Gene Variant May Provide Novel Therapy for Several Cancer Types
A novel gene variant found in human and animal tissue may be a promising treatment for cancer, including breast and brain cancer.
A novel gene variant found in human and animal tissue may be a promising treatment for cancer, including breast and brain cancer, according to scientists from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. The variant, called PTEN-long, may contribute to a cell’s healthy function and also suppress tumor cell development. This landmark study is published in the June 6, 2013 issue of the journal Science.
Ramon Parsons, MD, PhD, Professor and Chair of Oncological Sciences led the team that discovered a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN, which has subsequently been recognized as the second most common mutation in cancer, especially in breast, prostate, and brain cancers. PTEN encodes a 403 amino acid lipid phosphatase protein that is critical to cellular growth, proliferation, and survival. Genetic inactivation of PTEN causes tumor development.
In the current study, Dr. Parsons and his team analyzed human cells and discovered a PTEN variant that has an additional protein sequence and is 43 percent longer than normal PTEN. They called this new variant PTEN-Long. Like PTEN, the long form has the same enzymatic activity, but unlike PTEN, it is secreted by the cell and can enter other cells, indicating that the added protein sequence acts as a delivery system for the tumor suppressor gene.
“This study culminates more than a decade of research that began soon after we learned the therapeutic potential of PTEN and the PI3K pathway,” said Dr. Parsons. “We are excited about the potential of PTEN-Long as a therapy for multiple cancer types.”
Using human breast and brain tumor cells that lacked PTEN and PTEN-Long, the research team introduced and overexpressed PTEN-Long and PTEN into the cells. They found that, similar to PTEN, PTEN-Long decreased the signaling activity on the PI3K pathway, thus reducing cellular proliferation. They also found that PTEN-Long was reduced in breast tumor tissue compared to healthy breast tissue.
To test the therapeutic potential of PTEN-Long, Dr. Parsons and his team injected mice with tumor cells, then administered PTEN-Long or a control preparation to the mice. For one of their tumor models, after five days of treatment, the tumors disappeared completely. The authors conclude that PTEN-Long alters signaling on the PI3K pathway to inhibit tumor growth and that its ability to enter other cells is critical to this process. As insulin operates on the PI3K pathway as well, the research team also noticed a brief increase in glucose concentration in the PTEN-Long treated mice.
“These findings indicate that PTEN-Long may contribute to cell homeostasis and suppression of cancer,” said Dr. Parsons. “This gene variant has significant potential as a protein-based therapy to treat cancer, and may have implications in diseases such as diabetes.”
Next, Dr. Parsons plans to study the normal functions of PTEN-Long, how tumors become resistant to it, what happens when it is missing, and how it can be used as a tool for therapy.
To learn more about research at the Tisch Cancer Institute, visit http://icahn.mssm.edu/research/institutes/tisch-cancer-institute.
The work was funded by the NCI, The Octoberwoman Foundation, and the Avon Foundation.
Dr. Parsons is a named inventor of a pending patent filed by Columbia Technology Ventures related to the use of PTEN-Long for the treatment of cancer and may benefit financially from this patent.
About The Mount Sinai Medical Center
The Mount Sinai Medical Center encompasses both The Mount Sinai Hospital and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Established in 1968, the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai is one of the leading medical schools in the United States. The Icahn School of Medicine is noted for innovation in education, biomedical research, clinical care delivery, and local and global community service. It has more than 3,400 faculty members in 32 departments and 14 research institutes, and ranks among the top 20 medical schools both in National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding and by U.S. News & World Report.
The Mount Sinai Hospital, founded in 1852, is a 1,171-bed tertiary- and quaternary-care teaching facility and one of the nation’s oldest, largest and most-respected voluntary hospitals. In 2012, U.S. News & World Report ranked The Mount Sinai Hospital 14th on its elite Honor Roll of the nation’s top hospitals based on reputation, safety, and other patient-care factors. Mount Sinai is one of just 12 integrated academic medical centers whose medical school ranks among the top 20 in NIH funding and by U.S. News & World Report and whose hospital is on the U.S. News & World Report Honor Roll. Nearly 60,000 people were treated at Mount Sinai as inpatients last year, and approximately 560,000 outpatient visits took place.
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About the Mount Sinai Health System
The Mount Sinai Health System is an integrated health system committed to providing distinguished care, conducting transformative research, and advancing biomedical education. Structured around seven hospital campuses and a single medical school, the Health System has an extensive ambulatory network and a range of inpatient and outpatient services—from community-based facilities to tertiary and quaternary care.
The System includes approximately 7,100 primary and specialty care physicians; 12 joint-venture ambulatory surgery centers; more than 140 ambulatory practices throughout the five boroughs of New York City, Westchester, Long Island, and Florida; and 31 affiliated community health centers. Physicians are affiliated with the renowned Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, which is ranked among the highest in the nation in National Institutes of Health funding per investigator. The Mount Sinai Hospital is in the "Honor Roll" of best hospitals in America, ranked No. 15 nationally in the 2016-2017 "Best Hospitals" issue of U.S. News & World Report. The Mount Sinai Hospital is also ranked as one of the nation's top 20 hospitals in Geriatrics, Gastroenterology/GI Surgery, Cardiology/Heart Surgery, Diabetes/Endocrinology, Nephrology, Neurology/Neurosurgery, and Ear, Nose & Throat, and is in the top 50 in four other specialties. New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai is ranked No. 10 nationally for Ophthalmology, while Mount Sinai Beth Israel, Mount Sinai St. Luke's, and Mount Sinai West are ranked regionally. Mount Sinai's Kravis Children's Hospital is ranked in seven out of ten pediatric specialties by U.S. News & World Report in "Best Children's Hospitals."