Hematology

Hematology is the area of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases related to blood disorders. Hematologists are specialists in diagnosing and treating problems with red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, blood vessels, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and blood clotting. These disorders include hemophilia, leukemia, and anemia.

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Tests
5-HIAA
5-HIAA is a urine test that measures the amount of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). 5-HIAA is a breakdown product of a hormone called serotonin. This test tells how much 5-HIAA the body is producing...

A

Diseases & Conditions
ABO incompatibility
A, B, AB, and O are the 4 major blood types. The types are based on small substances (molecules) on the surface of the blood cells. When people who have one blood type receive blood from someone with a...

Discharge Instructions
Abdominal radiation - discharge
Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation

Diseases & Conditions
Acquired platelet function defect
Acquired platelet function defects are conditions that prevent clotting elements in the blood called platelets from working as they should. The term acquired means these conditions are not present at birth...

Diseases & Conditions
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing cancer of a type of white blood cell called a lymphoblast. ALL occurs when the bone marrow produces a large number of immature lymphoblasts. Bone marrow...

Diseases & Conditions
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) - children
Acute myeloid leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. Acute means the cancer develops quickly. Both adults and children...

Diseases & Conditions
Acute myeloid leukemia - adult
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. This is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form all blood cells. The cancer grows from cells that would normally turn...

Diseases & Conditions
Adrenocortical carcinoma
Adrenocortical carcinoma is a cancer of the adrenal glands. adrenal glands

Discharge Instructions
After chemotherapy - discharge
Chemotherapy - discharge; Chemotherapy - home care discharge; Chemotherapy - discharge mouth care; Chemotherapy - preventing infections discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Agranulocytosis
White blood cells fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other germs. One important type of white blood cell is the granulocyte, which is made in the bone marrow and travels in the blood throughout...

Diseases & Conditions
Anemia
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. Different types of anemia include: Anemia due to B12 deficiencyAnemia...

In-depth Report
Anemia
An in-depth report on the types, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of anemia.

Diseases & Conditions
Anemia caused by low iron - infants and toddlers
Anemia is a problem in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells bring oxygen to body tissues. Iron helps make red blood cells, so a lack of iron in the body may lead...

Diseases & Conditions
Anemia of chronic disease
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Anemia Anemia of chronic disease (ACD...

Tests
Antithrombin III blood test
Antithrombin III (AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present in your body.

Special Topics
Aplastic
Aplastic is a medical term that means: Did not grow or develop normallyDid not mature fullyBecame unable to form new tissue Did not grow or develop normally Did not mature fully Became unable to form new...

Diseases & Conditions
Aplastic anemia
Aplastic anemia is a condition in which the bone marrow does not make enough blood cells. Bone marrow is the soft, tissue in the center of bones that is responsible for producing blood cells and platelets...

Diseases & Conditions
Autoerythrocyte sensitivity
Autoerythrocyte sensitivity means your body is sensitive to its own red blood cells (erythrocytes). This generally results in the destruction of red blood cells.

B

Tests
B-cell leukemia/lymphoma panel
B-cell leukemia/lymphoma panel is a blood test that looks for certain proteins on the surface of white blood cells called B-lymphocytes. The proteins are markers that may help diagnose leukemia or lymphoma...

Diseases & Conditions
Bleeding disorders
Bleeding disorders are a group of conditions in which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting process. These disorders can lead to heavy and prolonged bleeding after an injury. Bleeding can also...

Self-Care Instructions
Bleeding during cancer treatment
Cancer treatment - bleeding; Chemotherapy - bleeding; Radiation - bleeding; Bone marrow transplant - bleeding; Thrombocytopenia - cancer treatment

Tests
Bleeding time
Bleeding time is a medical test that measures how fast small blood vessels in the skin stop bleeding.

Diseases & Conditions
Blood clots
Blood clots are clumps that occur when blood hardens from a liquid to a solid. A blood clot that forms inside one of your veins or arteries is called a thrombus. A thrombus may also form in your heart....

Tests
Blood differential test
The blood differential test measures the percentage of each type of white blood cell (WBC) that you have in your blood. It also reveals if there are any abnormal or immature cells.

Tests
Blood smear
A blood smear is a blood test that gives information about the number and shape of blood cells. It is often done as part of or along with a complete blood count (CBC).

Self-Care Instructions
Blood transfusions
There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other major surgery that results in blood lossAfter a serious injury that causes a lot of bleedingWhen...

Tests
Blood typing
Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. Blood typing is done so you can safely donate your blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also done to see if you have a substance called...

Tests
Bone marrow aspiration
Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. It is found in the hollow part of most bones. Bone marrow aspiration is the removal of a small amount of this tissue in liquid form...

Tests
Bone marrow biopsy
A bone marrow biopsy is the removal of marrow from inside bone. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. It is found in the hollow part of most bones. biopsy Bone marrow...

Tests
Bone marrow culture
Bone marrow culture is an examination of the soft, fatty tissue found inside certain bones. The bone marrow tissue produces blood cells. This test is done to look for an infection inside the bone marrow...

Surgery
Bone marrow transplant
A bone marrow transplant is a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells. Bone marrow is the soft, fatty tissue inside your bones. The bone marrow produces...

Discharge Instructions
Bone marrow transplant - discharge
Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge...

Discharge Instructions
Brain radiation - discharge
Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation

Discharge Instructions
Breast radiation - discharge
When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through some changes. 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard to swallow, or swallowing may hurt.Your throat may feel dry or scratchy...

Diseases & Conditions
Burkitt lymphoma
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a very fast growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. non-Hodgkin lymphoma

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Tests
CBC blood test
A complete blood count (CBC) test measures the following: The number of red blood cells (RBC count)The number of white blood cells (WBC count)The total amount of hemoglobin in the bloodThe fraction of the...

Tests
CEA blood test
The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) test measures the level of CEA in the blood. CEA is a protein normally found in the tissue of a developing baby in the womb. The blood level of this protein disappears...

Diseases & Conditions
Carcinoid syndrome
Carcinoid syndrome is a group of symptoms associated with carcinoid tumors -- tumors of the small intestine, colon, appendix, and bronchial tubes in the lungs.

Diseases & Conditions
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a blood clot in an area at the base of the brain. blood clot

Tests
Ceruloplasmin blood test
The ceruloplasmin test measures the level of the copper-containing protein ceruloplasmin in the blood.

Special Topics
Chemotherapy
The term chemotherapy is used to describe cancer-killing drugs. Chemotherapy may be used to: Cure the cancerShrink the cancerPrevent the cancer from spreadingRelieve symptoms the cancer may be causing Cure...

Discharge Instructions
Chest radiation - discharge
Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation

Diseases & Conditions
Cholangiocarcinoma
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare cancerous (malignant) growth in one of the ducts that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine. bile

Diseases & Conditions
Choriocarcinoma
Choriocarcinoma is a fast-growing cancer that occurs in a woman's uterus (womb). The abnormal cells start in the tissue that would normally become the placenta. This is the organ that develops during pregnancy...

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is cancer of a type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. These cells are found in the bone marrow and other parts of the body. Bone marrow is the soft tissue in the...

Diseases & Conditions
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. This is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form all blood cells. cancer CML causes an uncontrolled growth of immature...

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital afibrinogenemia
Congenital afibrinogenemia is a rare, inherited blood disorder in which the blood does not clot normally. It occurs when there is a total lack of a protein called fibrinogen. This protein is needed for...

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital antithrombin III deficiency
Congenital antithrombin III deficiency is a genetic disorder that causes the blood to clot more than normal. genetic

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital platelet function defects
Congenital platelet function defects are problems with one of the blood elements needed for clots to form normally. These cells are called platelets. Congenital means present from birth.

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital protein C or S deficiency
Congenital protein C or S deficiency is a lack of proteins C or S in the fluid part of the blood. The proteins are natural substances that help prevent blood clots.

Diseases & Conditions
Congenital spherocytic anemia
Congenital spherocytic anemia is a disorder of the surface layer (membrane) of red blood cells. It leads to red blood cells that are shaped like spheres, and premature breakdown of red blood cells (hemolytic...

Tests
Coombs test
The Coombs test looks for antibodies that may stick to your red blood cells and cause red blood cells to die too early. antibodies

Diseases & Conditions
Cryoglobulinemia
Cryoglobulinemia is the presence of abnormal proteins in the blood. These proteins thicken in cold temperatures. proteins

Special Topics
Cytochrome b5 reductase
Cytochrome b5 reductase is an enzyme in the blood. It controls the amount of iron in your red blood cells, and helps the cells carry the normal amount of oxygen. enzyme Persons who do not have enough of...

D

Diseases & Conditions
Deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in a vein deep inside a part of the body. It mainly affects the large veins in the lower leg and thigh, but can occur in other...

Discharge Instructions
Deep vein thrombosis - discharge
DVT - discharge; Blood clot in the legs - discharge; Thromboembolism - discharge; Venous thromboembolism - deep vein thrombosis; Post-phlebitic syndrome - discharge; Post-thrombotic syndrome - discharge

Diseases & Conditions
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a serious disorder in which the proteins that control blood clotting become overactive.

Tests
Donath-Landsteiner test
The Donath-Landsteiner test is a blood test to detect harmful antibodies related to a rare disorder called paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. These antibodies form and destroy red blood cells when the body...

Self-Care Instructions
Drinking water safely during cancer treatment
Chemotherapy - drinking water safely; Immunosuppression - drinking water safely; Low white blood cell count - drinking water safely; Neutropenia - drinking water safely

Diseases & Conditions
Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia
Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a blood disorder that occurs when a medicine triggers the body's defense (immune) system to attack its own red blood cells. This causes red blood cells to break down...

Diseases & Conditions
Dyscrasias
Dyscrasia is a nonspecific term that refers to a disease or disorder, especially of the blood. Before modern medicine, it meant an imbalance of four body fluids: blood, bile, lymph, and phlegm.

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Self-Care Instructions
Eating extra calories when sick - adults
Getting more calories - adults; Chemotherapy - calories; Transplant - calories; Cancer treatment - calories

Self-Care Instructions
Eating extra calories when sick - children
Getting more calories - children; Chemotherapy - calories; Transplant - calories; Cancer treatment - calories

Tests
Eosinophil count - absolute
An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of white blood cells called eosinophils. Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical...

Tests
Erythropoietin test
The erythropoietin test measures the amount of a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO) in blood. The hormone tells stem cells in the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. EPO is made by cells in the kidney...

Tests
Euglobulin lysis time
Euglobulin lysis time (ELT) is a blood test that measures how fast clots break down in the blood.

F

Tests
Factor II assay
The factor II assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor II. Factor II is also known as prothrombin. This is one of the proteins in the body that helps the blood clot.

Diseases & Conditions
Factor II deficiency
Factor II (two) deficiency is a disorder caused by a lack of a protein called factor II in the blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). Factor II is also known as prothrombin.

Tests
Factor IX assay
The factor IX assay is a blood test that measures the activity of factor IX. This is one of the proteins in the body that helps the blood clot.

Tests
Factor V assay
The factor V assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor V. This is one of the proteins in the body that helps the blood clot.

Diseases & Conditions
Factor V deficiency
Factor V deficiency is a condition that is passed down through families, which affects the ability of the blood to clot.

Tests
Factor VII assay
The factor VII assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor VII. This is one of the proteins in the body that helps the blood clot.

Diseases & Conditions
Factor VII deficiency
Factor VII (seven) deficiency is a disorder caused by a lack of a protein called factor VII in the blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation).

Tests
Factor VIII assay
The factor VIII assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor VIII. This is one of the proteins in the body that helps the blood clot.

Tests
Factor X assay
The factor X assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor X. This is one of the proteins in the body that helps the blood clot.

Diseases & Conditions
Factor X deficiency
Factor X (ten) deficiency is a disorder caused by a lack of a protein called factor X in the blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation).

Diseases & Conditions
Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency
Factor XII deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects a protein (factor XII) involved in blood clotting.

Tests
Factor XII assay
The factor XII assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor XII. This is one of the proteins in the body that helps the blood clot.

Diseases & Conditions
Fanconi anemia
Fanconi anemia is a disease passed down through families (inherited) that mainly affects the bone marrow. It results in decreased production of all types of blood cells. Fanconi anemia is different from...

Tests
Ferritin blood test
The ferritin blood test measures the level of ferritin in the blood. Ferritin is a protein inside your cells that stores iron. It allows your body to use the iron when it needs it. A ferritin test indirectly...

Tests
Fibrin degradation products
Fibrin degradation products (FDPs) are the substances left behind when clots dissolve in the blood. Blood tests can be done to measure these products. Fibrin degradation products (FDPs) are the substances...

Tests
Fibrinogen blood test
Fibrinogen is a protein produced by the liver. This protein helps stop bleeding by helping blood clots to form. A blood test can be done to tell how much fibrinogen you have in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Fibrinolysis - primary or secondary
Fibrinolysis is a normal body process. It prevents blood clots that occur naturally from growing and causing problems. Primary fibrinolysis refers to the normal breakdown of clots. Secondary fibrinolysis...

Diseases & Conditions
Folate-deficiency anemia
Folate-deficiency anemia is a decrease in red blood cells (anemia) due to a lack of folate. Folate is a type of B vitamin. It is also called folic acid. Anemia is a condition in which the body does not...

Tests
Folic acid - test
Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood.

G

Diseases & Conditions
Glanzmann disease
Glanzmann disease is a rare disorder of blood platelets, which results in easy bruising and nosebleeds. platelets bruising nosebleeds

Diseases & Conditions
Glomus jugulare tumor
A glomus jugulare tumor is a tumor of the part of the temporal bone in the skull that involves the middle and inner ear structures. This tumor can affect the ear, upper neck, base of the skull, and the...

Diseases & Conditions
Glomus tympanum tumor
A glomus tympanum tumor is a tumor of the middle ear and bone behind the ear (mastoid).

Diseases & Conditions
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition in which red blood cells break down when the body is exposed to certain drugs or the stress of infection. It is hereditary which means...

Tests
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that helps red blood cells work properly. The G6PD test looks at the amount (activity) of this substance in red blood cells.

H

Diseases & Conditions
Hairy cell leukemia
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is an unusual cancer of the blood. It affects B cells, a type of white blood cell (lymphocyte).

Tests
Ham test
The Ham test is a blood test to diagnose paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). This rare condition causes red blood cells to die before they should. The Ham test checks whether red blood cells become...

Tests
Haptoglobin blood test
The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. Haptoglobin is a protein produced by the liver. It attaches to a certain type of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a blood...

Tests
Hematocrit
Hematocrit is a blood test that measures how much of a person's blood is made up of red blood cells. This measurement depends on the number of and size of the red blood cells. the number of and size of...

Diseases & Conditions
Hemochromatosis
Hemochromatosis is a condition in which there is too much iron in the body. It is also called iron overload.

Tests
Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. The hemoglobin test measures how much hemoglobin is in your blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Hemoglobin C disease
Hemoglobin C disease is a blood disorder passed down through families. It leads to a type of anemia, which occurs when red blood cells break down earlier than normal. anemia

Tests
Hemoglobin electrophoresis
Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen in the blood. Hemoglobin electrophoresis measures the levels of the different types of this protein in the blood. Hemoglobin

Diseases & Conditions
Hemoglobinopathy
Hemoglobinopathy is a group of disorders in which there is abnormal production or structure of the hemoglobin molecule. It is passed down through families (inherited). hemoglobin This group of disorders...

Special Topics
Hemolysis
Hemolysis is the breakdown of red blood cells.

Diseases & Conditions
Hemolytic anemia
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. Anemia Normally, red blood cells last for about 120 days in the body...

Diseases & Conditions
Hemolytic anemia caused by chemicals and toxins
Hemolytic anemia caused by chemicals and toxins is a lack of red blood cells that occurs when red blood cells are excessively damaged by certain chemicals or toxins. Hemolytic anemia

Symptoms
Hemolytic crisis
Hemolytic crisis occurs when large numbers of red blood cells are destroyed over a short time. The loss of red blood cells occurs much faster than the body can produce new red blood cells.

Diseases & Conditions
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome
Shiga-like toxin producing E coli hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS) is a disorder that most often occurs when an infection in the digestive system produces toxic substances. These substances destroy...

Diseases & Conditions
Hemophilia
Hemophilia refers to a group of bleeding disorders in which blood clotting takes a long time. There are two forms of hemophilia: Hemophilia A (classic hemophilia, or factor VIII deficiency)Hemophilia B...

Special Topics
Hemophilia - resources

Diseases & Conditions
Hemophilia A
Hemophilia A is a hereditary bleeding disorder caused by a lack of blood clotting factor VIII. Without enough factor VIII, the blood cannot clot properly to control bleeding. bleeding disorder

Diseases & Conditions
Hemophilia B
Hemophilia B is a hereditary bleeding disorder caused by a lack of blood clotting factor IX. Without enough factor IX, the blood cannot clot properly to control bleeding.

Diseases & Conditions
Hereditary elliptocytosis
Hereditary elliptocytosis is a disorder passed down through families in which the red blood cells are abnormally shaped. It is similar to other blood conditions such as hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary...

Diseases & Conditions
Hereditary ovalocytosis
Hereditary ovalocytosis is a rare condition passed down through families (inherited). The blood cells are oval-shaped instead of round. It is a form of hereditary elliptocytosis. hereditary elliptocytosis

Diseases & Conditions
Histiocytosis
Histiocytosis is a general name for a group of disorders or "syndromes" that involve an abnormal increase in the number of specialized white blood cells that are called histiocytes. histiocytes Recently...

Diseases & Conditions
Hodgkin lymphoma
Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of lymph tissue. Lymph tissue is found in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and other sites.

Discharge Instructions
Hypercalcemia - discharge
Hypercalcemia; Transplant - hypercalcemia; Transplantation - hypercalcemia; Cancer treatment - hypercalcemia

Diseases & Conditions
Hypersplenism
Hypersplenism is an overactive spleen. The spleen is an organ found in the upper left side of your abdomen. The spleen helps filter old and damaged cells from your bloodstream. If your spleen is overactive...

Tests
Hypochromia
Hypochromia means that the red blood cells have less color than normal when examined under a microscope. This usually occurs when there is not enough of the pigment that carries oxygen (hemoglobin) in the...

I

Diseases & Conditions
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a bleeding disorder in which the immune system destroys platelets, which are necessary for normal blood clotting. People with the disease have too few platelets...

Diseases & Conditions
Immune hemolytic anemia
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to the body's tissues. Red blood cells last for about 120 days before the body gets...

Tests
Immunoelectrophoresis - blood
Serum immunoelectrophoresis is a lab test that measures proteins called immunoglobulins in the blood. Immunoglobulins are proteins that function as antibodies, which fight infection. There are many types...

Tests
Immunoelectrophoresis - urine
Urine immunoelectrophoresis is a lab test that measures immunoglobulins in a urine sample. Immunoglobulins are proteins that function as antibodies, which fight infection. There are various types of these...

Tests
Immunofixation -- urine
Urine immunofixation is a test to look for abnormal proteins in urine.

Tests
Immunofixation blood test
The immunofixation blood test is used to identify proteins called immunoglobulins in blood. Too much of the same immunoglobulin is usually due to different types of blood cancer. Immunoglobulins are antibodies...

Diseases & Conditions
Iron deficiency anemia
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Iron deficiency anemia occurs when your...

K

Diseases & Conditions
Kaposi sarcoma
Kaposi sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue, and is often associated with AIDS. tumor AIDS

L

Tests
Lactate dehydrogenase test
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy in the body. An LDH test measures the amount of LDH in the blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Leukemia
Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that begins in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue in the center of the bones, where blood cells are produced. The term leukemia means white blood. White blood...

Special Topics
Leukemia - resources

Diseases & Conditions
Leukemoid reaction
A leukemoid reaction is an increase in the white blood cell count, which can mimic leukemia. The reaction is actually due to an infection or another disease and is not a sign of cancer. leukemia Blood counts...

Diseases & Conditions
Leukoplakia
Leukoplakia are patches on the tongue, in the mouth, or on the inside of the cheek.

Diseases & Conditions
Leydig cell tumor
A Leydig cell tumor is a tumor of the testicle. It develops from Leydig cells. These are the cells in the testicles that release the male hormone, testosterone. tumor testosterone

Diseases & Conditions
Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma is cancer that starts in the liver.

Diseases & Conditions
Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies
Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining of cells. These substances prevent blood clotting in a test tube. They are called phospholipids. antibodies People with antibodies to...

Self-Care Instructions
Lymphedema - self-care
Breast cancer - self-care for lymphedema; Mastectomy - self-care for lymphedema

M

Diseases & Conditions
Malignant teratoma
Malignant teratoma is a type of cancer made of cysts that contain one or more of the three layers of cells found in a developing baby (embryo). These layers are called ectoderms, mesoderms, and endoderms...

Diseases & Conditions
Melanoma
Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease. Melanoma can also involve the colored part of the eye. Other common types of skin cancer are squamous...

Diseases & Conditions
Melanoma of the eye
Melanoma of the eye is cancer that occurs in various parts of the eye.

Special Topics
Metastasis
Metastasis is the movement or spreading of cancer cells from one organ or tissue to another. Cancer cells usually spread through the blood or the lymph system. lymph system If a cancer spreads, it is said...

Diseases & Conditions
Methemoglobinemia - acquired
Methemoglobinemia is a blood disorder in which the body cannot reuse hemoglobin because it is damaged. Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying molecule found in red blood cells. In some cases of methemoglobinemia...

Discharge Instructions
Mouth and neck radiation - discharge
Radiation - mouth and neck - discharge; Head and neck cancer - radiation; Squamous cell cancer - mouth and neck radiation; Mouth and neck radiation - dry mouth

Diseases & Conditions
Multiple myeloma
Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer that starts in the plasma cells in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue found inside most bones. It helps make blood cells. Plasma cells help your body...

Diseases & Conditions
Myelofibrosis
Myelofibrosis is a disorder of the bone marrow in which the marrow is replaced by fibrous scar tissue.

Tests
Myoglobin blood test
The myoglobin blood test measures the level of the protein myoglobin in the blood. Myoglobin can also be measured with a urine test. Myoglobin

Tests
Myoglobin urine test
The myoglobin urine test is done to detect the presence of myoglobin in urine. Myoglobin can also be measured with a blood test. blood test

N

Diseases & Conditions
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is cancer of the lymph tissue. Lymph tissue is found in the lymph nodes, spleen, and other organs of the immune system. White blood cells called lymphocytes are found in lymph...

O

Tests
Osmotic fragility test
Osmotic fragility is a blood test to detect whether red blood cells are more likely to break down.

P

Diseases & Conditions
Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)
Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is a rare blood disorder in which the body's immune system produces antibodies that destroy red blood cells. It occurs when the person is exposed to cold temperatures...

Diseases & Conditions
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a rare disease in which red blood cells break down earlier than normal.

Tests
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) is a blood test that looks at how long it takes for blood to clot. It can help tell if you have a bleeding problem or if your blood does not clot properly. A related blood...

Discharge Instructions
Pelvic radiation - discharge
Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic...

Diseases & Conditions
Pernicious anemia
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Pernicious anemia is a decrease in red...

Diseases & Conditions
Pheochromocytoma
Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue. It results in the release of too much epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones that control heart rate, metabolism, and blood pressure. tumor heart...

Diseases & Conditions
Phlegmasia cerulea dolens
Phlegmasia cerulea dolens is an uncommon, severe form of deep venous thrombosis (blood clots in the vein). It most often occurs in the upper leg. deep venous thrombosis

Tests
Platelet aggregation test
The platelet aggregation blood test checks how well platelets, a part of blood, clump together and cause blood to clot. platelets

Tests
Platelet count
A platelet count is a lab test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of the blood that help the blood clot. They are smaller than red or white blood cells.

Tests
Platelet-associated antibodies blood test
This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood that help the blood clot.

Diseases & Conditions
Polychromatophilia
Polychromatophilia refers to how blood cells look under a microscope when the cells are stained with special dyes. It means there is more staining with certain dyes than normal. The extra staining is due...

Diseases & Conditions
Polycythemia vera
Polycythemia vera is a bone marrow disease that leads to an abnormal increase in the number of blood cells. The red blood cells are mostly affected.

Diseases & Conditions
Porphyria
Porphyrias are a group of rare inherited disorders. An important part of hemoglobin, called heme, is not made properly. Heme is also found in myoglobin, a protein found in certain muscles. hemoglobin

Tests
Porphyrins - urine
Porphyrins are natural chemicals in the body that help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins...

Diseases & Conditions
Post-splenectomy syndrome
Post-splenectomy syndrome can occur after surgery to remove the spleen. It consists of a group of symptoms and signs such as: Destruction of red blood cellsIncreased risk of severe infections, from bacteria...

Diseases & Conditions
Primary amyloidosis
Primary amyloidosis is a disorder in which abnormal proteins build up in tissues and organs. Clumps of the abnormal proteins are called amyloid deposits.

Diseases & Conditions
Primary lymphoma of the brain
Primary lymphoma of the brain is cancer of white blood cells that starts in the brain.

Diseases & Conditions
Primary thrombocythemia
Primary thrombocythemia is a condition in which the bone marrow produces too many platelets. Platelets are a part of the blood that aids in blood clotting.

Tests
Protein C blood test
Protein C is a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see how much of this protein you have in your blood. Protein C is a normal substance in the body that...

Tests
Protein S blood test
Protein S is a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see how much of this protein you have in your blood. Protein S is a normal substance in your body that...

Tests
Protein electrophoresis - serum
This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. This fluid is called serum.

Tests
Prothrombin time (PT)
Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot. A related blood test is partial thromboplastin time (PTT). partial thromboplastin...

Tests
Pyruvate kinase blood test
The pyruvate kinase test measures the level of the enzyme pyruvate kinase in the blood. Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme found in red blood cells. It helps change sugar in the blood (glucose) to energy when...

Q

Tests
Quantitative Bence-Jones protein test
This test measures the level of abnormal proteins called Bence-Jones proteins in the urine.

Tests
Quantitative nephelometry test
Quantitative nephelometry is a lab test to quickly and accurately measure levels of certain proteins called immunoglobulins in the blood. Immunoglobulins are antibodies that help fight infection. antibodies...

R

Tests
RBC count
An RBC count is a blood test that measures how many red blood cells (RBCs) you have. RBCs contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. How much oxygen your body tissues get depends on how many RBCs you have...

Tests
RBC indices
Red blood cell (RBC) indices are part of the complete blood count (CBC) test. They are used to help diagnose the cause of anemia, a condition in which there are too few red blood cells. complete blood count...

Diseases & Conditions
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney.

Tests
Reticulocyte count
Reticulocytes are slightly immature red blood cells. A reticulocyte count is a blood test that measures the amount of these cells in the blood.

S

Diseases & Conditions
SVC obstruction
SVC obstruction is a narrowing or blockage of the superior vena cava, which is the second largest vein in the human body. The superior vena cava moves blood from the upper half of the body to the heart...

Self-Care Instructions
Safe eating during cancer treatment
Cancer treatment - eating safely; Chemotherapy - eating safely; Immunosuppression - eating safely; Low white blood cell count - eating safely; Neutropenia - eating safely

Tests
Schilling test
The Schilling can determine whether the body absorbs vitamin B12 normally. It checks for certain types of anemia that are caused by a low vitamin B12 level. vitamin B12 This test is rarely, if ever, done...

Diseases & Conditions
Secondary systemic amyloidosis
Secondary systemic amyloidosis is a disorder in which abnormal proteins build up in tissues and organs. Clumps of the abnormal proteins are called amyloid deposits. Secondary means it occurs because of...

Diseases & Conditions
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (SLCT) is a rare cancer of the ovaries. The cancer cells produce and release a male sex hormone called testosterone.

Tests
Serum free hemoglobin test
Serum free hemoglobin is a blood test that measures the level of free hemoglobin in the liquid part of the blood (the serum). Free hemoglobin is the hemoglobin outside of the red blood cells. Most of the...

Tests
Serum globulin electrophoresis
The serum globulin electrophoresis test measures the levels of proteins called globulins in the fluid part of a blood sample. This fluid is called serum.

Tests
Serum iron test
A serum iron test measures how much iron is in your blood.

Diseases & Conditions
Sickle cell anemia
Sickle cell anemia is a disease passed down through families. The red blood cells that are normally shaped like a disc take on a sickle or crescent shape. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body...

In-depth Report
Sickle cell disease
An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sickle cell disease.

Tests
Sickle cell test
The sickle cell test looks for the abnormal hemoglobin in the blood that causes the disease sickle cell anemia. hemoglobin sickle cell anemia

Symptoms
Splenomegaly
Splenomegaly is a larger-than-normal spleen. The spleen is an organ in the upper left part of the belly.

Surgery
Stereotactic radiosurgery - Gamma Knife
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a form of radiation therapy that focuses high-power energy on a small area of the body. Despite its name, radiosurgery is a treatment, not a surgical procedure. Incisions...

Tests
Sugar-water hemolysis test
The sugar-water hemolysis test is a blood test to detect fragile red blood cells. It does this by testing how well they withstand swelling in a low-salt solution.

Diseases & Conditions
Superficial thrombophlebitis
Thrombophlebitis is a swollen or inflamed vein due to a blood clot. Superficial refers to veins just below the skin's surface. blood clot

T

Special Topics
Taking iron supplements
Eating iron-rich foods is a key part of treating anemia caused by low iron levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your body.

Diseases & Conditions
Thalassemia
Thalassemia is a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited) in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. The disorder...

Diseases & Conditions
Thrombocytopenia
Thrombocytopenia is any disorder in which there is an abnormally low amount of platelets. Platelets are parts of the blood that help blood to clot. This condition is sometimes associated with abnormal bleeding...

Diseases & Conditions
Thrombocytopenia - drug induced
Thrombocytopenia is any disorder in which there are not enough platelets. Platelets are cells in the blood that help the blood clot. A low platelet count makes bleeding more likely. Thrombocytopenia platelets...

Diseases & Conditions
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a blood disorder that causes blood clots to form in small blood vessels. This leads to a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). thrombocytopenia

Tests
Total iron binding capacity
Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to see if you have too much or too little iron in your blood. Iron moves through the blood attached to a protein called transferrin. This test helps your...

Diseases & Conditions
Transfusion reaction - hemolytic
A hemolytic transfusion reaction is a serious complication that can occur after a blood transfusion. The reaction occurs when the red blood cells that were given during the transfusion are destroyed by...

Diseases & Conditions
Tumor
A tumor is an abnormal growth of body tissue. Tumors can be cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign).

U

Tests
Urine protein electrophoresis test
The urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP) test is used to estimate how much of certain proteins are in the urine.

V

Diseases & Conditions
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia
Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues. There are many types of anemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a low...

Tests
Vitamin B12 level
The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. vitamin B12

Diseases & Conditions
Von Willebrand disease
Von Willebrand disease is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder. bleeding disorder

W

Tests
WBC count
A WBC count is a blood test to measure the number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the blood. WBCs help fight infections. They are also called leukocytes. There are five major types of white blood cells:...

Diseases & Conditions
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) is a cancer of the B lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). WM is associated with the overproduction of proteins called IgM antibodies. antibodies