and the amount of blood flow to tissue. dehydration

Diseases & Conditions
Cat-scratch disease
Cat-scratch disease is an infection with bartonella bacteria that is believed to be transmitted by cat scratches, cat bites, or flea bites.

Tests
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture
A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in the space around the spinal cord. CSF protects the brain and spinal cord from...

Diseases & Conditions
Chagas disease
Chagas disease is an illness spread by insects. The disease is common in South and Central America.

Diseases & Conditions
Chancroid
Chancroid is a bacterial infection that is spread through sexual contact.

Special Topics
Chickenpox (varicella) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Chickenpox Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/varicella.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/varicella...

Special Topics
Chikungunya virus
Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya

Diseases & Conditions
Chlamydia
Chlamydia is an infection. It is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It is most often spread through sexual contact. Chlamydia trachomatis

Diseases & Conditions
Chlamydial infections - male
Chlamydia infection in males is an infection of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that drains urine from the bladder. It passes through the penis. This type of infection is passed from one person to...

Diseases & Conditions
Cholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea.

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic granulomatous disease
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder in which certain immune system cells do not function properly. This leads to repeated and severe infection.

Special Topics
Cleaning to prevent the spread of germs
Disinfection procedures

Tests
Coccidioides complement fixation
Coccidioides complement fixation is a blood test that looks for antibodies to the fungus Coccidioides immitis. This fungus causes the disease coccidioidomycosis. Coccidioides immitis.

Tests
Coccidioides precipitin test
Coccidioides precipitin is a blood test that looks for infections due to a fungus called Coccidioides, which causes the disease coccidioidomycosis. coccidioidomycosis

In-depth Report
Colds and the flu
An in-depth report on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of colds and flu.

Special Topics
College students and the flu
Every year, the flu spreads across college campuses nationwide. Close living quarters, shared restrooms, and a lot of social activities make a college student more likely to catch the flu. This article...

Diseases & Conditions
Colorado tick fever
Colorado tick fever is a viral infection. It is spread by the bite of the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni). Dermacentor andersoni

Tests
Complement fixation test to C burnetii
The complement fixation test to Coxiella burnetii (C burnetti) is a blood test that checks for infection due to bacterium called C burnetii, which causes Q fever. Coxiella burnetii C burnetti C burnetii...

Diseases & Conditions
Creeping eruption
Creeping eruption is a human infection with dog or cat hookworm larvae (immature worms). hookworm

Diseases & Conditions
Cryptococcosis
Cryptococcosis is infection with the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcus gattii

Diseases & Conditions
Cryptosporidium enteritis
Cryptosporidium enteritis is an infection of the small intestine that causes diarrhea. The parasite cryptosporidium causes this infection.

Tests
Culture - colonic tissue
A colonic tissue culture is a lab test to check for the cause of disease. The sample of tissue for the test is taken from the large intestine. The cause may be bacteria, fungi, or viruses.

Tests
Culture - duodenal tissue
A duodenal tissue culture is a laboratory exam to check a piece of tissue from the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). The test is to look for organisms that cause infection.

Tests
Culture - joint fluid
Joint fluid culture is a laboratory test to detect infection-causing germs in a sample of fluid surrounding a joint.

Diseases & Conditions
Culture-negative endocarditis
Culture-negative endocarditis is an infection and inflammation of the lining of one or more heart valves, but no endocarditis-causing germs can be found on a blood culture. This is because certain germs...

Diseases & Conditions
Cysticercosis
Cysticercosis is an infection by a parasite called Taenia solium (T solium). It is a pork tapeworm that creates cysts in different areas in the body. Taenia solium T solium

Diseases & Conditions
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a disease caused by a type of herpes virus.

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Diseases & Conditions
Dengue fever
Dengue fever is a virus-caused disease that is spread by mosquitoes.

Diseases & Conditions
Dengue hemorrhagic fever
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a severe, potentially deadly infection spread by some mosquitos.

Diseases & Conditions
Diphtheria
Diphtheria is an acute infection caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae. acute Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Special Topics
Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccines - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/dtap.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines...

Diseases & Conditions
Diskitis
Diskitis is swelling (inflammation) and irritation of the space between the bones of the spine (intervertebral disk space).

Diseases & Conditions
Disseminated tuberculosis
Disseminated tuberculosis is a contagious mycobacterial infection in which mycobacteria have spread from the lungs to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph system. lymph system

Diseases & Conditions
Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale)
Donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) is a sexually transmitted disease that is rarely seen in the United States.

E

Diseases & Conditions
E coli enteritis
E coli enteritis is swelling (inflammation) of the small intestine from Escherichia coli (E coli) bacteria. It is the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea. E coli Escherichia coli E coli

Tests
Ear drainage culture
An ear drainage culture is a lab test. This test checks for germs that can cause infection. The sample taken for this test can contain fluid, pus, wax, or blood from the ear.

Diseases & Conditions
Ebola virus disease
Ebola is a severe and often deadly disease caused by a virus. Symptoms include fever, diarrhea, vomiting, bleeding, and often, death. Ebola can occur in humans and other primates (gorillas, monkeys, and...

Diseases & Conditions
Echinococcosis
Echinococcosis is an infection caused by either the Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm. The infection is also called hydatid disease. Echinococcus granulosus Echinococcus multilocularis

Diseases & Conditions
Ehrlichiosis
Ehrlichiosis is a bacterial infection transmitted by the bite of a tick.

Special Topics
Endemic

Diseases & Conditions
Endocarditis
Endocarditis is inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and heart valves (endocardium). It is caused by a bacterial or, rarely a fungal infection.

Tests
Endocervical Gram stain
Endocervical Gram stain is a method to detect bacteria on tissue from the cervix. This is done using a special series of stains.

Tests
Endocervical culture
Endocervical culture is a laboratory test that helps identify infection in the female genital tract.

Special Topics
Enterotoxin
An enterotoxin is a substance that is harmful to your digestive system. It is produced by certain bacteria. The enterotoxin enters your stomach and intestines if you eat contaminated food or water. This...

Discharge Instructions
Enterovirus D68
Non-polio enterovirus

Diseases & Conditions
Epidural abscess
An epidural abscess is a collection of pus (infected material) and germs between the outer covering of the brain and spinal cord and the bones of the skull or spine. The abscess causes swelling in the area...

Tests
Epstein-Barr virus antibody test
Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). antibodies EBV

Diseases & Conditions
Erysipelas
Erysipelas is a type of skin infection. It affects the outermost layer of the skin and the local lymph nodes.

Tests
Esophageal culture
Esophageal culture is a laboratory test that checks for infection-causing germs in a sample of tissue from the esophagus.

Diseases & Conditions
Esophagitis - infectious
Esophagitis is a general term for any inflammation, irritation, or swelling of the esophagus. This is the tube that carries food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach.

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Tests
FTA-ABS test
The FTA-ABS test is a blood test to detect antibodies to the bacteria Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis. Treponema pallidum,

Diseases & Conditions
Familial Mediterranean fever
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down through families (inherited). It involves repeated fevers and inflammation that often affects the lining of the abdomen, chest, or joints...

Tests
Fecal culture
A fecal culture is a lab test to find organisms in the stool (feces) that can cause gastrointestinal symptoms and disease.

Tests
Fecal smear
Fecal smear is a laboratory test to for a stool sample. This test is done to check for bacteria and other organisms. Presence of organisms in stool shows diseases in the digestive tract.

Diseases & Conditions
Fish tapeworm infection
Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish.

Diseases & Conditions
Flu
The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. It spreads easily. This article discusses influenza types A and B. Another type of the flu is the swine flu (H1N1). swine flu (H1N1).

Diseases & Conditions
Fungal arthritis
Fungal arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint by a fungal infection. It is also called mycotic arthritis.

G

Diseases & Conditions
Gas gangrene
Gas gangrene is a potentially deadly form of tissue death (gangrene). .

Tests
Gastric tissue biopsy and culture
Gastric tissue biopsy is the removal of stomach tissue for examination. A culture is a laboratory test that examines the tissue sample for bacteria and other organisms that can cause disease. biopsy

Diseases & Conditions
Genital herpes
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the herpes simplex virus. This article focuses on HSV type 2 infection.

Symptoms
Genital sores - male
A male genital sore is any sore or lesion that appears on the penis, scrotum, or male urethra.

Diseases & Conditions
Giardia infection
Giardia, or giardiasis, is an infection of the small intestine. A tiny parasite called Giardia lamblia causes it. Giardia lamblia

Diseases & Conditions
Gonococcal arthritis
Gonococcal arthritis is inflammation of a joint due to a gonorrhea infection.

Diseases & Conditions
Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Tests
Gram stain of skin lesion
A gram stain of a skin lesion is a laboratory test that uses special stains to detect and identify bacteria in a sample from a skin sore. The gram stain method is one of the most commonly used techniques...

Tests
Gram stain of tissue biopsy
Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test a sample of tissue taken from a biopsy. biopsy The Gram stain method can be used on almost any specimen. It is an excellent technique...

Tests
Gram stain of urethral discharge
A Gram stain of urethral discharge is a test used to identify bacteria in fluid from the tube that drains urine from the bladder (urethra).

Tests
Granulocyte
Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that has small granules, which contain proteins. The specific types of granulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Granulocytes, specifically neutrophils...

Self-Care Instructions
Group B streptococcus - pregnancy
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some women carry in their intestines and vagina. It is not passed through sexual contact. Most of the time, GBS is harmless. However, GBS can be passed...

Diseases & Conditions
Gumma
A gumma is a soft, tumor-like growth of the tissues (granuloma) that occurs in people with syphilis.

H

Diseases & Conditions
HIV/AIDS
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the virus attacks and weakens the immune system. As the immune system weakens, the person is at...

Special Topics
HIV/AIDS - resources

Special Topics
HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil® Vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html. www...

Special Topics
HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv. html. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Tests
HPV DNA test
The HPV DNA test is used to check for high-risk HPV infection in women. HPV infection around the genitals is common. It can be spread during sex. Some types of HPV can cause cervical cancer and other cancers...

Special Topics
HPV vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-cervarix.html. www.cdc.gov/vaccines...

Special Topics
Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hib.pdf. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis...

Diseases & Conditions
Hand-foot-mouth disease
Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat.

Diseases & Conditions
Hantavirus
Hantavirus is a life-threatening viral infection spread to humans by rodents.

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver from the hepatitis A virus.

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis A - children
Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of the liver due to the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is the most common type of hepatitis in children.

Special Topics
Hepatitis A vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Hepatitis A Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-a.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-a.html...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Other types of viral hepatitis include hepatitis A, hepatitis C, and hepatitis D. hepatitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis B - children
Hepatitis B in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis A and hepatitis C. hepatitis...

Special Topics
Hepatitis B vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Hepatitis B Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-b.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hep-b.html...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is a viral disease that leads to swelling (inflammation) of the liver. Other types of viral hepatitis include: Hepatitis AHepatitis BHepatitis D Hepatitis A Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis C - children
Hepatitis C in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of the liver. It occurs due to infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis A and hepatitis B...

Diseases & Conditions
Hepatitis D (Delta agent)
Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the hepatitis D virus (previously called the Delta agent). It causes symptoms only in people who also have hepatitis B infection. hepatitis B

Tests
Hepatitis virus panel
The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. It can screen blood samples for more than one kind of hepatitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Herpes - oral
Oral herpes is an infection of the lips, mouth, or gums due to the herpes simplex virus. It causes small, painful blisters commonly called cold sores or fever blisters. Oral herpes is also called herpes...

Special Topics
Herpes - resources

Tests
Herpes viral culture of lesion
Herpes viral culture of a lesion is a laboratory test to check if a skin sore is infected with the herpes simplex virus.

Diseases & Conditions
Herpetic stomatitis
Herpetic stomatitis is a viral infection of the mouth that causes sores and ulcers. These mouth ulcers are not the same as canker sores, which are not caused by a virus.

Tests
Histoplasma complement fixation
Histoplasma complement fixation is a blood test that checks for infection from a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum (H capsulatum), which causes the disease histoplasmosis. Histoplasma capsulatum H capsulatum...

Tests
Histoplasma skin test
Histoplasma skin test is a method to check if you have been exposed to a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum. The fungus causes an infection called histoplasmosis. Histoplasma capsulatum.

Diseases & Conditions
Histoplasmosis
Histoplasmosis is an infection that occurs from breathing in the spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasma capsulatum

Diseases & Conditions
Histoplasmosis - acute (primary) pulmonary
Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis is a respiratory infection that is caused by inhaling the spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. spores Histoplasma capsulatum

Diseases & Conditions
Hookworm infection
Hookworm infection is caused by roundworms. The disease affects the small intestine and lungs.

I

Special Topics
Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. cdc. gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flulive. html. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp...

Special Topics
Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

J

Tests
Joint fluid Gram stain
Joint fluid Gram stain is a laboratory test to identify bacteria in a sample of joint fluid using a special series of stains (colors). The Gram stain method is one of the most commonly used methods to rapidly...

K

Diseases & Conditions
Kuru
Kuru is a disease of the nervous system.

L

Diseases & Conditions
Legionnaire disease
Legionnaire disease is an infection of the lungs and airways. It is caused by legionella bacteria.

Diseases & Conditions
Leishmaniasis
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease spread by the bite of the female sandfly.

Tests
Lepromin skin test
The lepromin skin test is used to determine what type of leprosy a person has.

Diseases & Conditions
Leprosy
Leprosy is an infectious disease that has been known since biblical times. This disease causes skin sores, nerve damage, and muscle weakness that gets worse over time.

Diseases & Conditions
Leptospirosis
Leptospirosis is an infection. It occurs when you come in contact with leptospira bacteria.

Diseases & Conditions
Listeriosis
Listeriosis is an infection that can occur when a person eats food that has been contaminated with bacteria called Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). Listeria monocytogenes L. monocytogenes

Diseases & Conditions
Ludwig angina
Ludwig angina is an infection of the floor of the mouth under the tongue. It is due to bacteria.

Diseases & Conditions
Lyme disease
Lyme disease is a bacterial infection that is spread through the bite of one of several types of ticks.

Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Lyme disease - what to ask your doctor
What to ask your doctor about Lyme disease; Lyme borreliosis - questions; Bannwarth syndrome - questions

In-depth Report
Lyme disease and related tick-borne infections
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease.

Tests
Lyme disease blood test
The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. The test is used to help diagnose Lyme disease.

Tests
Lymph node culture
Lymph node culture is a laboratory test done on a sample from a lymph node to identify germs that cause infection.

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphadenitis
Lymphadenitis is an infection of the lymph nodes (also called lymph glands). It is a common complication of certain bacterial infections. lymph nodes

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphangitis
Lymphangitis is an infection of the lymph vessels (channels). It is a complication of some bacterial infections.

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphofollicular hyperplasia
Lymphofollicular hyperplasia is an increase in the size of the lymph node follicles. These follicles contain normal white blood cells called lymphocytes. Your body produces more lymphocytes to help prevent...

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphogranuloma venereum
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection.

Diseases & Conditions
Lymphoid hyperplasia
Lymphoid hyperplasia is an increase in the number of normal cells (called lymphocytes) that are contained in lymph nodes. This most often happens when there is an infection with bacteria, viruses, or other...

M

Special Topics
MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC MMR (Measles, Mumps, & Rubella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mmr.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Special Topics
MMRV (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubell and Varicella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mmrv.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines...

Diseases & Conditions
Malaria
Malaria is a parasitic disease that involves high fevers, shaking chills, flu-like symptoms, and anemia. anemia

Diseases & Conditions
Mediastinitis
Mediastinitis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the chest area between the lungs (mediastinum). This area contains the heart, large blood vessels, windpipe (trachea), food tube (esophagus), thymus...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges.

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis - H. influenzae
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. Haemophilus influenzae type...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis - cryptococcal
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a fungal infection of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord. These tissues are called meninges. meningitis

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis - gram-negative
Meningitis is present when the membranes covering of the brain and spinal cord become swollen and inflamed. This covering is called the meninges. Bacteria are one type of germ that may cause meningitis...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis - meningococcal
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. The meningococcal bacteria...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis - pneumococcal
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Bacteria are one type of germ that can cause meningitis. The pneumococcal bacteria is...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis - staphylococcal
Meningitis is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This covering is called the meninges. Bacteria are one type of germ that may cause meningitis. The staphylococcal bacteria...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningitis - tuberculous
Tuberculous meningitis is an infection of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges).

Special Topics
Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines - MenACWY and MPSV4: What You Need to Know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines - MenACWY and MPSV4  Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mening.html www.cdc.gov...

Diseases & Conditions
Meningococcemia
Meningococcemia is an acute and potentially life-threatening infection of the bloodstream. acute

Diseases & Conditions
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is a "staph" germ that does not get better with the type of antibiotics that usually cure staph infections. Staphylococcus aureus When this...

Special Topics
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV

Tests
Mononucleosis spot test
The mononucleosis spot test looks for 2 antibodies in the blood. These antibodies appear during or after an infection with the virus that causes mononucleosis, or mono. antibodies

Diseases & Conditions
Mucormycosis
Mucormycosis is a fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs. It occurs in some people with a weakened immune system.

Tests
Mycobacterial culture
Mycobacterial culture is a test to look for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis and similar infections. tuberculosis

Diseases & Conditions
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Pneumonia is inflamed or swollen lung tissue due to infection with a germ. Mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M pneumoniae). Mycoplasma pneumoniae M pneumoniae . This...

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Tests
Nasopharyngeal culture
Nasopharyngeal culture is a test that examines a sample of secretions from the uppermost part of the throat, behind the nose, to detect organisms that can cause disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Necrotizing soft tissue infection
Necrotizing soft tissue infection is a rare but very severe type of bacterial infection. It can destroy the muscles, skin, and underlying tissue. The word "necrotizing" refers to something that causes body...

Diseases & Conditions
Nocardia infection
Nocardia infection is a disorder that affects the lungs, brain, or skin. In otherwise healthy people, it may occur as a local infection. But in people with weakened immune systems, it may spread throughout...

Special Topics
Norovirus - hospital
Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus

O

Diseases & Conditions
Osteomyelitis
Osteomyelitis is a bone infection. It is mainly caused by bacteria or other germs.

Discharge Instructions
Osteomyelitis - discharge
You have osteomyelitis, a bone infection caused by bacteria or other germs. You may have been in the hospital to treat a broken bone or to have other surgery on your bones. Your surgeon may also have removed...

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Tests
PPD skin test
The PPD skin test is a method used to diagnose silent (latent) tuberculosis (TB) infection. PPD stands for purified protein derivative. tuberculosis

Diseases & Conditions
Parainfluenza
Parainfluenza refers to a group of viruses that lead to upper and lower respiratory infections.

Tests
Pericardial fluid Gram stain
Pericardial fluid Gram stain is a method of staining a sample of fluid taken from the pericardium. This is the sac surrounding the heart to diagnose a bacterial infection. The Gram stain method is one of...

Tests
Pericardial fluid culture
Pericardial fluid culture is a test performed on a sample of fluid from the sac surrounding the heart. It is done to identify organisms that cause infection. Pericardial fluid gram stain is a related topic...

Diseases & Conditions
Perirenal abscess
Perirenal abscess is a pocket of pus around one or both kidneys. It is caused by an infection. abscess

Tests
Peritoneal fluid culture
Peritoneal fluid culture is a laboratory test performed on a sample of peritoneal fluid. It is done to detect bacteria or fungi that cause infection (peritonitis). peritonitis Peritoneal fluid is the fluid...

Special Topics
Pets and the immunocompromised person
People with weakened immune systems may be advised to give up their pets to avoid getting diseases from the animals. People in this category include those who take high doses of steroids and others who...

Diseases & Conditions
Pharyngitis - viral
Pharyngitis, or sore throat, is swelling, discomfort, pain, or scratchiness in the throat at and just below the tonsils. Pharyngitis

Tests
Pinworm test
A pinworm test is a method used to identify a pinworm infection. Pinworms are small, thin worms that commonly infect young children, although anyone can be infected. pinworm

Diseases & Conditions
Plague
Plague is a severe bacterial infection that may cause death.

Special Topics
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) - What you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/pcv13.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/pcv13.html CDC review information...

Special Topics
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/ppv.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements...

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is a fungal infection of the lungs. The disease used to be called Pneumocystis carini or PCP pneumonia. Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumocystis carini

In-depth Report
Pneumonia
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pneumonia.

Diseases & Conditions
Pneumonia - weakened immune system
Pneumonia is a lung infection. It can be caused by many different germs, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. This article discusses pneumonia that occurs in a person who has a hard time fighting off...

Discharge Instructions
Pneumonia in adults - discharge
Bronchopneumonia adults - discharge; Lung infection adults - discharge

Discharge Instructions
Pneumonia in children - discharge
Lung infection - children discharge; Bronchopneumonia - children discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Polio
Polio is a viral disease that can affect nerves and can lead to partial or full paralysis. The medical name for polio is poliomyelitis. paralysis

Special Topics
Polio vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Polio Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/ipv.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/ipv.html CDC review...

Self-Care Instructions
Preventing hepatitis A

Diseases & Conditions
Psittacosis
Psittacosis is an infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, a type of bacteria found in the droppings of birds. Birds spread the infection to humans. Chlamydophila psittaci,

Diseases & Conditions
Pulmonary nocardiosis
Pulmonary nocardiosis is an infection of the lung with the bacteria, Nocardia asteroides. Nocardia asteroides

Diseases & Conditions
Pyogenic liver abscess
Pyogenic liver abscess is a pus-filled area in the liver. abscess

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Diseases & Conditions
Q fever
Q fever is a bacterial infection. It can affect the lungs, liver, heart, or other parts of the body.

Diseases & Conditions
Q fever - early
Q fever is an infectious disease that is spread by domestic and wild animals and ticks.

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Tests
RPR test
RPR (rapid plasma reagin) is a screening test for syphilis. It looks for antibodies that are present in the blood of people who may have the disease. antibodies

Tests
RSV antibody test
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibody test is a blood test that measures the levels of antibodies (immunoglobulins) the body makes after an infection with RSV. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

Diseases & Conditions
Rabies
Rabies is a deadly viral infection that is mainly spread by infected animals.

Diseases & Conditions
Rat-bite fever
Rat-bite fever is a rare bacterial disease spread by the bite of an infected rodent.

Special Topics
Recovering after stroke
A stroke happens when blood flow to any part of the brain stops. stroke Each person has a different recovery time and need for long-term care. Problems with moving, thinking, and talking often improve in...

Tests
Rectal culture
Rectal culture is a lab test to identify bacteria and other germs in the rectum that can cause gastrointestinal symptoms and disease.

Diseases & Conditions
Relapsing fever
Relapsing fever is an infection transmitted by a louse or tick. It is characterized by repeated episodes of fever.

Special Topics
Reportable diseases
Reportable diseases are diseases considered to be of great public health importance.   In the United States, local, state, and national agencies (for example, county and state health departments or the...

Diseases & Conditions
Rheumatic fever
Rheumatic fever is a disease that may develop after an infection with group A streptococcus bacteria (such as strep throat or scarlet fever). It can cause severe illness in the heart, joints, skin, and...

Diseases & Conditions
Rickettsialpox
Rickettsialpox is a disease spread by a mite. It causes a chickenpox-like rash on the body. rash

Diseases & Conditions
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a disease caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks.

Tests
Rotavirus antigen test
The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. This is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in children. diarrhea

Special Topics
Rotavirus vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Rotavirus Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/rotavirus.pdf. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/rotavirus...

Tests
Routine sputum culture
Routine sputum culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs that cause infection. Sputum is the material that comes up from air passages when you cough deeply

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Diseases & Conditions
Salmonella enterocolitis
Salmonella enterocolitis is an infection in the lining of the small intestine that is caused by salmonella bacteria. It is a type of food poisoning.

Diseases & Conditions
Scarlet fever
Scarlet fever is caused by an infection with bacteria called A streptococcus. This is the same bacteria that cause strep throat. . strep throat

Diseases & Conditions
Schistosomiasis
Schistosomiasis is an infection with a type of parasite blood fluke called schistosomes.

Tests
Screening and diagnosis for HIV
In general, testing for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a 2-step process that involves a screening test and follow-up tests. SCREENING TESTS These are tests that check if you've been infected...

Diseases & Conditions
Scrofula
Scrofula is a tuberculosis infection of the lymph nodes in the neck. tuberculosis

Special Topics
Secondary infections
A secondary infection is an infection that occurs during or after treatment for another infection. It may be caused by the first treatment or by changes in the immune system. Two examples of a secondary...

Diseases & Conditions
Sepsis
Sepsis is an illness in which the body has a severe, inflammatory response to bacteria or other germs.

Diseases & Conditions
Septicemia
Septicemia is bacteria in the blood (bacteremia) that often occurs with severe infections. Also called sepsis, septicemia is a serious, life-threatening infection that gets worse very quickly. bacteremia...

Special Topics
Serogroup B Meningococcal vaccine (MenB) - What you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Serogroup B Meningococcal Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mening-serogroup.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp...

Tests
Serology for brucellosis
Serology for brucellosis is a blood test to look for the presence of antibodies against Brucella. This is the bacteria that causes the disease brucellosis. antibodies Brucella

Tests
Serology for tularemia
Serology for tularemia is a blood test that checks for infection caused by bacteria called Francisella tularensis (F tularensis), which causes the disease tularemia. Francisella tularensis (F tularensis...

Tests
Serum herpes simplex antibodies
Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies to the herpes simplex virus (HSV), including HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 most often causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital...

Diseases & Conditions
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious form of pneumonia. It is caused by a virus that was first identified in 2003. Infection with the SARS virus causes acute respiratory distress (severe...

Diseases & Conditions
Shigellosis
Shigellosis is an infection of the lining of the intestines. It is caused by a group of bacteria called shigella.

Diseases & Conditions
Shingles
Shingles (herpes zoster) is a painful, blistering skin rash. It is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. This is the virus that also causes chickenpox. chickenpox

In-depth Report
Shingles and chickenpox (Varicella-zoster virus)
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of shingles and chickenpox.

Special Topics
Shingles vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Shingles Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/shingles.html www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/shingles...

Diseases & Conditions
Skin lesion of blastomycosis
A skin lesion of blastomycosis is a symptom of an infection with the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. The skin becomes infected as the fungus spreads throughout the body. Another form of blastomycosis is...

Tests
Skin or nail culture
A skin or nail culture is a laboratory test to look for and identify germs that cause problems with the skin or nails. It is called a mucosal culture if the sample involves the mucous membranes.

Diseases & Conditions
Sleeping sickness
Sleeping sickness is an infection caused by tiny parasites carried by certain flies. It results in swelling of the brain.

Tests
Small bowel tissue smear
Small bowel tissue smear is a lab test that checks for disease in a sample of tissue from the small intestine.

Tests
Small intestine aspirate and culture
Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection in the small intestine.

Diseases & Conditions
Smallpox
Smallpox is a serious disease that is easily passed from person to person (contagious). It is caused by a virus.

Tests
Smear of duodenal fluid aspirate
Smear of duodenal fluid aspirate is an exam of fluid from the duodenum to check for signs of an infection (such as giardia or strongyloides). Rarely, this test is also done in a newborn to check for biliary...

Diseases & Conditions
Spinal cord abscess
Spinal cord abscess is the swelling and irritation (inflammation) and the collection of infected material (pus) and germs in or around the spinal cord.

Special Topics
Spores
A spore is a cell that certain fungi, plants (moss, ferns), and bacteria produce. Spores are involved in reproduction. Certain bacteria make spores as a way to defend themselves. These spores have thick...

Diseases & Conditions
Sporotrichosis
Sporotrichosis is a long-term (chronic) skin infection that is caused by a fungus called Sporothrix schenckii. chronic Sporothrix schenckii

Tests
Sputum Gram stain
A sputum Gram stain is a laboratory test used to detect bacteria in a sputum sample. Sputum is the material that comes up from your air passages when you cough very deeply. The Gram stain method is one...

Tests
Sputum fungal smear
A sputum fungal smear is a laboratory test that looks for fungus in a sputum sample. Sputum is the material that comes up from air passages when you cough deeply.

Tests
Sputum stain for mycobacteria
Sputum stain for mycobacteria is a test to check for a type of bacteria that cause tuberculosis and other infections.

Tests
Stool Gram stain
A stool Gram stain is a laboratory test that uses different stains to detect and identify bacteria in a stool sample. The Gram stain method is sometimes used to quickly diagnose bacterial infections.

Tests
Stool ova and parasites exam
Stool ova and parasites exam is a lab test to look for parasites or eggs (ova) in a stool sample. The parasites are associated with intestinal infections.

Tests
Streptococcal screen
A streptococcal screen is a test to detect group A streptococcus. This bacteria is the most common cause of strep throat. strep throat

Diseases & Conditions
Strongyloidiasis
Strongyloidiasis is an infection with the roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis (S stercoralis). Strongyloides stercoralis (S stercoralis).

Symptoms
Swollen lymph nodes
Lymph nodes are present throughout your body. They are an important part of your immune system. Lymph nodes help your body recognize and fight germs, infections, and other foreign substances. The term ...

Diseases & Conditions
Syphilis
Syphilis is a bacterial infection that is most often spread through sexual contact.

Diseases & Conditions
Syphilitic aseptic meningitis
Syphilitic aseptic meningitis, or syphilitic meningitis, is a complication of untreated syphilis. It involves inflammation of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord. syphilis

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Diseases & Conditions
Tabes dorsalis
Tabes dorsalis is a complication of untreated syphilis that involves muscle weakness and abnormal sensations. muscle weakness abnormal sensations

Self-Care Instructions
Taking medicines to treat tuberculosis
Tuberculosis - medicines; DOT; Directly observed therapy; TB - medicines

Diseases & Conditions
Tapeworm infection - Hymenolepsis
Hymenolepsis infection is an infestation by 1 of 2 species of tapeworm: Hymenolepis nana or Hymenolepis diminuta. The disease is also called hymenolepiasis. Hymenolepis nana Hymenolepis diminuta

Diseases & Conditions
Tapeworm infection - beef or pork
Beef or pork tapeworm infection is an infection with the tapeworm parasite found in beef or pork.

Special Topics
Td (tetanus and diphtheria) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Td Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/td.pdf www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/td.pdf CDC review information...

Special Topics
Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis) vaccine - what you need to know
All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Tdap Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/tdap.pdf www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/tdap.pdf CDC review...

Diseases & Conditions
Tetanus
Tetanus is an infection of the nervous system with a type of bacteria that is potentially deadly, called Clostridium tetani (C tetani). Clostridium tetani (C tetani)

Tests
Throat swab culture
A throat swab culture is a laboratory test that is done to identify germs that may cause infection in the throat. It is most often used to diagnose strep throat. strep throat

Diseases & Conditions
Thrush - children and adults
Thrush is a yeast infection of the tongue and lining of the mouth.

Injury
Tick removal
Ticks are small, insect-like creatures that live in woods and fields. They attach to you as you brush past bushes, plants, and grass. Once on you, ticks often move to a warm, moist location. They are often...

Diseases & Conditions
Toxic shock syndrome
Toxic shock syndrome is a serious disease that involves fever, shock, and problems with several body organs. shock

Tests
Toxoplasma blood test
The toxoplasma blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to a parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. antibodies Toxoplasma gondii

Diseases & Conditions
Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis is an infection due to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasma gondii

In-depth Report
Travel to developing countries
An in-depth report on travel-related health risks and how to prepare ahead of time to reduce these risks.

Nutrition
Traveler’s diarrhea diet
Traveler's diarrhea is loose, watery stools. People can get traveler's diarrhea when they visit places where the water is not clean or the food is not handled safely. This can include developing countries...

Diseases & Conditions
Trichinosis
Trichinosis is an infection with the roundworm Trichinella spiralis. Trichinella spiralis

Diseases & Conditions
Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomonas vaginalis.

Diseases & Conditions
Tularemia
Tularemia is a bacterial infection common in wild rodents. The bacteria are passed to humans through contact with tissue from the infected animal. The bacteria can also be passed by ticks, biting flies...

Diseases & Conditions
Typhoid fever
Typhoid fever is an infection that causes diarrhea and a rash. It is most commonly caused due to a bacteria called Salmonella typhi (S typhi). diarrhea rash Salmonella typhi S typhi

Diseases & Conditions
Typhus
Typhus is a bacterial disease spread by lice or fleas.

U

Tests
Urethral discharge culture
Urethral discharge culture is a laboratory test done on men and boys.  This test is used to identify germs in the urethra that may be causing urethritis. The urethra is the tube that drains urine from the...

In-depth Report
Urinary tract infection
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of urinary tract infections.

Tests
Urine culture
A urine culture is a lab test to check for bacteria or other germs in a urine sample. It can be used to check for a urinary tract infection in adults and children. adults children

Tests
Urine culture - catheterized specimen
Catheterized specimen urine culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs in a urine sample.

V

Tests
VDRL test
The VDRL test is a screening test for syphilis. It measures substances (proteins), called antibodies, that your body may produce if you have come in contact with the bacteria that cause syphilis.

Diseases & Conditions
Vaginismus
Vaginismus is a spasm of the muscles surrounding the vagina that occurs against your will. The spasms close the vagina and can prevent sexual activity and medical exams. vagina

Diseases & Conditions
Valley fever
Valley fever is an infection that occurs when the spores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis enter your body through the lungs. spores Coccidioides immitis

Special Topics
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci - hospital
Super-bugs; VRE; Gastroenteritis - VRE; Colitis - VRE; Hospital acquired infection - VRE

Tests
Venipuncture
Venipuncture is the collection of blood from a vein. It is most often done for laboratory testing.

In-depth Report
Viral encephalitis
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of viral encephalitis.

Diseases & Conditions
Viral pneumonia
Pneumonia is inflamed or swollen lung tissue due to infection with a germ. Viral pneumonia is caused by a virus.

Diseases & Conditions
Visceral larva migrans
Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a human infection with certain parasites found in the intestines of dogs and cats.

W

Diseases & Conditions
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is a collection of symptoms resulting from the failure of the adrenal glands to function normally as a result of bleeding into the gland.

Diseases & Conditions
West Nile virus
West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe.

Diseases & Conditions
Whipple disease
Whipple disease is a rare condition that prevents the small intestines from allowing nutrients to pass into the rest of the body. This is called malabsorption. malabsorption

Diseases & Conditions
Whipworm infection
Whipworm infection is an infection of the large intestine with a type of roundworm.

Y

Diseases & Conditions
Yaws
Yaws is a long-term (chronic) bacterial infection that mainly affects the skin, bones, and joints.

Diseases & Conditions
Yellow fever
Yellow fever is a viral infection spread by mosquitoes.

Special Topics
Your child and the flu
The flu is a serious illness. The virus is easily spread, and children are very susceptible to the illness. Knowing the facts about the flu, its symptoms, and when to get vaccinated are all important in...

Z

Diseases & Conditions
Zika virus disease
Zika is a virus passed to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever, joint pain, rash, and red eyes (conjunctivitis). For the most up-to-date information, please visit the Centers...