Fatty liver; Steatosis; Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NASH
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the buildup of fat in the liver that is NOT caused by drinking too much alcohol. People who have it do not have a history of heavy drinking. NAFLD is closely related to being overweight.
For many people, NAFLD causes no symptoms or problems. A more serious form of the disease is called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH can cause liver failure. It can also cause cancer.
There is no clear cause for NAFLD or NASH. However, certain things may put you at risk:
Other risk factors may include:
NAFLD also occurs in people who have no known risk factors.
Often, people with NAFLD have no symptoms. When symptoms occur, the most common include:
In people with NASH who have liver damage, symptoms may include:
NAFLD is often found during routine blood tests that are used to see how well the liver is working.
You may have the following tests to measure liver function:
Your health care provider may ask for certain imaging tests, including:
A liver biopsy is needed to confirm a diagnosis of NASH, the more severe form of NAFLD.
There is no specific treatment for NAFLD. The goal is to manage your risk factors and any health conditions.
Your provider will help you understand your condition and the healthy choices that can help you take care of your liver. These may include:
Losing weight and managing diabetes can slow or sometimes reverse the deposit of fat in the liver.
Many people with NAFLD have no health problems and do not go on to develop NASH. Losing weight and making healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent more serious problems.
It is unclear why some people develop NASH. NASH can lead to cirrhosis.
Most people with NAFLD do not know they have it. See your provider if you begin to have unusual symptoms such as fatigue or abdominal pain.
To help prevent NAFLD:
Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE, Diehl AM, Brunt EM, Cusi K, Charlton M, Sanyal AJ; American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; American College of Gastroenterology; American Gastroenterological Association. The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jun;107(6):811-26. PMID: 22641309
Reid AE. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 85.
Last reviewed on: 5/5/2015
Reviewed by: Subodh K. Lal, MD, gastroenterologist at Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.