Martin-Bell syndrome; Marker X syndrome
Fragile X syndrome is a genetic condition involving changes in part of the X chromosome. It is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability in boys.
Fragile X syndrome is caused by a change in a gene called FMR1. A small part of the gene code is repeated on a fragile area of the X chromosome. The more repeats, the more likely the condition will occur.
The FMR1 gene makes a protein needed for your brain to function properly. A defect in the gene makes your body produce too little of the protein, or none at all.
Boys and girls can both be affected, but because boys have only one X chromosome, a single fragile X is likely to affect them more severely. You can have fragile X syndrome even if your parents do not have it.
A family history of fragile X syndrome, developmental problems, or intellectual disability may not be present.
Behavior problems associated with fragile X syndrome include:
Physical signs may include:
Some of these problems are present at birth, while others may not develop until after puberty.
Family members who have fewer repeats in the FMR1 gene may not have intellectual disability. Women may have premature menopause or difficulty becoming pregnant. Both men and women may have problems with tremors and poor coordination.
There are very few outward signs of fragile X syndrome in babies. Some things the health care provider may look for include:
In females, excess shyness may be the only sign of the disorder.
Genetic testing can diagnose this disease.
There is no specific treatment for fragile X syndrome. Instead, training and education have been developed to help affected children function at the highest possible level. Clinical trials are ongoing (
National Fragile X Foundation:
How well the person does depends on the amount of intellectual disability.
Complications vary, depending on the type and severity of symptoms. They may include:
Fragile X syndrome can be a cause of autism or related disorders, although not all children with fragile X syndrome have these conditions.
Genetic counseling may be helpful if you have a family history of this syndrome and are planning to become pregnant.
Saul RA, Tarleton JC. FMR1-related disorders. GeneReviews. Seattle, WA: University of Washington; 2012:4. PMID: 20301558
Shapiro BK, Batshaw ML. Intellectual disability. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW III, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 36.
Last reviewed on: 8/1/2015
Reviewed by: Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, FACMG, Fullerton Genetics Center, Asheville, NC. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.